Not All Followers Socially Learn from Ethical Leaders: The Roles of Followers’ Moral Identity and Leader Identification in the Ethical Leadership Process

  • Zhen WangEmail author
  • Lu Xing
  • Haoying Xu
  • Sean T. Hannah
Original Paper


Recent literature suggests that ethical leadership helps to inhibit followers’ unethical behavior, largely built on the premise that followers view ethical leaders as ethical role models and socially learn from them, thereby engaging in more (less) (un)ethical conduct. This premise, however, has not been adequately tested, leaving insufficient understanding concerning the conditions under which this social learning process occurs. In this study, we revisit this premise, theorizing that not all followers will equally regard the same ethical leader as being a personal ethical role model, thereby bounding the leader’s effects in reducing followers’ unethical behavior. We integrate the role of follower self-concepts into social learning theory, hypothesizing that the extent followers emulate their ethical leaders is contingent on how they identify with ethics (i.e., moral identity) as well as the particular leader (i.e., leader identification). We test our hypotheses with three-wave survey data collected from 214 employees, finding that ethical leaders are viewed as being role models only amongst followers higher in moral identity and leader identification, and that followers’ perceptions that the leader is an ethical role model mediated the effect of ethical leadership on followers’ unethical behavior. Interestingly, results for the full-model tests show that ethical leadership evokes unethical behavior amongst followers lower in both moral identity and leader identification. These results suggest that ethical leadership is not a universally useful practice to decrease unethical behavior and that a more nuanced understanding of its contingent effects needs to be better understood.


Ethical leadership Ethical role model Moral identity Leader identification Unethical behavior Social learning theory 



This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Number 71772193)

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.


  1. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Akaah, I. P. (1996). The influence of organizational rank and role on marketing professionals’ ethical judgments. Journal of Business Ethics,15(6), 605–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aquino, K., & Douglas, S. (2003). Identity threat and antisocial behavior in organizations: The moderating effects of individual differences, aggressive modeling, and hierarchical status. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,90(1), 195–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aquino, K., & Reed, A., II. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,83(6), 1423–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aron, A. (2003). Self and close relationships. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tagney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 442–461). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  6. Ashforth, B. E., Harrison, S. H., & Corley, K. G. (2008). Identification in organizations: An examination of four fundamental questions. Journal of Management,34(3), 325–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashforth, B. E., Schinoff, B. S., & Rogers, K. M. (2016). “I identify with her”, “I identify with him”: Unpacking the dynamics of personal identification in organizations. Academy of Management Review,41(1), 28–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Avey, J. B., Palanski, M. E., & Walumbwa, F. O. (2011). When leadership goes unnoticed: The moderating role of follower self-esteem on the relationship between ethical leadership and follower behavior. Journal of Business Ethics,98(4), 573–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Badrinarayanan, V., Ramachandran, I., & Madhavaram, S. (in press). Mirroring the boss: Ethical leadership, emulation intentions, and salesperson performance. Journal of Business Ethics.
  10. Baek, Y. M. (2010). An integrative model of ambivalence. Social Science Journal,47(3), 609–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bai, Y., Lin, L., & Liu, J. T. (2019). Leveraging the employee voice: A multi-level social learning perspective of ethical leadership. International Journal of Human Resource Management,30(2), 1869–1901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  13. Berry, C. M., Carpenter, N. C., & Barratt, C. L. (2012). Do other-reports of counterproductive work behavior provide an incremental contribution over self-reports? A meta-analytic comparison. Journal of Applied Psychology,97(3), 613–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brewer, M. B., & Gardner, W. (1996). Who is this “we”? Levels of collective identity and self-representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,71(1), 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written materials. In H. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 389–444). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, M. E., & Mitchell, M. S. (2010). Ethical and unethical leadership: Exploring new avenues for future research. Business Ethics Quarterly,20(4), 583–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. Leadership Quarterly,17(6), 595–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2014). Do role models matter? An investigation of role modeling as an antecedent of perceived ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics,122(4), 587–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,97(2), 117–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carlson, D. S., Thompson, M. J., & Kacmar, K. M. (2019). Double crossed: The spillover and crossover effects of work demands on work outcomes through the family. Journal of Applied Psychology,104(2), 214–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cavarretta, F. L., Trinchera, L., Choi, D. O., & Hannah, S. T. (2016). When “it depends” amounts to more than simple contingent relationships: Three canonical forms of inversions. Journal of Organizational Behavior,37(6), 933–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cha, S. E., & Edmondson, A. C. (2006). When values backfire: Leadership, attribution, and disenchantment in a values-driven organization. Leadership Quarterly,17(1), 57–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chiu, C.-Y., Dweck, C. S., Tong, J. Y.-Y., & Fu, J. H.-Y. (1997). Implicit theories and conceptions of morality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,73(5), 923–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daniels, D., Diddams, M., & Van Duzer, J. (2011). A magnetic pull on the internal compass: The moderating effect of response to culture on the relationship between moral identity and ethical sensitivity. Journal of Religion and Business Ethics,2, 1–29.Google Scholar
  25. Dawson, J. F., & Richter, A. W. (2006). Probing three-way interactions in moderated multiple regression: Development and application of a slope difference test. Journal of Applied Psychology,91(4), 917–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Den Hartog, D. N. (2015). Ethical leadership. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior,2, 409–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dvir, T., & Shamir, B. (2003). Follower developmental characteristics as predicting transformational leadership: A longitudinal field study. Leadership Quarterly,14(3), 327–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Edwards, J. R. (2009). Seven deadly myths of testing moderation in organizational research. In C. E. Lance & R. J. Vandenberg (Eds.), Statistical and methodological myths and urban legends: Doctrine, verity and fable in the organizational and social sciences (pp. 143–164). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Epitropaki, O., Kark, R., Mainemelis, C., & Lord, R. G. (2017). Leadership and followership identity processes: A multilevel review. Leadership Quarterly,28(1), 104–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Farh, J. L., Hackett, R. D., & Liang, J. (2007). Individual-level cultural values as moderators of perceived organizational support-employee outcome relationships in China: Comparing the effects of power distance and traditionality. Academy of Management Journal,50(3), 715–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. E. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobserved variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research,18(1), 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fulmer, C. A., & Ostroff, C. (2017). Trust in direct leaders and top leaders: A trickle-up model. Journal of Applied Psychology,102(4), 648–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gan, C. (2018). Ethical leadership and unethical employee behavior: A moderated mediation model. Social Behavior and Personality,46(8), 1271–1283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gardner, W. L., & Avolio, B. J. (1998). The charismatic relationship: A dramaturgical perspective. Academy of Management Review,23(1), 32–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gino, F., Schweitzer, M. E., Mead, N. L., & Ariely, D. (2011). Unable to resist temptation: How self-control depletion promotes unethical behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,115(2), 191–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gok, K., Sumanth, J. J., Bommer, W. H., Demirtas, O., Arslan, A., Eberhard, J., et al. (2017). You may not reap what you sow: How employees’ moral awareness minimizes ethical leadership’s positive impact on workplace deviance. Journal of Business Ethics,146(2), 257–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goodman, J. S., & Blum, T. C. (1996). Assessing the non-random sampling effects of subject attrition in longitudinal research. Journal of Management,22(4), 627–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hair, J., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
  39. Hannah, S. T., & Avolio, B. J. (2010). Moral potency: Building the capacity for character-based leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research,62(4), 291–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hannah, S. T., Avolio, B. J., & May, D. R. (2011). Moral maturation and moral conation: A capacity approach to explaining moral thought and action. Academy of Management Review,36(4), 663–685.Google Scholar
  41. Hannah, S. T., Sumanth, J. J., Lester, P., & Cavarretta, F. (2014). Debunking the false dichotomy of leadership idealism and pragmatism: Critical evaluation and support of newer genre leadership theories. Journal of Organizational Behavior,35(5), 598–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hannah, S. T., Thompson, R., & Herbst, K. (in press). Moral identity complexity: Situated morality within and across work and social roles. Journal of Management.
  43. Hannah, S. T., Woolfolk, R. L., & Lord, R. G. (2009). Leader self-structure: A framework for positive leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior,30(2), 269–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hardy, S., & Carlo, G. (2005). Identity as a source of moral motivation. Human Development,48(4), 232–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hayes, A. F. (2015). An index and test of linear moderated mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research,50(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). Most people are not WEIRD. Nature,466(7302), 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hertz, S. G., & Krettenauer, T. (2016). Does moral identity effectively predict moral behavior? A meta-analysis. Review of General Psychology,20(2), 129–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hogg, M. A. (2001). A social identity theory of leadership. Personality and Social Psychology Review,5(3), 184–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hogg, M. A., Hains, S. C., & Mason, I. (1998). Identification and leadership in small groups: Salience, frame of reference, and leader stereotypicality effects on leader evaluations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,75(5), 1248–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Howell, J. M., & Shamir, B. (2005). The role of followers in the charismatic leadership process: Relationships and their consequences. Academy of Management Review,30(1), 96–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Humberd, B., & Rouse, E. (2016). Seeing you in me and me in you: Personal identification in the phases of mentoring relationships. Academy of Management Review,41(3), 435–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jennings, P. L., Mitchell, M. S., & Hannah, S. T. (2015). The moral self: A review and integration of the literature. Journal of Organizational Behavior,36(S1), S104–S168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jones, T. M. (1991). Ethical decision making by individuals in organizations: An issue-contingent model. Academy of Management Review,16(2), 366–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kalshoven, K., van Dijk, H., & Boon, C. (2016). Why and when does ethical leadership evoke unethical follower behavior? Journal of Managerial Psychology,31(2), 500–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kark, R. (2012). Workplace intimacy in leader-follower relationships. In G. M. Spreitzer & K. S. Cameron (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of positive organizational scholarship (pp. 423–438). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Kark, R., Shamir, B., & Chen, G. (2003). The two faces of transformational leadership: Empowerment and dependency. Journal of Applied Psychology,88(2), 246–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kirkman, B. L., Chen, G., Farh, J. L., Chen, Z. X., & Lowe, K. B. (2009). Individual power distance orientation and follower reactions to transformational leaders: A cross-level, cross-cultural examination. Academy of Management Journal,52(4), 744–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kish-Gephart, J. J., Harrison, D. A., & Treviño, L. K. (2010). Bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels: Meta-analytic evidence about sources of unethical decisions at work. Journal of Applied Psychology,95(1), 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kurpis, L. V., Bequri, M. S., & Helgeson, J. G. (2008). The effects of commitment to moral self-improvement and religiosity on ethics of business students. Journal of Business Ethics,80(3), 447–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lapsley, D. K., & Lasky, B. (2001). Prototypic moral character. Identity,1(4), 345–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Leary, M. R., & Tangney, J. P. (2003). The self as an organizing construct in the behavioral sciences. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 3–14). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  62. Li, Y., & Sun, J.-M. (2015). Traditional Chinese leadership and employee voice behavior: A cross-level examination. Leadership Quarterly,26(2), 172–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lian, H., Ferris, D. L., & Brown, D. J. (2012). Does power distance exacerbate or mitigate the effects of abusive supervision? It depends on the outcome. Journal of Applied Psychology,97(1), 107–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Liao, H., & Chuang, A. (2004). A multilevel investigation of factors influencing employee service performance and customer outcomes. Academy of Management Journal,47(1), 41–58.Google Scholar
  65. Liao, Y., Liu, X.-Y., Kwan, H. K., & Li, J. (2015). Work-family effects of ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics,128(3), 535–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lin, S.-H., Ma, J., & Johnson, R. E. (2016). When ethical leader behavior breaks bad: How ethical leader behavior can turn abusive via ego depletion and moral licensing. Journal of Applied Psychology,101(6), 815–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Linville, P. W. (1987). Self-complexity as a cognitive buffer against stress-related illness and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,52(4), 663–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lord, R. G., & Brown, D. G. (2004). Leadership processes and follower self-identity. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.Google Scholar
  69. Lord, R. G., Brown, D. J., & Freiberg, S. J. (1999). Understanding the dynamics of leadership: The role of follower self-concepts in the leader/follower relationship. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,78(3), 167–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lord, R. G., Foti, R. J., & De Vader, C. L. (1984). A test of leadership categorization theory: Internal structure, information processing, and leadership perceptions. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance,34(3), 343–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mael, F., & Ashforth, B. E. (1992). Alumni and their alma mater: A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior,13(2), 103–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P., Jr. (1981). Vicarious learning: The influence of modeling on organizational behavior. Academy of Management Review,6(1), 105–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review,98(2), 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (2003). Models of agency: Sociocultural diversity in the construction of action. In V. Murphy-Berman & J. J. Berman (Eds.), Cross-cultural differences in perspectives on the self (pp. 18–74). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  75. Mayer, D. M., Aquino, K., Greenbaum, R. L., & Kuenzi, M. (2012). Who displays ethical leadership, and why does it matter? An examination of antecedents and consequences of ethical leadership. Academy of Management Journal,55(1), 151–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Miao, Q., Newman, A., Yu, J., & Xu, L. (2013). The relationship between ethical leadership and unethical pro-organizational behavior: Linear or curvilinear effects? Journal of Business Ethics,116(3), 641–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mo, S., Ling, C.-D., & Xie, X.-Y. (2019). The curvilinear relationship between ethical leadership and team creativity: The moderating role of team faultlines. Journal of Business Ethics,154(1), 229–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Moberg, D. J. (2000). Role models and moral exemplars: How do employees acquire virtues by observing others? Business Ethics Quarterly,10(3), 675–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Moore, C., Detert, J. R., Treviño, L. K., Baker, V. L., & Mayer, D. M. (2012). Why employees do bad things: Moral disengagement and unethical organizational behavior. Personnel Psychology,65(1), 1–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Moore, C., Mayer, D. M., Chiang, F. F., Crossley, C., Karlesky, M. J., & Birtch, T. A. (2019). Leaders matter morally: The role of ethical leadership in shaping employee moral cognition and misconduct. Journal of Applied Psychology,104(1), 123–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Narvaez, D., & Lapsley, D. K. (2009). Moral identity, moral functioning, and the development of moral character. Psychology of Learning and Motivation,50, 237–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2015). Ethical leadership: Meta-analytic evidence of criterion-related and incremental validity. Journal of Applied Psychology,100(3), 948–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). The halo effect: Evidence for unconscious alteration of judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,35(4), 250–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  85. Ogunfowora, B. (2013). When the abuse is unevenly distributed: The effects of abusive supervision variability on work attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior,34(8), 1105–1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ogunfowora, B. (2014). It’s all a matter of consensus: Leader role modeling strength as a moderator of the links between ethical leadership and employee outcomes. Human Relations,67(12), 1467–1490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Owens, B. P., Yam, K. C., Bednar, J. S., Mao, J., & Hart, D. W. (2019). The impact of leader moral humility on follower moral self-efficacy and behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology,104(1), 146–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Palanski, M., Avey, J. B., & Jiraporn, N. (2014). The effects of ethical leadership and abusive supervision on job search behaviors in the turnover process. Journal of Business Ethics,121(1), 135–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Paterson, T. A., & Huang, L. (in press). Am I expected to be ethical? A role-definition perspective of ethical leadership and unethical behavior. Journal of Management.
  90. Pitesa, M., & Thau, S. (2013). Compliant sinners, obstinate saints: How power and self-focus determine the effectiveness of social influences in ethical decision making. Academy of Management Journal,56(3), 636–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology,88(5), 879–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Postmes, T., & Jetten, J. (2006). Reconciling individuality and the group. In T. Postmes & J. Jetten (Eds.), Individuality and the group: Advances in social identity (pp. 258–269). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Preacher, K. J., Ducker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research,42(1), 185–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Priester, J. R., & Petty, R. E. (1996). The gradual threshold model of ambivalence: Relating the positive and negative bases of attitudes to subjective ambivalence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,71(3), 431–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Qin, X., Huang, M., Johnson, R. E., Hu, Q., & Ju, D. (2018). The short-lived benefits of abusive supervisory behavior for actors: An investigation of recovery and work engagement. Academy of Management Journal,61(5), 1951–1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Quade, M. J., Greenbaum, R. L., & Petrenko, O. V. (2017). “I don’t want to be near you, unless…”: The interactive effect of unethical behavior and performance onto relationship conflict and workplace ostracism. Personnel Psychology,70(3), 675–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Reed, A., II, & Aquino, K. F. (2003). Moral identity and the expanding circle of moral regard toward out-groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,84(6), 1270–1286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Reynolds, S. J. (2008). Moral attentiveness: Who pays attention to the moral aspects of life? Journal of Applied Psychology,93(5), 1027–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Reynolds, S. J., & Ceranic, T. L. (2007). The effects of moral judgment and moral identity on moral behavior: An empirical examination of the moral individual. Journal of Applied Psychology,92(6), 1610–1624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rich, G. A. (1997). The sales manager as a role model: Effects on trust, job satisfaction, and performance of salespeople. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,25(4), 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rupp, D. E., Shao, R., Thornton, M. A., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2013). Applicants’ and employees’ reactions to corporate social responsibility: The moderating effects of first-party justice perceptions and moral identity. Personnel Psychology,66(4), 895–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sanders, S., Wisse, B., Van Yperen, N. W., & Rus, D. (2018). On ethically solvent leaders: The roles of pride and moral identity in predicting leader ethical behavior. Journal of Business Ethics,150(3), 631–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schaubroeck, J. M., Hannah, S. T., Avolio, B. J., Kozlowski, S. W., Lord, R. G., Treviño, L. K., et al. (2012). Embedding ethical leadership within and across organization levels. Academy of Management Journal,55(5), 1053–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sedikides, C., & Brewer, M. B. (Eds.). (2001). Individual self, relational self, collective self. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  105. Shamir, B. (1995). Social distance and charisma: Theoretical notes and an exploratory study. Leadership Quarterly,6(1), 19–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization Science,4(4), 577–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Shao, R., Aquino, K., & Freeman, D. (2008). Beyond moral reasoning: A review of moral identity research and its implications for business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly,18(4), 513–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Shockley, K. M., & Allen, T. D. (2013). Episodic work-family conflict, cardiovascular indicators, and social support: An experience sampling approach. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology,18(3), 262–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Siemsen, E., Roth, A., & Oliveira, P. (2010). Common method bias in regression models with linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Organizational Research Methods,13(3), 456–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Skarlicki, D. P., van Jaarsveld, D. D., Shao, R., Song, Y. H., & Wang, M. (2016). Extending the multifoci perspective: The role of supervisor justice and moral identity in the relationship between customer justice and customer-directed sabotage. Journal of Applied Psychology,101(1), 108–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sluss, D. M., & Ashforth, B. E. (2007). Relational identity and identification: Defining ourselves through work relationships. Academy of Management Review,32(1), 9–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sparks, J. R., & Hunt, S. D. (1998). Marketing researcher ethical sensitivity: Conceptualization, measurement, and exploratory investigation. Journal of Marketing,62(2), 92–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2002). An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior: Some parallels between counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Human Resource Management Review,12(2), 269–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Spector, P. E., Van Katwyk, P. T., Brannick, M. T., & Chen, P. Y. (1997). When two factors don’t reflect two constructs: How item characteristics can produce artifactual factors. Journal of Management,23(5), 659–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Steffens, N. K., Haslam, S. A., & Reicher, S. D. (2014). Up close and personal: Evidence that shared social identity is a basis for the ‘special’ relationship that binds followers to leaders. Leadership Quarterly,25(2), 296–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stouten, J., Baillien, E., Van den Broeck, A., Camps, J., De Witte, H., & Euwema, M. (2010). Discouraging bullying: The role of ethical leadership and its effects on the work environment. Journal of Business Ethics,95(1), 17–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stouten, J., van Dijke, M., Mayer, D. M., De Cremer, D., & Euwema, M. C. (2013). Can a leader be seen as too ethical? The curvilinear effects of ethical leadership. Leadership Quarterly,24(5), 680–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sumanth, J. J., & Hannah, S. T. (2014). Developing leadership capacity: An integration and exploration of ethical and authentic leadership antecedents. In L. Neider & C. Schriesheim (Eds.), Advances in authentic and ethical leadership (pp. 25–74). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  119. Tangney, J. P., Stuewig, J., & Mashek, D. J. (2007). Moral emotions and moral behavior. Annual Review of Psychology,58, 345–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Taylor, S. G., Griffith, M. D., Vadera, A. K., Folger, R., & Letwin, C. R. (2019). Breaking the cycle of abusive supervision: How disidentification and moral identity help the trickle-down change course. Journal of Applied Psychology,104(1), 164–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Treviño, L. K., & Brown, M. E. (2014). Ethical leadership. In D. V. Day (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of leadership and organizations (pp. 524–538). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Treviño, L. K., den Nieuwenboer, N. A., & Kish-Gephart, J. J. (2014). (Un)ethical behavior in organizations. Annual Review of Psychology,65, 635–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Treviño, L. K., Hartman, L. P., & Brown, M. (2000). Moral person and moral manager: How executives develop a reputation for ethical leadership. California Management Review,42(4), 128–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Treviño, L. K., Weaver, G. R., & Reynolds, S. J. (2006). Behavioral ethics in organizations: A review. Journal of Management,32(6), 951–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. van Gils, S., Van Quaquebeke, N., van Knippenberg, D., van Dijke, M., & De Cremer, D. (2015). Ethical leadership and follower organizational deviance: The moderating role of follower moral attentiveness. Leadership Quarterly,26(2), 190–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. van Knippenberg, D., van Knippenberg, B., De Cremer, D., & Hogg, M. A. (2004). Leadership, self, and identity: A review and research agenda. Leadership Quarterly,15(6), 825–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Van Quaquebeke, N., Becker, J. U., Goretzki, N., & Barrot, C. (2019). Perceived ethical leadership affects customer purchasing intentions beyond ethical marketing in advertising due to moral identity self-congruence concerns. Journal of Business Ethics,156(2), 357–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wang, Z., Xu, H., & Liu, Y. (2018). How does ethical leadership trickle down? Test of an integrative dual-process model. Journal of Business Ethics,153(3), 691–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Weaver, G. R., Treviño, L. K., & Agle, B. (2005). “Somebody I look up to”: Ethical role models in organizations. Organizational Dynamics,34(4), 313–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Weijters, B., Baumgartner, H., & Schillewaert, N. (2013). Reversed item bias: An integrative model. Psychological Methods,18(3), 320–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Weiss, H. M. (1977). Subordinate imitation of supervisor behavior: The role of modeling in organizational socialization. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance,19(1), 89–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Williams, L. J., Cote, J. A., & Buckley, M. R. (1989). Lack of method variance in self-reported affect and perceptions at work: Reality or artifact? Journal of Applied Psychology,74(3), 462–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Yagil, D. (1998). Charismatic leadership and organizational hierarchy: Attribution of charisma to close and distant leaders. Leadership Quarterly,9(2), 161–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zacharatos, A., Barling, J., & Iverson, R. D. (2005). High-performance work systems and occupational safety. Journal of Applied Psychology,90(1), 77–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zhang, Y., & Chen, C. C. (2013). Developmental leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: Mediating effects of self-determination, supervisor identification, and organizational identification. Leadership Quarterly,24(4), 534–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Zhu, W., Treviño, L. K., & Zheng, X. (2016). Ethical leaders and their followers: The transmission of moral identity and moral attentiveness. Business Ethics Quarterly,26(1), 95–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhen Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lu Xing
    • 2
  • Haoying Xu
    • 3
  • Sean T. Hannah
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Organization and Human Resource Management, Business SchoolCentral University of Finance and EconomicsBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Labor and Human ResourcesRenmin University of ChinaBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Business AdministrationUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  4. 4.School of BusinessWake Forest UniversityWinston-SalemUSA

Personalised recommendations