Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 489–500 | Cite as

Biological Clocks and Shift Work: Circadian Dysregulation and Potential Long-term Effects

  • Erhard HausEmail author
  • Michael Smolensky
Special Section on Cancer and Rhythm Original Paper


Long-term epidemiologic studies on large numbers of night and rotating shift workers have suggested an increase in the incidence of breast and colon cancer in these populations. These studies suffer from poor definition and quantification of the work schedules of the exposed subjects. Against this background, the pathophysiology of phase shift and phase adaptation is reviewed. A phase shift as experienced in night and rotating shift work involves desynchronization at the molecular level in the circadian oscillators in the central nervous tissue and in most peripheral tissues of the body. There is a change in the coordination between oscillators with transient loss of control by the master-oscillator (the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, SCN) in the hypothalamus. The implications of the pathophysiology of phase shift are discussed for long-term health effects and for the design of ergonomic work schedules minimizing the adverse health effects upon the worker.


Shift work Circadian desynchronization Risk factors Heart disease Cancer Ergonomics 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Laboratory Medicine & PathologyUniversity of Minnesota, Health Partners Medical Group, Regions HospitalSt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.School of Public HealthUniversity of Texas – HoustonHoustonUSA

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