Advertisement

Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 17, Issue 7, pp 983–987 | Cite as

The impact of height and body mass index on the risk of testicular cancer in 600,000 Norwegian men

  • Tone BjørgeEmail author
  • Steinar Tretli
  • A. Kathrine Lie
  • Anders Engeland
Brief Report

Abstract

The present study aimed at exploring the relations between body mass index (BMI) and stature and testicular cancer in a huge Norwegian cohort with measured height and weight. Height and weight were measured in 600,000 Norwegian men aged 14–44 years during 1963–2001. Results from parts of the study cohort have been reported previously. During follow-up, 1,357 testicular cancers were registered. Relative risks (RRs) of testicular cancer were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. The risk of testicular cancer decreased with adult BMI. Compared with men with normal BMI, overweight and obese men had a relative risk of cancer of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.77–1.03) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.58–1.17). The relative risk of testicular cancer per unit increase in BMI was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95–1.00). The risk of testicular cancer was not associated with adolescent BMI. A moderate increase in risk of seminomas was seen with increasing adult height. Compared with men with height 170–79 cm, men with height 180 cm and above had a relative risk of 1.17 (95% CI: 1.00–1.37).

Keywords

Body mass index Testicular cancer Germ cell tumors Cohort study Norway 

Notes

Acknowledgment

We are grateful to those who during almost 40 years collected the data used in the present study. These are persons connected to the former National Health Screening Service, The Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT), The Hordaland Health Survey (HUSK) and The Tromsø Study.

References

  1. 1.
    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P (2005) Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 55:74–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Purdue MP, Devesa SS, Sigurdson AJ, McGlynn KA (2005) International patterns and trends in testis cancer incidence. Int J Cancer 115:822–827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    The Cancer Registry of Norway. The Cancer Registry of Norway. http://www.kreftregisteret.no/. March, 2006Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Cancer-Preventive Strategies (2002) Weight control and physical activity. IARC Press International Agency for Research on Cancer, LyonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dieckmann KP, Pichlmeier U (2002) Is risk of testicular cancer related to body size? Eur Urol 42:564–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Akre O, Ekbom A, Sparén P, Tretli S (2000) Body size and testicular cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 92:1093–1096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bjørge T, Tretli S, Engeland A (2004) Relation of height and body mass index to renal cell carcinoma in two million Norwegian men and women. Am J Epidemiol 160:1168–1176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Waaler HT (1984) Height, weight and mortality. The Norwegian experiment. Acta Med Scand Suppl 679:1–56Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bjartveit K, Foss OP, Gjervig T, Lund-Larsen PG (1979) The cardiovascular disease study in Norwegian counties. Background and organization. Acta Med Scand Suppl 634:1–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bjartveit K (1997) [The National Health Screening Service: From fight against tuberculosis to many-sided epidemiological activities] Fra tuberkulosekamp til mangesidig epidemiologisk virksomhet. Nor Epidemiol 7:157–174Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway. http://www.ssb.no/english/. March, 2006Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cox DR, Oakes D (1984) Analysis of Survival Data. Chapman and Hall Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    World Health Organization Consultation on Obesity. Preventing and managing the global epidemic: Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity, Geneva, 3–5 June 1997. 1–276. 1998. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Grummer-Strawn LM, et al. (2000) CDC growth charts: United States. Adv Data 1–27Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    National Center for Health Statistics . CDC Growth Charts: United States. http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/. August, 2002Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    SPSS Inc. SPSS for Windows. Release 12.0.2. 2004Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rajpert-De Meyts E, Bartkova J, Samson M, et al. (2003) The emerging phenotype of the testicular carcinoma in situ germ cell. APMIS 111:267–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dieckmann KP, Pichlmeier U (2004) Clinical epidemiology of testicular germ cell tumors. World J Urol 22:2–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rasmussen F, Gunnell D, Ekbom A, Hallqvist J, Tynelius P (2003) Birth weight, adult height, and testicular cancer: cohort study of 337,249 Swedish young men. Cancer Causes Control 14:595–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Richiardi L, Askling J, Granath F, Akre O (2003) Body size at birth and adulthood and the risk for germ-cell testicular cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:669–673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cole TJ (2000) Secular trends in growth. Proc Nutr Soc 59:317–324PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tone Bjørge
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Steinar Tretli
    • 4
  • A. Kathrine Lie
    • 4
  • Anders Engeland
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, Section for Epidemiology and Medical StatisticsUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.Division of EpidemiologyNorwegian Institute of Public HealthBergenNorway
  3. 3.Division of EpidemiologyNorwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway
  4. 4.The Cancer Registry of NorwayInstitute of population-based cancer researchOsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations