Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 227–228 | Cite as

Causal Effects of Smokeless Tobacco on Mortality in CPS-I and CPS-II?

Letter to the Editor


Tobacco Smokeless Smoking  Nicotine Mortality Snuff Chew  



JF’s main funding is currently from New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. LR is retired from full-time employment. Neither author has ever accepted funding from the tobacco industry nor has any conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tobacco Dependence ProgramUniversity of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-School of Public HealthNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Tobacco StudiesStockholmSweden

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