Advertisement

From Jensen to Jensen: Mechanistic Management Education or Humanistic Management Learning?

  • Claus DierksmeierEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Michael Jensen made a name for himself in the 1970s–1990 s with his ‘agency theory’ and its application to questions of corporate governance and economic policy. The effects of his theory were acutely felt in the pedagogics of business studies, as Jensen lent his authority to combat all attempts to integrate social considerations and moral values into business education. Lately, however, Michael Jensen has come to defend quite a different approach, promoting an ‘integrity theory’ of management learning. Jensen now rather aspires to empower students to give authentic expression to their personal values in their professional lives, and he sees the main function of management studies in assisting them in this effort. This article reconstructs the transformation of Jensen’s outlook, drawing on Jensen’s theories as an exemplar of wider trends in the current literature on management learning, away from a decidedly ‘mechanistic’ and towards a more ‘humanistic’ pedagogy of management. Jensen’s case serves to highlight developments that might make for better preconditions for the appreciation of business ethics on part of business students. On closer inspection, though, it appears that his remaining within a positivistic framework ultimately impedes the kind of progress Michael Jensen envisions for business studies.

Keywords

Management education Humanistic management Agency theory 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by the author.

References

  1. Alcaraz, J. M., Marcinkowska, W., M., & Thiruvattal, E. (2011). The UN-principles for responsible management education. Journal of Global Responsibility, 2(2), 151–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amann, W., Pirson, M., Dierksmeier, C., Kimakowitz, E. V., & Spitzeck, H. (Eds.). (2011). Business Schools under Fire: Humanistic Management Education as the Way Forward. Basingstoke; Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  3. Andrews, M. F. (2016). A Phenomenology of ethics and excess: Experiences of givenness and transcendence according to edith stein. In A. Calcagno (Ed.), Edith Stein: Women, social-political philosophy, theology, metaphysics and public history. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Antonacopoulou, E. P. (2010). Making the business school more ‘critical’: Reflexive critique based on phronesis as a foundation for impact. British Journal of Management, 21(SUPPL. 1), s6–s25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonacopoulou, E. P., & Sheaffer, Z. (2014). Learning in crisis: Rethinking the relationship between organizational learning and crisis management. Journal of Management Inquiry, 23(1), 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Argyris, C. (1977). Organizational learning and management information systems. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 2(2), 113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashworth, P. (1999). " Bracketing” in phenomenology: Renouncing assumptions in hearing about student cheating. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 12(6), 707–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bachmann, C., Habisch, A., & Dierksmeier, C. (2017). Practical wisdom: Managements no longer forgotten virtue. Ethics Journal of Business Ethics, 153(1), 147–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker, G. P., Jensen, M. C., & Murphy, K. J. (1988). Compensation and incentives: Practice vs. Theory. The Journal of Finance, 43(3), 593–616.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.1988.tb04593.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Becker, G. S. (1971). Economic Theory (1st edn.). New York: Knopf; distributed by Random House.Google Scholar
  11. Becker, G. S. (1975). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education (2d edn.). New York: National Bureau of Economic Research; Distributed by Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Becker, G. S. (1976). The economic approach to human behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bennis, W. G., & O’Toole, J. (2005). How business schools lost their way. Harvard Business Review, 83(9), 96–104.Google Scholar
  14. Berthoin Antal, A., & Sobczak, A. (2004). Beyond CSR: organisational learning for global responsibility. Journal of General Management, 30(2), 77–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Biemel, W. (1950). Husserls Enzyclopaedia-Britannica Artikel und Heideggers Anmerkungen dazu. Tijdschrift Voor Philosophie, 12(2), 246–280.Google Scholar
  16. Brennan, M. J. (1994). Incentives, rationality, and society. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 7(2), 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brodbeck, K. -H. (1998). Die fragwürdigen Grundlagen der Okonomie: Eine philosophische Kritik der modernen Wirtschaftswissenschaften. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.Google Scholar
  18. Cadsby, C. B., & Maynes, E. (1998). Choosing between a socially efficient and free-riding equilibrium: Nurses versus economics and business students. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 37(2), 183–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Caldwell, B. (2010). Beyond positivism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Camerer, C. F. (1997). Progress in behavioral game theory. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(4), 167–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carter, J. R., & Irons, M. D. (1991). Are economists different, and if so, why? The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(2), 171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cragg, W., Schwartz, M. S., & Weitzner, D. (2009). Corporate social responsibility. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  23. Cramer, J., & Bergmans, F. (2003). Learning about corporate social responsibility: The Dutch experience. Amsterdam; Washington, DC: IOS Press.Google Scholar
  24. Crowell, S. (2015). Why is ethics first philosophy? The European Journal of Philosophy, 23, 564–588.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0378.2012.00550.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dierksmeier, C. (2011). The freedom–responsibility nexus in management philosophy and business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(2), 263–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dierksmeier, C. (2016). Reframing economic ethics: The philosophical foundations of humanistic management. Cham: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dodd, J., & Stern-Gillet, S. (1995). The is/ought gap, the fact/value distinction and the naturalistic fallacy. Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review/Revue canadienne de philosophie, 34(4), 727–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dreyfus, H. L., & Dreyfus, S. E. (1991). Towards a phenomenology of ethical expertise. Human Studies, 14(4), 229–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Edward, P., & Willmott, H. (2013). Discourse and normative business ethics. In C. Lütge (ed.) Handbook of the philosophical foundations of business ethics (pp. 549–580). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eisler, R. T., Loye, D., & Eisler, R. T. (1990). The partnership way: New tools for living and learning. San Francisco: Harper.Google Scholar
  31. Elegido, J. (2009). Business education and erosion of character. African Journal of Business Ethics, 4(1), 16–24.Google Scholar
  32. Erhard, W., & Jensen, M. (2011). A Positive Theory of the Normative Virtues. Harvard Business School NOM Unit (Working paper 12 – 007).Google Scholar
  33. Erhard, W., & Jensen, M. C. (2013a). Creating leaders: A new model. An evening with Werner Erhard and professor Michael C. Jensen. SSRN Electronic Journal.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2352280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Erhard, W., & Jensen, M. C. (2013b). The four ways of being that create the foundation for great leadership, a great organization, and a great personal life. SSRN Electronic Journal.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2325077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Erhard, W., Jensen, M. C., & Granger, K. L. (2013). Creating leaders: An ontological/phenomenological model. Cancún: Tax Notes.Google Scholar
  36. Erhard, W., Jensen, M. C., & Zaffron, S. (2009). Integrity: A positive model that incorporates the normative phenomena of morality, ethics and legality. SSRN Electronic Journal.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.920625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fadeeva, Z., & Mochizuki, Y. (2010). Higher education for today and tomorrow: university appraisal for diversity, innovation and change towards sustainable development. Sustainability Science, 5(2), 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fama, E., & Jensen, M. (1996). Organizational forms and investment decisions. The economic nature of the firm. https://scholar.google.de/citations?view_op=view_citationa&hl=de&user=44R7TLwAAAAJ&cstart=140&sortby=pubdate&citation_for_view=44R7TLwAAAAJ:ML0RJ9NH7IQC.
  39. Fama, E. F., & Jensen, M. C. (1985). Organizational forms and investment decisions. Journal of Financial Economics, 14(1), 101–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(85)90045-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fear, J. R. (2001). Thinking historically about organizational learning. In M. Dierkes, A. B. Antal, J. Child & I. Nonaka (Eds.), Handbook of organizational learning and knowledge (pp. 162–191). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Fehr, E., Fischbacher, U., & Kosfeld, M. (2005). Neuroeconomic foundations of trust and social preferences. Discussion paper no. 1641. Bonn, Germany: IZA.Google Scholar
  42. Fehr, E., & Rangel, A. (2011). Neuroeconomic foundations of economic choice—recent advances. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(4), 3–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ferraro, F., Pfeffer, J., & Sutton, R. I. (2005). Economics language and assumptions: How theories can become self-fulfilling. Academy of Management Review, 30(1), 8–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fontrodona, J., & Sison, A. J. G. (2006). The nature of the firm, agency theory and shareholder theory: A critique from philosophical anthropology. Journal of Business Ethics, 66(1), 33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fortson, L., Subbarao, M., & Greenberg, G. (2008). Using collaborative environments in research-based science education. In C. Garmany, M. G. Gibbs, & J. Ward Moody (Eds.), EPO and a Changing World: Creating Linkages and Expanding Partnerships (ASP Conference Series, Vol. 389, proceedings of the conference held 5–7 September 2007, in Chicago, Illinois, USA.). San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2080, 239.Google Scholar
  46. Frank, B., & Schulze, G. G. (2000). Does economics make citizens corrupt? Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 43(1), 101–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Frank, R. H., Gilovich, T., & Regan, D. T. (1993). Does studying economics inhibit cooperation? The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(2), 159–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Frankena, W. K. (1939). The naturalistic fallacy. Mind, 48(192), 464–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Freire, P., & Faundez, A. (1989). Learning to question: A pedagogy of liberation. Geneva: World Council of Churches.Google Scholar
  50. Frey, B. S., & Meier, S. (2003). Are political economists selfish and indoctrinated? Evidence from a natural experiment. Economic Inquiry, 41(3), 448–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Friedman, M. (1953). Essays in positive economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  52. Friedman, M. (1970, September 13). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine.Google Scholar
  53. Galbraith, J. K. (1986). The new industrial state (4th edn. with a new introd.). New York: New American Library.Google Scholar
  54. Gandal, N., Roccas, S., Sagiv, L., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2005). Personal value priorities of economists. Human Relations, 58(10), 1227–1252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gentile, M. C. (2010). Giving voice to values: How to speak your mind when you know what’s right. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Ghoshal, S. (2005). Bad management theories are destroying good management practices. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 4(1), 75–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ghoshal, S., & Moran, P. (1996). Bad for practice: A critique of the transaction cost theory. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 13–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Goodpaster, K. E., Maines, D., Naughton, T., M., & Shapiro, B. (2017). Using UNPRME to teach, research, and enact business ethics: Insights from the Catholic identity matrix for business schools. Journal of Business Ethics, 147(4), 761–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Greenberg, D. N. (2015). Globally responsible leadership: Managing according to the UN global compact. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 14(2), 297–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hausken, K. (2002). Probabilistic risk analysis and game theory. Risk Analysis, 22(1), 17–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Heath, J. (2009). The uses and abuses of agency theory. Business Ethics Quarterly, 19(4), 497–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hesselbarth, C., & Schaltegger, S. (2014). Educating change agents for sustainability: Learnings from the first sustainability management amster of business administration. Journal of Cleaner Production, 62, 24–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hibbert, P., & Cunliffe, A. (2013). Responsible management: Engaging moral reflexive practice through threshold concepts. Journal of Business Ethics, 127(1), 177–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hill, J., & Hyde, S. (2001). Sinking or learning to swim: The consequences of business sustainability. London: TXU Europe.Google Scholar
  65. Hilliard, I. (2013). Responsible management, incentive systems, and productivity. Journal of Business Ethics, 118(2), 365–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review, 16(3), 235–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Honig, B. (2001). Learning strategies and resources for entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(1), 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Horgan, T., & Timmons, M. (2005). Moral phenomenology and moral theory. Philosophical Issues, 15(1), 56–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hühn, M. (2014). You reap what you sow: How MBA programs undermine ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 121(4), 527–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Husserl, E. (1913). Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie (I), Jahrbuch für Philosophie und phänomenologische Forschung. 1,1. p. 1–323.Google Scholar
  71. Husserl, E. (1941). Phänomenologie und anthropologie. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 2(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jamali, D. (2006). Insights into triple bottom line integration from a learning organization perspective. Business Process Management, 12(6), 809–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jensen, M. C. (1969). Risk, the pricing of capital assets, and the evaluation of investment portfolios. The Journal of Finance, 24(5), 959–960.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.1969.tb01710.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jensen, M. C. (1985a). When Unocal won over Pickens, shareholders and society lost. Financier, 9(11), 50–52.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.244157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jensen, M. C. (1985b). The efficiency of takeovers. The Corporate Board.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.173457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jensen, M. C. (1988). Takeovers: Their causes and consequences. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2(1), 21–48.  https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.2.1.21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jensen, M. C. (1989). Is leverage an invitation to Bankruptcy? Wall Street Journal.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.428221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jensen, M. C. (1991). Corporate control and the politics of finance. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 4(2), 13–34.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6622.1991.tb00603.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jensen, M. C. (1993). The modern industrial revolution, exit, and the failure of internal control systems. The Journal of Finance, 48(3), 831–880.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.1993.tb04022.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jensen, M. C. (1994). Self interest, altruism, incentives, and agency theory. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 7(2), 40–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jensen, M. C. (1999). Freedom, Capitalism and Human Behavior / Chap. 3: Applications of the Jensen Meckling Concept of Freedom. Harvard Business School NOM Unit Working Paper.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.638801.
  82. Jensen, M. C. (2002). Value maximization, stakeholder theory and the corporate objective function. Business Ethics Quarterly, 12(2), 235–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Jensen, M. C., & Erhard, W. (2011). A “Value-Free” approach to values (PDF file of powerpoint slides). SSRN Electronic Journal.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1640302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jensen, M. C., Granger, K. L., & Erhard, W. (2010). A new model of integrity: The missing factor of production (PDF file of Keynote and PowerPoint Slides).Google Scholar
  85. Jensen, M. C., & Long, J. B, Jr. (1972). Corporate investment under uncertainty and Pareto optimality in the capital markets. The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, 3(1), 151–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jensen, M. C., Kaplan, S. N., & Stiglin, L. (1989). Effects of LBOs on tax revenues of the U.S. Treasury. Tax Notes.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.173454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Jensen, M. C., & Meckling, W. H. (1976). Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics, 3(4), 305–360.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(76)90026-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Jensen, M. C., & Meckling, W. H. (1977). The nuclear family and antagonism towards markets. SSRN Electronic Journal.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.624566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jensen, M. C., & Meckling, W. H. (1978). Can the corporation survive? Financial Analysts Journal, 34(1), 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Jensen, M. C., & Meckling, W. H. (1983). Corporate governance and “Economic Democracy”: An attack on freedom. In C.J. Huizenga (Ed.), Proceedings of Corporate Governance: A definitive Exploration of the Issues. UCLA Extension. Retrieved from:  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.321521.
  91. Jensen, M. C., & Meckling, W. H. (1994). The nature of man. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 7(2), 4–19.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6622.1994.tb00401.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jensen, M. C., & Meckling, W. H. (1995). Specific and general knowledge and organizational structure. SSRN Electronic Journal.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.6658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Jensen, M. C., & Murphy, K. J. (1984, May 20). Beware the Self-Serving Critics. New York Times.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.473826.
  94. Jensen, M. C., & Ruback, R. S. (1983). The market for corporate control. Journal of Financial Economics, 11(1–4), 5–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(83)90004-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jensen, M. C., & Warner, J. B. (1988). The distribution of power among corporate managers, shareholders, and directors. Journal of Financial Economics, 20, 3–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(88)90038-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Jensen, M. C., & Zimmerman, J. L. (1985). Management compensation and the managerial labor market. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 7(1–3), 3–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-4101(85)90025-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ju, N., & Wan, X. (2012). Optimal compensation and pay-performance sensitivity in a continuous-time principal-agent model. Management Science, 58(3), 641–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kädtler, J. (2001). Social movements and interest groups as triggers for organizational learning. In M. Dierkes, A. B. Antal, J. Child & I. Nonaka (Eds.), Handbook of organizational learning and knowledge (pp. 221–241). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Kavanagh, D. (2013). Problematizing practice: MacIntyre and management. Organization, 20(1), 103–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Keall, C. (2013). The paradox of freedom: John Dewey on human nature, culture, and education. Education and Culture, 29, 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Khurana, R. (2007). From higher aims to hired hands. The social transformation of American business schools and the unfulfilled promise of management as a profession. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Khurana, R., & Nohria, N. (2008). It’s time to make management a true profession. Harvard Business Review, 86(10), 70–77.Google Scholar
  103. Kuhn, T. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Kulik, B. W. (2005). Agency theory, reasoning and culture at Enron: In search of a solution. Journal of Business Ethics, 59(4), 347–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Laasch, O., & Conaway, R. N. (2015). Principles of responsible management: global sustainability, responsibility, and ethics. Stamford: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  106. Laasch, O., & Moosmayer, D. (2015). Competences for responsible management: A structured literature review. CRME Working Papers, 1(2).Google Scholar
  107. Laudan, L. (1996). Beyond positivism and relativism: Theory, method, and evidence. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  108. Lester, S. W., Tomkovick, C., Wells, T., Flunker, L., & Kickul, J. (2005). Does service-learning add value? Examining the perspectives of multiple stakeholders. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 4(3), 278–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lien, B. Y. H., Pauleen, D. J., Kuo, Y. M., & Wang, T. L. (2014). The rationality and objectivity of reflection in phenomenological research. Quality & Quantity, 48(1), 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Maier, G. W., Prange, C., & von Rosenstiel, L. (2001). Psychological perspectives of organizational learning. In M. Dierkes, A. B. Antal, J. Child & I. Nonaka (Eds.), Handbook of organizational learning and knowledge (pp. 14–34). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Manzeschke, A., Drews-Galle, V., & Technikethik, M. A. (2010). Sei ökonomisch! Prägende Menschenbilder zwischen Modellbildung und Wirkmächtigkeit. Berlin: Lit.Google Scholar
  112. Marcue, H. (1966). One dimensional man: Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. Boston: Beach Press.Google Scholar
  113. Marks, R. E. (1992). Breeding hybrid strategies: Optimal behaviour for oligopolists. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 2(1), 17–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Marwell, G., & Ames, R. E. (1981). Economists free ride, does anyone else? Experiments on the provision of public goods, IV. Journal of Public Economics, 15(3), 295–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. McCabe, D. L., Butterfield, K. D., & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Academic dishonesty in graduate business programs: Prevalence, causes, and proposed action. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 5(3), 294–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Mintzberg, H. (2004). Managers not MBAs: A hard look at the soft practice of managing and management development. San Francisco: Berret-Koehler.Google Scholar
  117. Mintzberg, H., Simons, R., & Basu, K. (2002). Beyond selfishness. MIT Sloan Management Review, 44(1), 67–74.Google Scholar
  118. Mirowski, P. (1989). More heat than light: economics as social physics, physics as nature’s economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mirowski, P. (2002). Machine dreams: Economics becomes a cyborg science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Molinsky, A. L., Grant, A. M., & Margolis, J. D. (2012). The bedside manner of homo economicus: How and why priming an economic schema reduces compassion. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 119(1), 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Moorthy, K. S. (1985). Using game theory to model competition. Journal of Marketing Research, 22(3), 262–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Moosmayer, D. C. (2013a). Die Intention betriebswirtschaftlicher Hochschullehrer zur Beeinflussung von Werten konzeptionelle Entwicklung und globale empirische èUberprèufung. 2011, PL Academic Research, Frankfurt am M: Unpublished Zugl Hannover, Univ, Diss.Google Scholar
  123. Moosmayer, D. C. (2013b). Die Intention betriebswirtschaftlicher Hochschullehrer zur Beeinflussung von Werten: Konzeptionelle Entwicklung und globale empirische Überprüfung. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Morrell, K., & Learmonth, M. (2015). Against evidence-based management, for management learning. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 14(4), 520–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Noland, J., & Phillips, R. (2010). Stakeholder engagement, discourse ethics and strategic management. International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(1), 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Nonet, G., Kassel, K., & Meijs, L. (2016). Understanding responsible management: Emerging themes and variations from European business school programs. Journal of Business Ethics, 139(4), 717–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Osagie, E. R., Wesselink, R., Lans, T., Mulder, M., & Blok, V. (2016). Individual competencies for corporate social responsibility: A literature and practice perspective. Ethics Journal of Business Ethics, 135(2), 233–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Painter-Morland, M., Sabet, E., Molthan-Hill, P., Goworek, H., & de Leeuw, S. (2016). Beyond the curriculum: Integrating sustainability into business schools. Journal of Business Ethics, 139(4), 737–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Pirson, M. (2017). Humanistic Management. International Humanistic Management Association, Research Paper Series No. 17–45. SSRN Electronic Journal.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3074944.
  130. Pohling, R., Bzdok, D., Eigenstetter, M., Stumpf, S., & Strobel, A. (2016). What is ethical competence? The role of empathy, personal values, and the five-factor model of personality in ethical decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(3), 449–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Racko, G., Strauss, K., & Burchell, B. (2017). Economics education and value change: The role of program-normative homogeneity and peer influence. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 16(3), 373–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rakesh, K., Nohria, N., & Penrice, D. (2005). Is business management a profesion. Boston: Harvard Business School.Google Scholar
  133. Rasche, A., & Waddock, S. (2014). Global sustainability governance and the UN Global Compact: A rejoinder to critics. Ethics Journal of Business Ethics, 122(2), 209–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rocha, H. O., & Ghoshal, S. (2006). Beyond self-interest revisited. Journal of Management Studies, 43(3), 585–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Roth, A. (2012). Edmund Husserls ethische Untersuchungen: Dargestellt Anhand Seiner Vorlesungmanuskrìpte (Vol. 7). Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  136. Rubinstein, A. (2006). A Sceptic’s comment on the study of economics. The Economic Journal, 116(510), C1–C9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Samuelson, L. (2016). Game theory in economics and beyond. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(4), 107–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sanders, P. (1982). Phenomenology: A new way of viewing organizational research. Academy of Management Review, 7(3), 353–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Schaltegger, S., & Wagner, M. (2011). Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions. Business Strategy and the Environment, 20(4), 222–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Scherr, A. L., & Jensen, M. C. (2007). A New Model of Leadership. Harvard Business School NOM Unit Working Paper (06–10).Google Scholar
  141. Schutz, A. (1970). The problem of transcendental intersubjectivity in Husserl. In G. Shimura (ed). Collected papers III (pp. 51–84). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Schwartz, M. S., & Carroll, A. B. (2008). Integrating and unifying competing and complementary frameworks: The search for a common core in the business and society field. Business and Society, 47(2), 148–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sen, A. (2002). Rationality and freedom. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  144. Sen, A. (2017). Well-being, agency and freedom the dewey lectures 1984. In T. Brooks (ed). Justice and the capabilities approach (pp. 3–55). Cambridge: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Shotter, J., & Tsoukas, H. (2014a). In search of phronesis: Leadership and the art of judgment. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 13(2), 224–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Shotter, J., & Tsoukas, H. (2014b). Performing phronesis: On the way to engaged judgment. Management Learning, 45(4), 377–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Sison, A., Beabout, G. R., & Ferrero, I. (2017). Handbook of virtue ethics in business and management. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  148. Sison, A. G. (2003). The moral capital of leaders: why virtue matters. Cheltenham: E. Elgar Pub.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Sison, A. J. G. (2007). Toward a common good theory of the firm: The Tasubinsa case. Journal of Business Ethics, 74(4), 471–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sokolowski, R. (2017). Moral action: A phenomenological study. Washington, D.C: CUA Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Solberg, J., Strong, K. C., & McGuire, C. (1995). Living (not learning) ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 14(1), 71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Spahn, C. (1996). Phänomenologische Handlungstheorie: Edmund Husserls Untersuchungen zur Ethik (Vol. 190). Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.Google Scholar
  153. Speck, B. W., & Hoppe, S. L. (2004). Service-learning: History, theory, and issues. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  154. Stigler, G. J., & Becker, G. S. (1977). De Gustibus non est et disputandum. American Economic Review, 67(2), 76–90.Google Scholar
  155. Strasser, S. (1991). Welt im Widerspruch: Gedanken zu einer Phänomenologie als ethischer Fundamentalphilosophie (Vol. 124). Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  156. Tsoukas, H., & Chia, R. (2002). On organizational becoming: Rethinking organizational change. Organization Science, 13(5), 567–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Ungaretti, T., Thompson, K. R., Miller, A., & Peterson, T. O. (2015). Problem-based learning: Lessons from medical education and challenges for management education. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 14(2), 173–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Waldenfels, B. (1998). Der Anspruch des Anderen: Perspektiven phänomenologischer Ethik (Vol. 32). Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag.Google Scholar
  159. Wang, L., Malhotra, D., & Murnighan, J. K. (2011). Economics education and greed. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 10(4), 643–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wheeler, D., Horvath, D., & Victor, P. (2001). Graduate learning for business and sustainability. Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 27–29, 123–144.Google Scholar
  161. Wolin, R. (2015). Heideggers “Schwarze Hefte”. Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, 63(3), 379–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wruck, K. H., & Jensen, M. C. (1994). Science, specific knowledge, and total quality management. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 18(3), 247–287.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-4101(94)90023-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Yoko, M., & Zinaida, F. (2010). Competences for sustainable development and sustainability: Significance and challenges for ESD. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 11(4), 391–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Zahavi, D. (2017). Husserl’s legacy: Phenomenology, metaphysics, and transcendental philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  165. Zak, P. J. (2004). Neuroeconomics. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 359(1451), 1737–1748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RottenburgGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Political ScienceTübingenGermany

Personalised recommendations