A Prospective Study of Dietary Alpha-linolenic Acid and the Risk of Prostate Cancer (United States)
- 300 Downloads
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the most common omega-3 fatty acid in the Western diet. The relation of dietary intake of ALA to prostate cancer risk remains unresolved.
We prospectively evaluated total ALA and ALA from specific food sources including animal, fish, and plant sources in relation to prostate cancer risk.
A cohort of 29,592 male participants (age 55–74 years) in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial was followed for an average of 5.1 years.
We ascertained 1,898 cases of total prostate cancer, of which 1,631 were organ-confined cases (stage T1b to T3a and N0M0) and 285 were advanced stage cases (stage≥T3b, N1, or M1). We found no association between total ALA intake and overall prostate cancer (multivariate RR comparing extreme quintiles=0.94; 95% CI=0.81–1.09; P for trend=0.76). The corresponding RRs for organ-confined and advanced prostate cancer were 0.94 (95% CI=0.80–1.10; P for trend=0.80) and 0.83 (95% CI=0.58–1.19; P for trend=0.34), respectively. In addition, no relations were observed between ALA intake from any specific food source and the risks of total, organ-confined, or advanced prostate cancer. ALA intake also showed no association with low grade (Gleason sum<7; 1,221 cases) tumors (P for trend=0.23) or high grade (Gleason sum≥7; n=677 cases) tumors (P for trend=0.26).
In this prospective study of predominantly Caucasian men who were screened annually for newly incident prostate cancer, dietary intake of total ALA and ALA from specific food sources was not associated with risk of total prostate cancer or prostate tumors that were defined by stage and grade.
KeywordsProstatic neoplasms Alpha-linolenic acid Epidemiology Cohort studies
- 11.Laaksonen, DE, Laukkanen, JA, Niskanen, L, Nyyssonen, K, Rissanen, TH, Voutilainen, S, Pukkala, E, Hakkarainen, A, Salonen, JT 2004Serum linoleic and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to prostate and other cancers: a population-based cohort studyInt J Cancer111444450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Prorok, PC, Andriole, GL, Bresalier, RS, Buys, SS, Chia, D, Crawford, ED, Fogel, R, Gelmann, EP, Gilbert, F, Hasson, MA, Hayes, RB, Johnson, CC, Mandel, JS, Oberman, A, O’Brien, B, Oken, MM, Rafla, S, Reding, D, Rutt, W, Weissfeld, JL, Yokochi, L, Gohagan, JK 2000Design of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening TrialControl Clin Trials21273S309SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Cox, DR 1972Regression models and lifetables (with discussions)J R Stat Soc34187220Google Scholar
- 38.Willett, WC 1998Nutritional epidemiologyOxford University PressNew York, NYGoogle Scholar
- 39.Godley, PA, Campbell, MK, Miller, C, Gallagher, P, Martinson, FE, Mohler, JL, Sandler, RS 1996Correlation between biomarkers of omega-3 fatty acid consumption and questionnaire data in African American and Caucasian United States males with and without prostatic carcinomaCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev5115119PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 40.Demark-Wahnefried, W, Price, DT, Polascik, TJ, Robertson, CN, Anderson, EE, Paulson, DF, Walther, PJ, Gannon, M, Vollmer, RT 2001Pilot study of dietary fat restriction and flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer before surgery: exploring the effects on hormonal levels, prostate-specific antigen, and histopathologic featuresUrology584752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.Langelier, B, Furet, JP, Perruchot, MH, Alessandri, JM 2003Docosahexaenoic acid membrane content and mRNA expression of acyl-CoA oxidase and of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta are modulated in Y79 retinoblastoma cells differently by low and high doses of alpha-linolenic acidJ Neurosci Res74134141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar