GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms, Cigarette Smoking, and Risk of Colon Cancer: A Population-based Case-control Study in North Carolina (United States)
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Cigarette smoke is a risk factor for colon cancer, but the importance of dose and interaction with genetic susceptibility remain poorly understood. We used data from a population-based case control study, to examine the association between cigarette smoking and colon cancer in African Americans and whites, and colon cancer and polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1. A total of 554 cases of primary colon cancer and 874 controls were included in this analysis. We found no association between cigarette smoking (ever versus never) and colon cancer in African Americans (odds ratio (OR)=0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.65–1.33). In contrast, there was an increased risk of cigarette smoking in whites (OR=1.43, CI=1.05–1.94). There was a small increased risk of colon cancer for individuals with GSTM1 null (African Americans, OR=1.43, CI, 0.98–2.09; whites, OR=1.19, CI, 0.90–1.58) and a decreased risk of colon cancer for individuals with GSTT1 null (African Americans, OR=0.59, CI: 0.40–0.86; whites, OR=0.72, CI: 0.53–1.00). There were weak interactions between GSTT1 null and cigarette smoking in whites, and GSTM1 null genotype and cigarette smoking in African Americans. GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms may be weakly related to colon cancer risk and there may be racial differences in gene-smoking interactions.