Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 71–79 | Cite as

A Pooled Analysis of Bladder Cancer Case–Control Studies Evaluating Smoking in Men and Women

  • Diana Puente
  • Patricia Hartge
  • Eberhard Greiser
  • Kenneth P. Cantor
  • Will D. King
  • Carlos A. González
  • Sylvaine Cordier
  • Paolo Vineis
  • Elsebeth Lynge
  • Jenny Chang-Claude
  • Stefano Porru
  • Anastasia Tzonou
  • Karl-Heinz Jöckel
  • Consol Serra
  • Martine Hours
  • Charles F. Lynch
  • Ulrich Ranft
  • Jürgen Wahrendorf
  • Debra Silverman
  • Francisco Fernandez
  • Paolo Boffetta
  • Manolis Kogevinas
Original Paper


Objective A recent study suggested that risk of bladder cancer may be higher in women than in men who smoked comparable amounts of cigarettes. We pooled primary data from 14 case–control studies of bladder cancer from Europe and North America and evaluated differences in risk of smoking by gender.

Methods The pooled analysis included 8316 cases (21% women) and 17,406 controls (28% women) aged 30–79 years. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for smoking were adjusted for age and study. Exposure-response was evaluated in a stratified analysis by gender and by generalized additive models.

Results The odds ratios for current smokers compared to nonsmokers were 3.9 (95% CI 3.5–4.3) for males and 3.6 (3.1–4.1) for females. In 11 out of 14 studies, ORs were slightly higher in men. ORs for current smoking were similar for men (OR = 3.4) and women (OR = 3.7) in North America, while in Europe men (OR = 5.3) had higher ORs than women (OR = 3.9). ORs increased with duration and intensity in both genders and the exposure-response patterns were remarkably similar between genders.

Conclusion These results do not support the hypothesis that women have a higher relative risk of smoking-related bladder cancer than men.


Bladder cancer Case–control studies Gender differences Pooled analysis Tobacco smoke 



We thank Andrea Mannetje and Cristina Villanueva for their contribution in the original pooled analyses, Nuria Malats for participating in the planning of this pooled analysis.Funding: The study was partly supported by grant SOC 96-200742 05F02 of the Europe Against Cancer programme, and DG SANCO Project 2001/CAN/112 of the European Commission; by a grant by the Generalitat (Government) of Catalunya (DURSI 2001/SGR/00406); and by grants (01/1326E and G03/173) of the Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria, Ministry of Education, Spain. M Kogevinas was partly funded by a visiting scientist award at the DCEG, NCI, Bethesda.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diana Puente
    • 1
  • Patricia Hartge
    • 2
  • Eberhard Greiser
    • 3
  • Kenneth P. Cantor
    • 2
  • Will D. King
    • 4
  • Carlos A. González
    • 5
  • Sylvaine Cordier
    • 6
  • Paolo Vineis
    • 7
  • Elsebeth Lynge
    • 8
  • Jenny Chang-Claude
    • 9
  • Stefano Porru
    • 10
  • Anastasia Tzonou
    • 11
  • Karl-Heinz Jöckel
    • 12
  • Consol Serra
    • 13
  • Martine Hours
    • 14
  • Charles F. Lynch
    • 15
  • Ulrich Ranft
    • 16
  • Jürgen Wahrendorf
    • 9
  • Debra Silverman
    • 2
  • Francisco Fernandez
    • 1
  • Paolo Boffetta
    • 17
  • Manolis Kogevinas
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Respiratory and Environmental Health Research UnitMunicipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Bremen Institute for Prevention Research and Social MedicineBremenGermany
  4. 4.Department of Community Health and EpidemiologyQueen’s UniversityOntarioCanada
  5. 5.Department of Epidemiology Catalan Institute of OncologyBarcelonaSpain
  6. 6.INSERM U435Université de Rennes IFrance
  7. 7.Unit of Cancer EpidemiologyUniversity of TurinItaly
  8. 8.Institute of Public HealthUniversity of CopenhagenDenmark
  9. 9.Deutsches KrebsforschungszentrumAbteilung EpidemiologieHeidelbergGermany
  10. 10.Institute of Occupational HealthUniversity of BresciaItaly
  11. 11.Department of Hygiene and EpidemiologyMedical School of AthensAthensGreece
  12. 12.Institut für Medizinische InformatikBiometrie und EpidemiologieEssenGermany
  13. 13.Corporació Parc Taulí, SabadellSpain and Pompeu Fabra UniversityBarcelonaSpain
  14. 14.Institut d’ÉpidémiologieUniversité Claude BernardLyonFrance
  15. 15.Department of Epidemiology University of IowaUSA
  16. 16.Institut für Umweltmedizinische Forschung (IUF), Heinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany
  17. 17.International Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance

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