Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 17, Issue 7, pp 871–888 | Cite as

Aspirin and cancer risk: an updated quantitative review to 2005

  • Cristina Bosetti
  • Silvano Gallus
  • Carlo La Vecchia
Review Article


Aspirin has been associated to a reduced risk of colorectal, and possibly of a few other common cancers. Epidemiological studies on aspirin and cancer risk published up to December 2005 have been reviewed, and pooled relative risks (RR) for several cancers have been provided. Besides a reduction in the risk of cancer of the colorectum (RR = 0.71, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.67–0.75), there is evidence—although more limited, and mainly from case–control studies—that aspirin has a favourable effect on cancers of the esophagus (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.62–0.84), stomach (RR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.76–0.93), breast (RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88–0.95), ovary (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.02) and lung (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89–1.00). The role of aspirin on other cancers, such as pancreatic, prostate, bladder cancer, and non-Hodgkins’ lymphomas is less clear, and an increase of risk has been suggested for kidney cancer. For most cancer sites, however, significant heterogeneity between studies, and particularly across study design, was found, with a reduction in risk generally stronger in case–control than in cohort studies. Further, notwithstanding the large amount of epidemiological evidence, substantial uncertainties remain about the proper aspirin dose and duration of treatment.


Aspirin Epidemiology Neoplasm Review Risk factors 



The authors thank Mrs I. Garimoldi for editorial assistance.


  1. 1.
    Berkel HJ, Holcombe RF, Middlebrooks M, Kannan K (1996) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and colorectal cancer. Epidemiol Rev 18:205–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Greenberg ER, Baron JA (1996) Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as cancer-preventive agents. In: Stewart BW, McGregor D, Kleihies P (eds) Principles of chemoprevention. IARC Scientific Publications No. 139. International Agency for Research on Cancer, LyonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention (1997) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vol 1. International Agency for Research on Cancer, LyonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Taketo MM (1998) Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in cancerogenesis (Part I). J Natl Cancer Inst 90:1529–1536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Taketo MM (1998) Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in cancerogenesis (Part II). J Natl Cancer Inst 90:1609–1620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fiorucci S, Antonelli E (2001) Cyclo-oxygenase isoenzymes. Structural basis for selective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenases by inflammatory agents. Digest Liver Dis 33:S2–S7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thun MJ, Henley SJ, Patrono C (2002) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as anticancer agents: mechanistic, pharmacologic, and clinical issues. J Natl Cancer Inst 94:252–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bosetti C, Gallus S, La Vecchia C (2002) Aspirin and cancer risk: an update to 2001. Eur J Cancer Prev 11:535–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    González Pérez A, García Rodríguez LA, Lopez-Ridaura R (2003) Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on cancer sites other than the colon and rectum: a meta-analysis. BMC Cancer 3:28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Greenland S (1987) Quantitative methods in the review of epidemiological literature. Epidemiol Rev 9:1–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Isomäki HA, Hakulinen T, Joutsenlahti U (1978) Excess of lymphomas, leukemia, and myeloma in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Chron Dis 31:691–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gridley G, McLaughlin JK, Ekbom A, et al (1993) Incidence of cancer among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Natl Cancer Inst 85:307–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kauppi M, Pukkala E, Isomäki H (1996) Low incidence of colorectal cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 14:551–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Friis S, Sorensen HT, McLaughlin JK, Johnsen SP, Blot WJ, Olsen JH (2003) A population-based cohort study of the risk of colorectal and other cancers among users of low-dose aspirin. Br J Cancer 88:684–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Herendeen JM, Lindley C (2003) Use of NSAIDs for the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. Ann Pharmacother 37:1664–1674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kune GA, Kune S, Watson LF (1988) Colorectal cancer risk, chronic illnesses, operations, and medications: case–control results from the Melbourne colorectal cancer study. Cancer Res 48:4399–4404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Zauer AG, et al (1991) A hypothesis: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the incidence of large-bowel cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 83:355–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Suh O, Mettlin C, Petrelli NJ (1993) Aspirin use, cancer, and polyps of the large bowel. Cancer 72:1171–1177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Muscat JE, Stellman SD, Wynder EL (1994) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and colorectal cancer. Cancer 74:1847–1854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peleg II, Maibach HT, Brown SH, Wilcox CM (1994) Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer. Arch Intern Med 154:394–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reeves MJ, Newcomb PA, Trentham-Dietz A, Storer BE, Remington PL (1996) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and protection against colorectal cancer in women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5:955–960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S, et al (1997) Aspirin and colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 76:675–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rosenberg L, Louik C, Shapiro S (1998) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use and reduced risk of large bowel carcinoma. Cancer 82:2326–2333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Friedman GD, Coates AO, Potter JD, Slattery ML (1998) Drugs and colon cancer. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 7:99–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Neugut AI, Rosenberg DJ, Ahsan H, et al (1998) Association between coronary heart disease and cancers of the breast, prostate, and colon. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7:869–873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Juarranz M, Calle-Purón ME, González-Navarro A, et al (2002) Physical exercise, use of Plantago ovata and aspirin, and reduced risk of colon cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 11:465–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sansbury LB, Millikan RC, Schroeder JC, Moorman PG, North KE, Sandler RS (2005) Use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and risk of colon cancer in a population-based, case–control study of African Americans and Whites. Am J Epidemiol 162:548–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Paganini-Hill A, Chao A, Ross RK, Henderson BE (1989) Aspirin use and chronic diseases: a cohort study of the elderly. Br Med J 299:1247–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Heath CW Jr (1991) Aspirin use and reduced risk of fatal colon cancer. N Engl J Med 325:1593–1596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Calle EE, Flanders WD, Heath CW Jr (1993) Aspirin use and risk of fatal cancer. Cancer Res 53:1322–1327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schreinemachers DM, Everson RB (1994) Aspirin use and lung, colon, and breast cancer incidence in a prospective study. Epidemiology 5:138–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, Willett WC (1994) Aspirin use and the risk for colorectal cancer and adenoma in male health professionals. Ann Int Med 121:241–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Giovannucci E, Egan KM, Hunter DJ, et al (1995) Aspirin and the risk of colorectal cancer in women. N Engl J Med 333:609–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    García-Rodríguez LA, Huerta-Alvarez C (2001) Reduced risk of colorectal cancer among long-term users of aspirin and nonaspirin nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Epidemiology 12:88–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ratnasinghe LD, Graubard BI, Kahle L, Tangrea JA, Taylor PR, Hawk E (2004) Aspirin use and mortality from cancer in a prospective cohort study. Anticancer Res 24:3177–3184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chan AT, Giovannucci EL, Meyerhardt JA, Schernhammer ES, Curhan GC, Fuchs CS (2005) Long-term use of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of colorectal cancer. JAMA 294:914–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Levi F, Lucchini F, Negri E, Boyle P, La Vecchia C (2004) Cancer mortality in Europe, 1995–1999, and an overview of trends since 1960. Int J Cancer 110:155–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Asano TK, McLeod RS (2004) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin for the prevention of colorectal adenomas and cancer: a systematic review. Dis Colon Rectum 47:665–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Greenberg ER, Baron JA, Freeman DH Jr, Mandet JS, Haile R, for the Polyp Prevention Study Group (1993) Reduced risk of large-bowel adenomas among aspirin users. The Polyp Prevention Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 85:912–916Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sandler RS, Halabi S, Baron JA, et al (2003) A randomized trial of aspirin to prevent colorectal adenomas in patients with previous colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 348:883–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Baron JA, Cole BF, Sandler RS, Haile RW, et al (2003) A randomized trial of aspirin to prevent colorectal adenomas. N Engl J Med 348:891–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Benamouzig R, Deyra J, Martin A, et al (2003) Daily soluble aspirin and prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence: one-year results of the APACC trial. Gastroenterology 125:328–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gann PH, Manson JE, Glynn RJ, Buring JE, Hennekens CH (1993) Low-dose aspirin and incidence of colorectal cancers in a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 85:1220–1224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stürmer T, Glynn RJ, Lee I-M, Manson JE, Buring JE, Hennekens CH (1998) Aspirin use and colorectal cancer: post-trial follow-up data from the Physicians’ Health Study. Ann Intern Med 128:713–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cook NR, Lee IM, Gaziano JM, et al (2005) Low-dose aspirin in the primary prevention of cancer: the Women’s Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 294:47–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Derry S, Loke YK (2000) Risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage with long term use of aspirin: meta-analysis. BMJ 321:1183–1187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Farrow DC, Vaughan TL, Hansten PD, et al (1998) Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7:97–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sharp L, Chilvers CE, Cheng KK, et al (2001) Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in women: a case–control study. Br J Cancer 85:1667–1670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Funkhouser EM, Sharp GB (1995) Aspirin and reduced risk of esophageal carcinoma. Cancer 76:1116–1119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lindblad M, Lagergren J, García Rodríguez LA (2005) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:444–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zaridze D, Borisova E, Maximovitch D, Chkhikvadze V (1999) Aspirin protects against gastric cancer: results of a case–control study from Moscow, Russia. Int J Cancer 82:473–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Akre K, Ekstrom AM, Signorello LB, Hansson LE, Nyren O (2001) Aspirin and risk for gastric cancer: a population-based case–control study in Sweden. Br J Cancer 84:965–968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Menezes RJ, Huber KR, Mahoney MC, Moysich KB (2002) Regular use of aspirin and pancreatic cancer risk. BMC Public Health 2:18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Anderson KE, Johnson TW, Lazovich D, Folsom AR (2002) Association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the incidence of pancreatic cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 94:1168–1171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schernhammer ES, Kang JH, Chan AT, et al (2004) A prospective study of aspirin use and the risk of pancreatic cancer in women. J Natl Cancer Inst 96:22–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jacobs EJ, Connell CJ, Rodriguez C, Patel AV, Calle EE, Thun MJ (2004) Aspirin use and pancreatic cancer mortality in a large United States cohort. J Natl Cancer Inst 96:524–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Corley DA, Kerlikowske K, Verma R, Buffler P (2003) Protective association of aspirin/NSAIDs and esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 124:47–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wang WH, Huang JQ, Zheng GF, Lam SK, Karlberg J, Wong BC (2003) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the risk of gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 95:1784–1791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bosetti C, Talamini R, Franceschi S, Negri E, Garavello W, La Vecchia C (2003) Aspirin use and cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. Br J Cancer 88:672–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Moysich KB, Menezes RJ, Ronsani A, et al (2002) Regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk. BMC Cancer 2:31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Muscat JE, Chen SQ, Richie JP Jr, et al (2003) Risk of lung carcinoma among users of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Cancer 97:1732–1736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Akhmedkhanov A, Toniolo P, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Koenig KL, Shore RE (2002) Aspirin and lung cancer in women. Br J Cancer 87:49–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Holick CN, Michaud DS, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, Giovannucci E (2003) Aspirin use and lung cancer in men. Br J Cancer 89:1705–1708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Harris RE, Namboodiri KK, Farrar WB (1996) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and breast cancer. Epidemiology 7:203–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Coogan PF, Rao SR, Rosenberg L, et al (1999) The relationship of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use to the risk of breast cancer. Prev Med 29:72–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cotterchio M, Kreiger N, Sloan M, Steingart A (2001) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:1213–1217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Terry MB, Gammon MD, Zhang FF, et al (2004) Association of frequency and duration of aspirin use and hormone receptor status with breast cancer risk. JAMA 291:2433–2440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Swede H, Mirand AL, Menezes RJ, Moysich KB (2005) Association of regular aspirin use and breast cancer risk. Oncology 68:40–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhang Y, Coogan PF, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Rosenberg L (2005) Use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and risk of breast cancer: the Case–control Surveillance Study revisited. Am J Epidemiol 162:165–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Friedman GD, Ury HK (1980) Initial screening for carcinogenicity of commonly used drugs. J Natl Cancer Inst 85:723–733Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Egan KM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Rosner BA, Colditz GA (1996) Prospective study of regular aspirin use and the risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 88:988–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Harris RE, Kasbari S, Farrar WB (1999) Prospective study of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and breast cancer. Oncol Rep 6:71–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Johnson TW, Anderson KE, Lazovich D, Folsom AR (2002) Association of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use with breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:1586–1591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Harris RE, Chlebowski RT, Jackson RD, et al. (2003) Breast cancer and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: prospective results from the Women’s Health Initiative. Cancer Res 63:6096–6101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    García Rodríguez LA, González Pérez A (2004) Risk of breast cancer among users of aspirin and other anti-inflammatory drugs. Br J Cancer 91:525–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jacobs EJ, Thun MJ, Connell CJ, et al (2005) Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and breast cancer incidence in a large U.S. cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:261–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Marshall SF, Bernstein L, Anton-Culver H, et al (2005) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and breast cancer risk by stage and hormone receptor status. J Natl Cancer Inst 97:805–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tzonou A, Polychronopoulou A, Hsieh CC, Rebelakos A, Karakatsani A, Trichopoulos D (1993) Hair dyes, analgesics, tranquilizers and perineal talc application as risk factors for ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer 55:408–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cramer DW, Harlow BL, Titus-Ernstoff L, Bohlke K, Welch WR, Greenberg ER (1998) Over-the-counter analgesics and risk of ovarian cancer. Lancet 351:104–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tavani A, Gallus S, La Vecchia C, Conti E, Montella M, Franceschi S (2000) Aspirin and ovarian cancer: an Italian case–control study. Ann Oncol 11:1171–1173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Rao RS, et al (2000) A case–control study of analgesic use and ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9:933–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Moysich KB, Mettlin C, Piver MS, Natarajan N, Menezes RJ, Swede H (2001) Regular use of analgesic drugs and ovarian cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:903–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Akhmedkhanov A, Toniolo P, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Kato I, Koenig KL, Shore RE (2001) Aspirin and epithelial ovarian cancer. Prev Med 33:682–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fairfield KM, Hunter DJ, Fuchs CS, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE (2002) Aspirin, other NSAIDs, and ovarian cancer risk (United States). Cancer Causes Control 13:535–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lacey JV Jr, Sherman ME, Hartge P, Schatzkin A, Schairer C (2004) Medication use and risk of ovarian carcinoma: a prospective study. Int J Cancer 108:281–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Khuder SA, Mutgi AB (2001) Breast cancer and NSAID use: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 84:1188–1192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Goss PE, Ingle JN, Martino S, et al (2003) A randomized trial of letrozole in postmenopausal women after five years of tamoxifen therapy for early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med 349:1793–1802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ness RB, Cottreau C (1999) Possible role of ovarian epithelial inflammation in ovarian cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:1459–1467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Balkwill F, Mantovani A (2001) Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet 357:359–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Norrish AE, Jackson RT, McRae CU (1998) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer progression. Int J Cancer 77:511–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Menezes RJ, Swede H, Mettlin C, Moysich KB (2002) Regular aspirin use and risk of prostate cancer. Proceedings of the American association for cancer research annual meeting. San Francisco, USA 43:933Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Irani J, Ravery V, Pariente JL, et al (2002) Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and finasteride on prostate cancer risk. J Urol 168:1985–1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bosetti C, Talamini R, Negri E, Franceschi S, Montella M, La Vecchia C (2006) Aspirin and the risk of prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 15:43–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, et al (2002) Aspirin use in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:1108–1111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Habel LA, Zhao W, Stanford JL (2002) Daily aspirin use and prostate cancer risk in a large, multiracial cohort in the US. Cancer Causes Control 13:427–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Perron L, Bairati I, Moore L, Meyer F (2003) Dosage, duration and timing of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use and risk of prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 106:409–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    García Rodríguez LA, González Pérez A (2004) Inverse association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:649–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Platz EA, Rohrmann S, Pearson JD, et al (2005) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of prostate cancer in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:390–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jacobs EJ, Rodriguez C, Mondul AM, et al (2005) A large cohort study of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst 97:975–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mahmud S, Franco E, Aprikian A (2004) Prostate cancer and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 90:93–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Castelao JE, Yuan JM, Gago-Dominguez M, Yu MC, Ross RK (2000) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bladder cancer prevention. Br J Cancer 82:1364–1369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    McLaughlin JK, Blot WJ, Mehl ES, Fraumeni JF (1985) Relation of analgesic use to renal cancer: population-based findings. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 69:217–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    McCredie M, Ford JM, Stewart JH (1988) Risk factors for cancer of the renal parenchyma. Int J Cancer 42:13–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mellemgaard A, Niwa S, Mehl ES, Engholm G, McLaughlin JK, Olsen JH (1994) Risk factors for renal cell carcinoma in Denmark: role of medication and medical history. Int J Epidemiol 23:923–930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    McCredie M, Pommer W, McLaughlin JK, et al (1995) International renal-cell cancer study. II. Analgesics. Int J Cancer 60:345–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Gago-Dominguez M, Yuan JM, Castelao JE, Ross RK, Yu MC (1999) Regular use of analgesics is a risk factor for renal cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer 81:542–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (1987) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs, vols 1 to 42. Suppl. 7. International Agency for Research on Cancer, LyonGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bernstein L, Ross RK (1992) Prior medication use and health history as risk factors for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: preliminary results from a case–control study in Los Angeles County. Cancer Res 52:5510s–5515sPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kato I, Koenig KL, Shore RE, et al (2002) Use of anti-inflammatory and non-narcotic analgesic drugs and risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) (United States). Cancer Causes Control 13:965–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Zhang Y, Holford TR, Leaderer B, et al (2004) Prior medical conditions and medication use and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Connecticut United States women. Cancer Causes Control 15:419–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chang ET, Zheng T, Weir EG, et al (2004) Aspirin and the risk of Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a population-based case–control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 96:305–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Baker JA, Weiss JR, Czuczman MS, Menezes RJ, Ambrosone CB, Moysich KB (2005) Regular use of aspirin or acetaminophen and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Causes Control 16:301–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Cerhan JR, Anderson KE, Janney CA, Vachon CM, Witzig TE, Habermann TM (2003) Association of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use with incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Int J Cancer 106:784–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kasum CM, Blair CK, Folsom AR, Ross JA (2003) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and risk of adult leukemia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:534–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Signorello LB, McLaughlin JK, Lipworth L, Friis S, Sorensen HT, Blot WJ (2003) Confounding by indication: implications for implant research. J Long Term Eff Med Implants 13:63–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Bosetti
    • 1
  • Silvano Gallus
    • 1
  • Carlo La Vecchia
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”MilanItaly
  2. 2.Istituto di Statistica Medica e BiometriaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations