Advertisement

The Emergence of Spiritual Leader and Leadership in Religion-Based Organizations

Abstract

In the present research, we qualitatively document the process by which spiritual leader and leadership emerge in religion-based organizations. Data from 26 participants in three religion-based organizations revealed three cardinal themes that depict (1) the development of spiritual leader (e.g., embodiment of a spiritual leaderspiritual lifestyle; inspiration) and spiritual leadership (e.g., follower-based leadership), (2) the process of developing a spiritual leader (e.g., interest/calling, personal experiences) and spiritual leadership (e.g., appointment; training), and (3) outcomes of spiritual leader and leadership development (i.e., personal, follower and organizational growth). Based on the results, we propose a model that depicts the phases involved in the development of spiritual leader/leadership in the religion-based workplace. These phases are proposed to impact the outcomes for the leader, followers, and the organization. The implications of our results are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Avolio, B. J., & Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 315–338.

  2. Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421–449.

  3. Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4(3), 359–373.

  4. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press.

  5. Bass, B. M. (2005). Transformational leadership Lawrence. Philadelphia: Erlbaum Associates.

  6. Benefiel, M. (2005). The second half of the journey: Spiritual leadership for organizational transformation. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 723–747.

  7. Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (1995). Leading with soul. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  8. Bouty, I. (2000). Interpersonal and interaction influences on informal resource exchanges between R&D researchers across organizational boundaries. Academy of Management Journal, 43(1), 50–65.

  9. Brass, D. J., & Krackhardt, D. (1999). The social capital of twenty-first century leaders. In J. G. Hunt, G. E. Dodge & L. Wong (Eds.), Out-of-the-box leadership: Transforming the twenty-first-century army and other top-performing organizations (pp. 179–194). Stamford: JAI Press.

  10. Bruce, W., & Novinson, J. (1999). Spirituality in public service: A dialogue. Public Administration Review, 59(2), 163–169.

  11. Chen, C., & Yang, C. (2012). The impact of spiritual leadership on organisational citizenship behavior: A multi-sample analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 105(1), 107–114.

  12. Chen, C. Y., Yang, C. Y., & Li, C. I. (2012). Spiritual leadership, follower mediators, and organizational outcomes: Evidence from three industries across two major chinese societies1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(4), 890–938.

  13. Cheng, E. W. L., & Hampson, I. (2008). Transfer of training: A review and new insights. International Journal of Management Reviews, 10(4), 327–341.

  14. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). The basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications.

  15. Crossman, J. (2010). Conceptualizing spiritual leadership in secular organizational contexts and its relations to transformational, servant and environmental leadership. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 31(7), 596.

  16. Crossman, J. E. (2015). Being on the outer: The risks and benefits of self-disclosure in the Australian workplace. Journal of Management and Organization, 21(6), 772–785.

  17. Day, D. V. (2000). Leadership development: A review in context. The Leadership Quarterly, 11(4), 581–613.

  18. Day, D. V., Fleenor, J., Atwater, L., Sturm, R., & McKee, R. (2014). Advances in leader and leadership development: A review of 25 years of research and theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 63–82.

  19. Delbecq, A. L. (1999). Christian spirituality and contemporary business leadership. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(4), 345–349.

  20. Dhiman, S., & Marques, J. (2011). The role and need of offering workshops and courses on workplace spirituality. Journal of Management Development, 30(9), 816–835.

  21. Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2009). Calling and vocation at work: Definitions and prospects for research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(3), 424–450.

  22. Drasgow, F., & Schmitt, N. (Eds.)., (2002). Measuring and analyzing behavior in organizations: Advances in measurement and data analysis (Vol. 10). Pfeiffer.

  23. Edmonstone, J., & Western, J. (2001). Leadership development in health care: what do we know? Journal of Management in Medicine, 16(1), 34–47.

  24. Elangovan, A. R., Pinder, C. C., & McLean, M. (2010). Callings and organizational behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(3), 428–440.

  25. Fairholm, G. (1996). Spiritual leadership: Fulfilling whole-self needs at work. Leadership and Organization Development Journal 17(5), 11–17.

  26. Fry, L., & Niciewitz, M. (2013). Maximizing the triple bottom line through spiritual leadership. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

  27. Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 693–728.

  28. Fry, L. W. (2005). Toward a theory of ethical and spiritual well-being, and corporate social responsibility through spiritual leadership. In R. A. Giacalone, C. Dunn & C. L. Jurkiewicz (Eds.), Positive psychology in business ethics and corporate Responsibility. Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.

  29. Fry, L. W., & Cohen, M. P. (2009). Spiritual leadership as a paradigm for organizational transformation and recovery from extended work hours cultures. Journal of business ethics, 84(2), 265–278.

  30. Fry, L. W., & Slocum, J. (2007). Maximizing the triple bottom line through spiritual leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 37(1), 86–96.

  31. Fry, L. W., Vitucci, S., & Cedillo, M. (2005). Spiritual leadership and army transformation: Theory, measurement, and establishing a baseline. The leadership quarterly, 16(5), 835–862.

  32. Gazica, M. W., & Spector, P. E. (2015). A comparison of individuals with unanswered callings to those with no calling at all. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 91, 1–10.

  33. Gergen, K. J., & Gergen, M. M. (1988). Narrative and the self as relationship. Advances in experimental social psychology, 21, 17–56.

  34. Giacalone, R. A., & Jurkiewicz, C. L. (2003). Toward a science of workplace spirituality. In R.A. Giacalone & C.L. Jurkiewicz (eds.), Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance (pp 3–28), Sharp, M.E, NY.

  35. Greenwood, R., & Suddaby, R. (2006). Institutional entrepreneurship in mature fields: The big five accounting firms. The Academy of Management Journal, 49(1), 27–48.

  36. Greer, C. R., & Virick, M. (2008). Diverse succession planning: Lessons from the industry leaders. Human Resource Management, 47(2), 351–367.

  37. Hall, D., & Chandler, D. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(2), 155–176.

  38. Jackson, K. T. (1999). Spirituality as a foundation for freedom and creative imagination in international business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 19(1), 61–70, 1999.

  39. Johns, G. (2006). The essential impact of context on organizational behavior. Academy of Management Review, 31(2), 386–408.

  40. Kan, M. M., & Parry, K. W. (2004). Identifying paradox: A grounded theory of leadership in overcoming resistance to change. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(4), 467–491.

  41. Kempster, S., & Parry, K. (2011). Grounded theory and leadership research: A critical realist perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(1), 106–120.

  42. Kolodinsky, R. W., Giacalone, R. A., & Jurkiewicz, C. L. (2008). Workplace values and outcomes: exploring personal, organizational, and interactive workplace spirituality. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2), 465–480.

  43. Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualization, measurement and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49(1), 1–49.

  44. Lean, E. R., & Ganster, D. C. (2017). Is there a common understanding of spiritual leader behaviors? Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 14(4), 295–317.

  45. Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (1999). The human resource architecture: Toward a theory of human capital allocation and development. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 31–48.

  46. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J. D. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1434–1452.

  47. Lombardo, M. M., & Eichinger, R. W. (2000). High potentials as high learners. Human Resource Management, 39(4), 321–329.

  48. Mann, R. D. (1959). A review of the relationships between personality and performance in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 241–270.

  49. McCall, M. W. (1998). High flyers: Developing the next generation of leaders. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

  50. Mitroff, I. I., & Denton, E. A. (1999). A spiritual audit of corporate America: A hard look at spirituality, religion, and values in the workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  51. Morrow, S. L. (2005). Quality and trustworthiness in qualitative research in counselling psychology. Journal of counseling psychology, 52(2), 250.

  52. Moxley, R. S., & O’Connor Wilson, P. (1998). A systems approach to leadership development. In C. D. McCauley, R. S. Moxley & E. V. Velsor (Eds.), The Center for creative leadership handbook of leadership development (pp. 217–241). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  53. Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administrative Policy Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 533–544.

  54. Pattakos, A. N. (2004). The search for meaning in government service. Public Administration Review, 64(1), 106–112.

  55. Patton, M. Q. (1980). Qualitative evaluation methods. Beverly Hills.

  56. Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. SAGE Publications, inc.

  57. Payne, S. (2007). Grounded theory. In E. Lyons & A. Coyle (Eds.), Analysing qualitative data in psychology. London: SAGE Publications.

  58. Pfeffer, J. (1972). Size and composition of corporate boards of directors: The organization and its environment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 218–228.

  59. Quatro, S. A., Waldman, D. A., & Galvin, B. M. (2007). Developing holistic leaders: Four domains for leadership development and practice. Human Resource Management Review, 17(4), 427–441.

  60. Rafferty, A. E., & Griffin, M. A. (2004). Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(3), 329–354.

  61. Reave, L. (2005). Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 655–687.

  62. Reed, L., Vidaver-Cohen, D., & Colwell, S. (2011). A new scale to measure executive servant leadership: Development, analysis and implications for research. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(3), 415–434.

  63. Robitschek, C. (1998). Personal growth initiative: The construct and its measure. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 30(4), 183–198.

  64. Shamir, B., & Eilam, G. (2005). What’s your life story? A life-stories approach to authentic leadership development. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 395–417.

  65. Stevic, C. R., & Ward, R. M. (2008). Initiating personal growth: The role of recognition and life satisfaction on the development of college students. Social Indicators Research, 89(3), 523–534.

  66. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research. California: Sage Publications.

  67. Sweeney, P. J., & Fry, L. W. (2012). Character development through spiritual leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 64(2), 89–107.

  68. Tepper, B. J. (2003). Organizational citizenship behavior and the spiritual employee. In R.A. Giacalone & C.L. Jurkiewicz (eds.), Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance (pp 3–28), Sharpe, M.E, NY.

  69. Weick, K. (1979). The social psychology of organizing. New York: Random House.

  70. Zhang, Y., & Rajagopalan, N. (2004). When the known devil is better than an unknown god: An empirical study of the antecedents and consequences of relay succession. Academy of Management Journal, 47(4), 483–500.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Oluremi B. Ayoko.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Low, J.J.Q., Ayoko, O.B. The Emergence of Spiritual Leader and Leadership in Religion-Based Organizations. J Bus Ethics 161, 513–530 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-018-3954-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Spiritual leader/leadership development
  • Religion-based organizations and qualitative