Advertisement

Female Executives and Perceived Employer Attractiveness: On the Potentially Adverse Signal of Having a Female CHRO Rather Than a Female CFO

  • Anja Iseke
  • Kerstin Pull
Original Paper

Abstract

We investigate whether female executives influence perceived employer attractiveness for female job seekers. Drawing on signaling theory, we argue that female members in top management may signal organizational justice and organizational support and may therefore enhance perceived employer attractiveness. Findings from a scenario experiment with 357 participants indicate that female job seekers are more attracted to an organization with a female executive holding a non-stereotypical office [such as Chief Financial Officer (CFO)] as compared to an organization with an all-male top management. Results of a structural equation model show that perceived organizational justice mediates the positive effect of a female holding a non-stereotypical office (CFO) on perceived employer attractiveness, but perceived organizational support does not. Our results challenge the widely held view that women in top management will generally help attract female job seekers; rather, they suggest that a single female executive holding a stereotypical female office (such as Chief Human Resources Officer) even reduces perceived employer attractiveness.

Keywords

Perceived employer attractiveness Female executives Perceived organizational justice Perceived organizational support Recruiting Signaling 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Human and Animal rights

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Ambrose, M. L., & Schminke, M. (2009). The role of overall justice judgments in organizational justice research: a test of mediation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), 491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambrose, M. L., Schminke, M., & Mayer, D. M. (2013). Trickle-down effects of supervisor perceptions of interactional justice: A moderated mediation approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(4), 678–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antonakis, J., Bendahan, S., Jacquart, P., & Lalive, R. (2010). On making causal claims: A review and recommendations. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 1086–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avery, D. R. (2003). Reactions to diversity in recruitment advertising—are differences black and white? Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avery, D. R., Volpone, S. D., Stewart, R. W., Luksyte, A., Hernandez, M., McKay, P. F., et al. (2013). Examining the draw of diversity: How diversity climate perceptions affect job-pursuit intentions. Human Resource Management, 52(2), 175–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Backes-Gellner, U., & Tuor, S. N. (2010). Avoiding labor shortages by employer signaling—On the importance of good work climate and labor relations. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 63(2), 271–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baum, M., & Kabst, R. (2014). The effectiveness of recruitment advertisements and recruitment websites: Indirect and interactive effects on applicant attraction. Human Resource Management, 53(3), 353–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baum, M., Sterzing, A., & Alaca, N. (2016). Reactions towards diversity recruitment and the moderating influence of the recruiting firms’ country-of-origin. Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 4140–4149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bear, S., Rahman, N., & Post, C. (2010). The impact of board diversity and gender composition on corporate social responsibility and firm reputation. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(2), 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beckman, C. M., Burton, M. D., & O’Reilly, C. (2007). Early teams: The impact of team demography on VC financing and going public. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(2), 147–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bernardi, R. A., Bosco, S. M., & Vassill, K. M. (2006). Does female representation on boards of directors associate with Fortune’s “100 best companies to work for” list? Business and Society, 45(2), 235–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bielby, W. T., & Baron, J. N. (1984). A woman’s place is with other women: Sex segregation within organizations. In B. F. Reskin (Ed.), Sex segregation in the workplace: Trends, explanations, remedies (pp. 27–55). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bilimoria, D. (2006). The relationship between women corporate directors and women corporate officers. Journal of Managerial Issues, 18(1), 47–61.Google Scholar
  14. Bilimoria, D., & Wheeler, J. V. (2000). Women corporate directors: Current research and future directions. In M. J. Davidson & R. J. Burke (Eds.), Women in management: Current research issues (Vol. 2, pp. 138–163). London: Paul Chapman Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. BITKOM (2012). Branche wirbt um weibliche Mitarbeiter - Unternehmen wollen Anteil weiblicher Fach- und Führungskräfte steigern. Retrieved Feburary 17, 2017 from http://www.verbaende.com/news.php/IT-Branche-wirbt-um-weibliche-Mitarbeiter-Unternehmen-wollen-Anteil-weiblicher-Fach-und-Fuehrungskraefte-steigern-Femle-Leadership-Summit-zum-Weltfrauentag-auf-der-CeBIT?m=82641.
  16. Blau, F. D., Simpson, P., & Anderson, D. (1998). Continuing progress? Trends in occupational segregation in the United States over the 1970s and 1980s. Feminist Economics, 4(3), 29–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blum, T. C., Fields, D. L., & Goodman, J. S. (1994). Organization-level determinants of women in management. Academy of Management Journal, 37(2), 241–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boehm, S. A., Kunze, F., & Bruch, H. (2014). Spotlight on age-diversity climate: The impact of age-inclusive HR practices on firm-level outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 67(3), 667–704.Google Scholar
  19. Boulouta, I. (2013). Hidden connections: The link between board gender diversity and corporate social performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(2), 185–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boyatzis, R. E. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  21. Bretz, R. D., & Judge, T. A. (1994). The role of human resource systems in job applicant decision processes. Journal of Management, 20(3), 531–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Broadbridge, A., & Simpson, R. (2011). 25 years on: reflecting on the past and looking to the future in gender and management research. British Journal of Management, 22(3), 470–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (1996). Person–organization fit, job choice decisions, and organizational entry. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67(3), 294–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cable, D. M., & Turban, D. B. (2003). The value of organizational reputation in the recruitment context: A brand-equity perspective. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(11), 2244–2266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carless, S. A. (2005). Person-job fit versus person-organization fit as predictors of organizational attraction and job acceptance intentions: A longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 78(3), 411–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carless, S. A., & Wintle, J. (2007). Applicant attraction: The role of recruiter function, work–life balance policies and career salience. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 15(4), 394–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Casper, W. J., & Buffardi, L. C. (2004). Work-life benefits and job pursuit intentions: The role of anticipated organizational support. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(3), 391–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Casper, W. J., Wayne, J. H., & Manegold, J. G. (2013). Who will we recruit? Targeting deep- and surface-level diversity with human resource policy advertising. Human Resource Management, 52(3), 311–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chapman, D. S., Uggerslev, K. L., Carroll, S. A., Piasentin, K. A., & Jones, D. A. (2005). Applicant attraction to organizations and job choice: A meta-analytic review of the correlates of recruiting outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 928–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clawson, T. (2016). The other skills shortage: Report warns that next level managers can be hard to find. Forbes. Retrieved Jun 09, 2016 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/trevorclawson/2016/01/26/the-other-skills-shortage-report-warns-that-next-level-managers-can-be-hard-to-find/#5f9bf235a404. Accessed 9 June 2016.
  32. CNNMoney (2016). How many women are in the c-suite?. Retrieved Jun 09, 2016 from http://money.cnn.com/infographic/investing/female-ceo-leadership/?iid=EL. Accessed 9 June 2016.
  33. Cohen, L. E., Broschak, J. P., & Haveman, H. A. (1998). And then there were more? The effect of organizational sex composition on the hiring and promotion of managers. American Sociological Review, 63(5), 711–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Colquitt, J. A., & Shaw, J. C. (2005). How should organizational justice be measured. In J. Greenberg & J. A. Colquitt (Eds.), Handbook of organizational justice (pp. 113–152). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  36. Connelly, B. L., Certo, S. T., Ireland, R. D., & Reutzel, C. R. (2011). Signaling theory: A review and assessment. Journal of Management, 37(1), 39–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cropanzano, R., Byrne, Z. S., Bobocel, D. R., & Rupp, D. E. (2001). Moral virtues, fairness heuristics, social entities, and other denizens of organizational justice. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58(2), 164–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cropanzano, R., Slaughter, J. E., & Bachiochi, P. D. (2005). Organizational justice and Black applicants’ reactions to affirmative action. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1168–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cross, C., & Linehan, M. (2006). Barriers to advancing female careers in the high-tech sector: Empirical evidence from Ireland. Women in Management Review, 21(1), 28–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Daily, C. M., & Dalton, D. R. (2003). Women in the boardroom: A business imperative. Journal of Business Strategy, 24(5), 8–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Davidson, M. J., & Cooper, C. L. (1986). Executive women under pressure. Applied Psychology, 35(3), 301–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Davison, H. K., & Burke, M. J. (2000). Sex discrimination in simulated employment contexts: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56(2), 225–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. DeCuir-Gunby, J. T., Marshall, P. L., & McCulloch, A. W. (2011). Developing and using a codebook for the analysis of interview data: An example from a professional development research project. Field Methods, 23(2), 136–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dreher, G. F. (2003). Breaking the glass ceiling: The effects of sex ratios and work-life programs on female leadership at the top. Human Relations, 56(5), 541–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (1991). Gender and the emergence of leaders: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(5), 685–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Eisenbeiss, S. A., Knippenberg, D., & Fahrbach, C. M. (2015). Doing well by doing good? Analyzing the relationship between ceo ethical leadership and firm performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 3(128), 635–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Erkut, S., Kramer, V. W., & Konrad, A. M. (2008). Critical mass: Does the number of women on a corporate board make a difference? In S. Vinnicombe, V. Singh, R. J. Burke, D. Bilimoria, & M. Huse (Eds.), Women on corporate boards of directors: International research and practice (pp. 350–366). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  49. Fondas, N. (1997). Feminization unveiled: Management qualities in contemporary writings. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 257–282.Google Scholar
  50. Goldman, B. M. (2003). The application of referent cognitions theory to legal-claiming by terminated workers: The role of organizational justice and anger. Journal of Management, 29(5), 705–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gomes, D., & Neves, J. (2011). Organizational attractiveness and prospective applicants’ intentions to apply. Personnel Review, 40(6), 684–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gooch, L., & Ledwith, S. (1996). Women in personnel management—re-visioning of a handmaiden’s role? In S. Ledwith & F. Colgan (Eds.), Women in organizations: Challenging gender politics (pp. 99–124). Houndsmill: MacMillan Business.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Günnel, T. (2012). Management: Frauen im Fokus. Retrieved Feburary 17, 2017 from http://www.automobil-industrie.vogel.de/management-frauen-im-fokus-a-382437/.
  54. Hayes, A. F., & Preacher, K. J. (2014). Statistical mediation analysis with a multicategorical independent variable. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 67(3), 451–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hefferman, M. (2002). The Female CEO ca. 2002. Retrieved June 09, 2016 from http://www.fastcompany.com/45219/female-ceo-ca-2002.
  56. Higgins, M. C., & Gulati, R. (2006). Stacking the deck: The effects of top management backgrounds on investor decisions. Strategic Management Journal, 27(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Highhouse, S., Lievens, F., & Sinar, E. F. (2003). Measuring attraction to organizations. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(6), 986–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Highhouse, S., Zickar, M. J., Thorsteinson, T. J., Stierwalt, S. L., & Slaughter, J. E. (1999). Assessing company employment image: An example in the fast food industry. Personnel Psychology, 52(1), 151–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Holst, E., & Kirsch, A. (2016a). Corporate boards of large companies: More momentum needed for gender parity. DIW Economic Bulletin, 6(3), 13–25.Google Scholar
  60. Holst, E., & Kirsch, A. (2016b). Finanzsektor: Frauenanteile in Spitzengremien nehmen etwas zu-Männer geben den Ton an. DIW-Wochenbericht, 83(2), 46–57.Google Scholar
  61. Huber-Straßer, A., Hüttemann, S., & Tietze, M.-C. (2015). Frauenquote in Aufsichtsrat und Vorstand. Retrieved June 09, 2016 from http://www.kpmg.com/DE/de/Documents/diskussionspapier-frauenquote-kpmg-2014.pdf.
  62. Joecks, J., Pull, K., & Vetter, K. (2013). Gender diversity in the boardroom and firm performance: What exactly constitutes a “critical mass?”. Journal of Business Ethics, 118(1), 61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Johnson, R. A., & Greening, D. W. (1999). The effects of corporate governance and institutional ownership types on corporate social performance. Academy of Management Journal, 42(5), 564–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Johnson, S. G., Schnatterly, K., & Hill, A. D. (2013). Board composition beyond independence social capital, human capital, and demographics. Journal of Management, 39(1), 232–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jones, D. A., Willness, C. R., & Madey, S. (2014). Why are job seekers attracted by corporate social performance? Experimental and field tests of three signal-based mechanisms. Academy of Management Journal, 57(2), 383–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kalev, A., Dobbin, F., & Kelly, E. (2006). Best practices or best guesses? Assessing the efficacy of corporate affirmative action and diversity policies. American Sociological Review, 71(4), 589–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kalysh, K., Kulik, C. T., & Perera, S. (2016). Help or hindrance? Work-life practices and women in management. Special Issue: Gender and Leadership, 27(3), 504–518.Google Scholar
  68. Kang, E., Ding, D. K., & Charoenwong, C. (2010). Investor reaction to women directors. Journal of Business Research, 63(8), 888–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kanter, R. M. (1977). Some effects of proportions on group life: Skewed sex ratios and responses to token women. American Journal of Sociology, 82(5), 965–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kaplan, D. (2008). Structural equation modeling: Foundations and extensions. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  71. Kark, R., & Waismel-Manor, R. (2005). Organizational citizenship behavior: What’s gender got to do with it? Organization, 12(6), 889–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kay, R. (2007). Auf dem Weg in die Chefetage: Betriebliche Entscheidungsprozesse bei der Besetzung von Führungspositionen. Bonn: IfM-Materialien, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung.Google Scholar
  73. Kim, S. S., & Gelfand, M. J. (2003). The influence of ethnic identity on perceptions of organizational recruitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), 396–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Konrad, A. M., & Linnehan, F. (1995). Formalized HRM structures: coordinating equal employment opportunity or concealing organizational practices? Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 787–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lee, P. M., & James, E. H. (2007). She’-e-os: gender effects and investor reactions to the announcements of top executive appointments. Strategic Management Journal, 28(3), 227–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Leventhal, G. S. (1980). What should be done with equity theory? New approaches to the study of fairness in social relationships. In K. Gergen, M. Greenberg, & R. Willis (Eds.), Social exchange: Advances in theory and research (pp. 27–55). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lewis, S., & Humbert, L. (2010). Discourse or reality?: “Work-life balance”, flexible working policies and the gendered organization. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 29(3), 239–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Li, J., & Hambrick, D. C. (2005). Factional groups: A new vantage on demographic faultlines, conflict, and disintegration in work teams. Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 794–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lind, E. A. (2001). Fairness heuristic theory: Justice judgments as pivotal cognitions in organizational relations. In J. Greenberg & R. Cropanzano (Eds.), Advances in organizational justice (pp. 56–88). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Lind, E. A., Kulik, C. T., Ambrose, M., & de Vera Park, M. (1993). Individual and corporate dispute resolution: Using procedural fairness as a decision heuristic. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38(2), 224–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lind, E. A., & Tyler, T. R. (1992). A relational model of authority in groups. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 115–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lyness, K. S., & Thompson, D. E. (2000). Climbing the corporate ladder: do female and male executives follow the same route? Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(1), 224–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marsh, H. W., Wen, Z., & Hau, K.-T. (2006). Structural equation models of latent interaction and quadratic effects. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: A second course (pp. 225–265). Greenwich, Conn: IAP.Google Scholar
  84. Masterson, S. S. (2001). A trickle-down model of organizational justice: relating employees’ and customers’ perceptions of and reactions to fairness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(4), 594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McNab, S. M., & Johnston, L. (2002). The impact of equal employment opportunity statements in job advertisements on applicants’ perceptions of organisations. Australian Journal of Psychology, 54(2), 105–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Monks, K. (1993). Careers in personnel management. Personnel Review, 22(1), 55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mor Barak, M. E., Cherin, D. A., & Berkman, S. (1998). Organizational and personal dimensions in diversity climate ethnic and gender differences in employee perceptions. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 34(1), 82–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nielsen, S., & Huse, M. (2010). The contribution of women on boards of directors: Going beyond the surface. Corporate Governance an International Review, 18(2), 136–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Oakley, J. G. (2000). Gender-based barriers to senior management positions: Understanding the scarcity of female CEOs. Journal of Business Ethics, 27(4), 321–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Perkins, L. A., Thomas, K. M., & Taylor, G. A. (2000). Advertising and recruitment: Marketing to minorities. Psychology and Marketing, 17(3), 235–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Petersen, T., & Togstad, T. (2006). Getting the offer: Sex discrimination in hiring. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 24(3), 239–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ployhart, R. E. (2006). Staffing in the 21st century: New challenges and strategic opportunities. Journal of Management, 32(6), 868–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Prooijen, A., & Ellemers, N. (2015). Does it pay to be moral? How indicators of morality and competence enhance organizational and work team attractiveness. British Journal of Management, 26(2), 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ramirez, J. C. (2012). The feminization of HR. Retrieved June 22, 2016 from http://www.hreonline.com/HRE/view/story.jhtml?id=533345673. Accessed 22 June 2016.
  97. Rau, B. L., & Hyland, M. M. (2002). Role conflict and flexible work arrangements: The effects on applicant attraction. Personnel Psychology, 55(1), 111–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Reichel, A., Brandl, J., & Mayrhofer, W. (2010). The strongest link: Legitimacy of top management diversity, sex stereotypes and the rise of women in human resource management 1995–2004. Management Revue, 21(3), 332–352.Google Scholar
  99. Rettig, D. (2011). Arbeitgeber-Ranking: Männer scheuen Konsumgüter, Frauen mögen keine Banken. Wirtschaftswoche. Retrieved Feburary 17, 2017 from http://www.wiwo.de/erfolg/trends/arbeitgeber-ranking-maenner-scheuen-konsumgueter-frauen-moegen-keine-banken/4641378.html. Accessed 17 February 2017.
  100. Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 565–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Roberson, Q. M., Collins, C. J., & Oreg, S. (2005). The effects of recruitment message specificity on applicant attraction to organizations. Journal of Business and Psychology, 19(3), 319–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Roberson, Q. M., & Stevens, C. K. (2006). Making sense of diversity in the workplace: organizational justice and language abstraction in employees’ accounts of diversity-related incidents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 379–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Russell, D. W., Kahn, J. H., Spoth, R., & Altmaier, E. M. (1998). Analyzing data from experimental studies: A latent variable structural equation modeling approach. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(1), 18–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rynes, S. L., Bretz, R. D., & Gerhart, B. (1991). The importance of recruitment in job choice: A different way of looking. Personnel Psychology, 44(3), 487–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rynes, S. L., & Miller, H. E. (1983). Recruiter and job influences on candidates for employment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(1), 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Saks, A. M., Leck, J. D., & Saunders, D. M. (1995). Effects of application blanks and employment equity on applicant reactions and job pursuit intentions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16(5), 415–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Schmitt, N. (2015). Towards a gender quota. DIW Economic Bulletin, 5(40), 527–536.Google Scholar
  108. Shapiro, D. L., & Kirkman, B. L. (2001). Anticipatory injustice: The consequences of expecting injustice in the workplace. Advances in Organizational Justice, 32(5), 152–178.Google Scholar
  109. Shaver, J. M. (2005). Testing for mediating variables in management research: Concerns, implications, and alternative strategies. Journal of Management, 31(3), 330–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Shin, Y., Sung, S. Y., Choi, J. N., & Kim, M. S. (2015). Top management ethical leadership and firm performance: Mediating role of ethical and procedural justice climate. Journal of Business Ethics, 129(1), 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: new procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sieben, B., Braun, T., & Ferreira, A. I. (2016). Reproduction of ‘typical’ gender roles in temporary organizations—no surprise for whom? The case of cooperative behaviors and their acknowledgement. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 32(1), 52–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Simons, T., Friedman, R., Liu, L. A., & McLean Parks, J. (2007). Racial differences in sensitivity to behavioral integrity: Attitudinal consequences, in-group effects, and ‘trickle down’ among Black and non-Black employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), 650–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Skarlicki, D. P., & Folger, R. (1997). Retaliation in the workplace: The roles of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(3), 434–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Spence, M. (1973). Job market signaling. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87(3), 355–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Steinmetz, H. (2015). Analyzing observed composite differences across groups. Methodology, 9, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Swiss, D. J. (1996). Women breaking through: Overcoming the final 10 obstacles at work. Princeton, NJ: Peterson’s/Pacesetter Books.Google Scholar
  118. Terjesen, S., Sealy, R., & Singh, V. (2009). Women directors on corporate boards: A review and research agenda. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 17(3), 320–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Trendence (2016). Top-Arbeitgeber business. Retrieved Feburary 17, 2017 from https://www.deutschlands100.de/top-arbeitgeber/top-arbeitgeber-ranking/ranking-business.html.
  120. Tumasjan, A., Strobel, M., & Welpe, I. (2011). Ethical leadership evaluations after moral transgression: Social distance makes the difference. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(4), 609–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Turban, D. B. (2001). Organizational attractiveness as an employer on college campuses: An examination of the applicant population. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58(2), 293–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Turban, D. B., & Keon, T. L. (1993). Organizational attractiveness: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(2), 184–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tyler, T. R., Smith, H. J., Tyler, T. R., Kramer, R. M., & John, O. P. (2014). Justice, social identity, and group processes. In T. R. Tyler, R. M. Kramer, & O. P. John (Eds.), The psychology of the social self (pp. 223–264). Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  124. Universum (2016). Germany’s Most Attractive Employers—Business Student 2016. Retrieved Feburary 17, 2017 from http://universumglobal.com/rankings/germany/student/2016/business/.
  125. Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(1), 4–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wagner, T., Hennig-Thurau, T., & Rudolph, T. (2009). Does customer demotion jeopardize loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73(3), 69–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Williams, R. J. (2003). Women on corporate boards of directors and their influence on corporate philanthropy. Journal of Business Ethics, 42(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Williams, M. L., & Bauer, T. N. (1994). The effect of a managing diversity policy on organizational attractiveness. Group and Organization Management, 19(3), 295–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Williamson, I. O., Lepak, D. P., & King, J. (2003). The effect of company recruitment web site orientation on individuals’ perceptions of organizational attractiveness. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(2), 242–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wo, D. X. H., Ambrose, M. L., & Schminke, M. (2015). What drives trickle-down effects? A test of multiple mediated processes. Academy of Management Journal, 58(6), 1848–1868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human Resource ManagementHochschule Ostwestfalen-LippeLemgoGermany
  2. 2.Human Resource Management and OrganizationEberhard Karls Universität TübingenTübingenGermany

Personalised recommendations