The Effect of Top Management Trustworthiness on Turnover Intentions via Negative Emotions: The Moderating Role of Gender

  • Sophie MöldersEmail author
  • Prisca Brosi
  • Matthias Spörrle
  • Isabell M. Welpe
Original Paper


Based on a field study (N = 303), this paper explores the differential role that perceived top management trustworthiness has on female and male employees’ negative emotions and turnover intentions in organizations. A theoretical model is established that explicates a negative indirect effect of perceived top management trustworthiness on employee turnover intentions through employee negative emotions. The results reveal that there is a negative relationship between perceived top management trustworthiness and employee negative emotions and resulting turnover intentions and that this effect is stronger for female employees than for male employees. These results demonstrate the pivotal role played by top management trustworthiness, provide an explanation for the turnover gender gap, and highlight the subjectivity in reactions to trustworthiness perceptions. The implications for organizations are discussed in line with the need for top management to positively influence employees and particularly women, to retain them in their workforce.


Gender Negative emotions Top management Trustworthiness Turnover intentions 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. Allen, D. G., Bryant, P. C., & Vardaman, J. M. (2000). Retaining talent: Replacing misconceptions with evidence-based strategies. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(1), 48–64. doi: 10.5465/amp.2010.51827775.Google Scholar
  2. Bantel, K. A., & Jackson, S. E. (1989). Top management and innovations in banking: Does the composition of the top team make a difference? Strategic Management Journal, 10(1), 107–124. doi: 10.1002/smj.4250100709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barsade, S. G., & Gibson, D. E. (2007). Why does affect matter in organizations? Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(1), 36–59. doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basch, J., & Fisher, C. D. (1998). Affective events—emotions matrix: A classification of work events and associated emotions. In Paper presented at the First Conference on Emotions in Organizational Life, San Diego.Google Scholar
  5. Becerra, M., Lunnan, R., & Huemer, L. (2008). Trustworthiness, risk, and the transfer of tacit and explicit knowledge between alliance partners. Journal of Management Studies, 45(4), 691–713. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2008.00766.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berson, Y., Oreg, S., & Dvir, T. (2008). CEO values, organizational culture and firm outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(5), 615–633. doi: 10.1002/job.499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blickle, G., Witzki, A., & Schneider, P. B. (2009). Self-initiated mentoring and career success: A predictive field study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(1), 94–101. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2008.10.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brief, A. P., & Weiss, H. W. (2002). Organizational behavior: Affect in the workplace. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 279–307. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buchan, N. R., Croson, R. T., & Solnick, S. (2008). Trust and gender: An examination of behavior and beliefs in the investment game. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68(3–4), 466–476. doi: 10.1016/j.jebo.2007.10.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burns, A. B., Brown, J. S., Sachs-Ericsson, N., Plant, E. A., Curtis, J. T., Fredrickson, B. L., et al. (2008). Upward spirals of positive emotion and coping: Replication, extension, and initial exploration of neurochemical substrates. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(2), 360–370. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.08.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burt, R. S. (2005). Brokerage and closure: An introduction to social capital. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Burt, R. S., & Knez, M. (1995). Kinds of third-party effects on trust. Rationality and Society, 7(3), 255–292. doi: 10.1177/1043463195007003003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Byrne, Z., Pitts, V., Chiaburu, D., & Steiner, Z. (2011). Managerial trustworthiness and social exchange with the organization. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26(2), 108–122. doi: 10.1108/02683941111102155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Caldwell, C., & Clapham, S. E. (2003). Organizational trustworthiness: An international perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 47(4), 349–364. doi: 10.1023/A:1027370104302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Caldwell, C., Floyd, L., Taylor, J., & Woodard, B. (2014). Beneficence as a source of competitive advantage. Journal of Management Development, 33(10), 1057–1079. doi: 10.1108/JMD-01-2013-0007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Caldwell, C., & Hansen, M. H. (2010). Trustworthiness, governance, and wealth creation. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(2), 173–188. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0503-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caldwell, C., & Hayes, L. A. (2007). Leadership, trustworthiness, and the mediating lens. Journal of Management Development, 26(3), 261–281. doi: 10.1108/02621710710732155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Caldwell, C., Hayes, L. A., & Long, D. T. (2010). Leadership, trustworthiness, and ethical stewardship. Journal of Business Ethics, 96(4), 497–512. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0489-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chatman, J. A. (1991). Matching people and organizations: Selection and socialization in public accounting firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(1), 487–516. doi: 10.5465/AMBPP.1989.4980837.Google Scholar
  20. Chemers, M. M. (1997). An integrative theory of leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence, Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  21. Chen, C. C., Saparito, P., & Belkin, L. (2011). Responding to trust breaches: The domain specificity of trust and the role of affect. Journal of Trust Research, 1(1), 85–106. doi: 10.1080/21515581.2011.552438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chentsova-Dutton, Y. E., & Tsai, J. L. (2007). Gender differences in emotional response among European Americans and Hmong Americans. Cognition and Emotion, 21(1), 162–181. doi: 10.1080/02699930600911333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cho, Y. J., & Perry, J. L. (2012). Intrinsic motivation and employee attitudes: Role of managerial trustworthiness, goal directedness, and extrinsic reward expectancy. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 32(4), 382–406. doi: 10.1177/0734371X11421495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Colquitt, J. A., & Rodell, J. B. (2011). Justice, trust, and trustworthiness: A longitudinal analysis integrating three theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Journal, 54(6), 1183–1206. doi: 10.5465/amj.2007.0572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Colquitt, J. A., & Salam, S. C. (2009). Foster trust through ability, benevolence, and integrity. In E. A. Locke (Ed.), Handbook of principles of organizational behavior (2nd ed., pp. 389–403). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: A meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 909–927. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.4.909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dasborough, M. T. (2006). Cognitive asymmetry in employee emotional reactions to leadership behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(2), 163–178. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.12.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dirks, K. T., & Ferrin, D. L. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 611–628. doi: 10.1037//0021-9010.87.4.611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dirks, K. T., Lewicki, R. J., & Zaheer, A. (2009). Repairing relationships within and between organizations: Building a conceptual foundation. Academy of Management Review, 34(1), 68–84. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2009.3571328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dougherty, T. W., Dreher, G. F., Arunchalam, V., & Wilbanks, J. E. (2013). Mentor status, occupational context, and protégé career outcomes: Differential returns for males and females. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 514–527. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2013.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dunn, J. R., & Schweitzer, M. E. (2005). Feeling and believing: The influence of emotion on trust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(5), 736–748. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.88.5.736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109(3), 573–598. doi: 10.1037//0033-295X.109.3.573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elfenbein, H. A. (2007). Emotion in organizations. The Academy of Management Annals, 1(1), 315–386. doi: 10.1080/078559812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Elvira, M. M., & Cohen, L. E. (2001). Location matters: A cross-level analysis of the effects of organizational sex composition on turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44(3), 591–605. doi: 10.2307/3069373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ely, R. J., Ibarra, H., & Kolb, D. M. (2011). Taking gender into account: Theory and design for women’s leadership development programs. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10(3), 474–493. doi: 10.5465/amle.2010.0046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Evers, C., Fischer, A. H., & Manstead, A. S. (2011). Gender and emotion regulation: A social appraisal perspective on anger. In I. Nyklíček, A. Vingerhoets, & M. Zeelenberg (Eds.), Emotion regulation and well-being (pp. 211–222). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fischer, A. H., Rodriguez Mosquera, P. M., van Vianen, A. E., & Manstead, A. S. (2004). Gender and culture differences in emotion. Emotion, 4(1), 87–94. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.4.1.87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  39. Frijda, N. H. (1988). The laws of emotion. American Psychologist, 43(5), 349–358. doi: 10.1037//0003-066X.43.5.349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fujita, F., Diener, E., & Sandvik, E. (1991). Gender differences in negative affect and well-being: The case for emotional intensity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(3), 427–434. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.61.3.427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grant, A. M., & Sumanth, J. J. (2009). Mission possible? The performance of prosocially motivated employees depends on manager trustworthiness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 927–944. doi: 10.1037/a0014391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26(3), 436–488. doi: 10.1016/S0149-2063(00)00043-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gullett, J., Do, L., Canuto-Carranco, M., Brister, M., Turner, S., & Caldwell, C. (2009). The buyer-supplier relationship: An integrative model of ethics and trust. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(3), 329–341. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0430-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hambrick, D. C. (2007). Upper echelons theory: An update. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 334–343. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2007.2434525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hambrick, D. C., & Mason, P. A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193–206. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1984.4277628.Google Scholar
  46. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  47. Heilman, M. E. (2012). Gender stereotypes and workplace bias. Research in Organizational Behavior, 32, 113–135. doi: 10.1016/j.riob.2012.11.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Holtz, B. C. (2015). From first impression to fairness perception: Investigating the impact of initial trustworthiness beliefs. Personnel Psychology, 68(4), 499–546. doi: 10.1111/peps.12092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hom, P. W., Lee, T. W., Shaw, J. D., & Hausknecht, J. P. (2017). One hundred years of employee turnover theory and research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 530–545. doi: 10.1037/apl0000103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hom, P. W., Roberson, L., & Ellis, A. D. (2008). Challenging conventional wisdom about who quits: Revelations from Corporate America. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 1–34. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hosmer, L. T. (1995). Trust: The connecting link between organizational theory and philosophical ethics. Academy of Management Review, 20(2), 379–403. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1995.950731292.Google Scholar
  52. Hurst, D. K., Rush, J. C., & White, R. E. (1989). Top management teams and organizational renewal. Strategic Management Journal, 10(S1), 87–105. doi: 10.1002/smj.4250100708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jeanquart-Barone, S. (1993). Trust differences between supervisors and subordinates: Examining the role of race and gender. Sex Roles, 29(1/2), 1–11. doi: 10.1007/BF00289993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jones, G. R., & George, J. M. (1998). The experience and evolution of trust: Implications for cooperation and teamwork. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 531–546. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1998.926625.Google Scholar
  55. Jones, K. A., & Judge, W. Q. (2002). CEO trustworthiness: A source of competitive advantage. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 1, 57–78.Google Scholar
  56. Kam, C., Morin, A. J., Meyer, J. P., & Topolnytsky, L. (2013). Are commitment profiles stable and predictable? A latent transition analysis. Journal of Management. doi: 10.1177/0149206313503010.Google Scholar
  57. Kennedy, J. A., & Kray, L. J. (2013). Who is willing to sacrifice ethical values for money and social status? Gender differences in reactions to ethical compromises. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5, 52–59. doi: 10.1177/1948550613482987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kickul, J. (2001). When organizations break their promises: Employee reactions to unfair processes and treatment. Journal of Business Ethics, 29(4), 289–307. doi: 10.1023/A:1010734616208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kiefer, T. (2005). Feeling bad: Antecedents and consequences of negative emotions in ongoing change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(8), 875–897. doi: 10.1002/job.339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kim, P. H., Dirks, K. T., Cooper, C. D., & Ferrin, D. L. (2006). When more blame is better than less: The implications of internal vs. external attributions for the repair of trust after a competence- vs. integrity-based trust violation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 99(1), 49–65. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2005.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Knoll, D. L., & Gill, H. (2011). Antecedents of trust in supervisors, subordinates, and peers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26(4), 313–330. doi: 10.1108/02683941111124845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. LaFrance, M., & Banaji, M. (1992). Toward a reconsideration of the gender-emotions relationship. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Emotion and social behavior (pp. 178–201). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  63. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Progress on a cognitive—motivational—relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist, 46(8), 819–834. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.46.8.819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lazarus, R. S., & Smith, C. A. (1988). Knowledge and appraisal in the cognition—emotion relationship. Cognition and Emotion, 2(4), 281–300. doi: 10.1080/02699938808412701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Legood, A., Thomas, G., & Sacramento, C. (2016). Leader trustworthy behavior and organizational trust: The role of the immediate manager for cultivating trust. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 46(12), 673–686. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lewis, G. B. (1992). Men and women toward the top: Backgrounds, careers, and potential of federal middle managers. Public Personnel Management, 21(4), 473–492. doi: 10.1177/009102609202100405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lindebaum, D., & Gabriel, Y. (2016). Anger and organization studies: From social disorder to moral order. Organization Studies, 37(7), 903–918. doi: 10.1177/0170840616640848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lyness, K. S., & Judiesch, M. K. (2001). Are female managers quitters? The relationships of gender, promotions, and family leaves of absence to voluntary turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1167–1178. doi: 10.1037//0021-9010.86.6.1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Maertz, C. P., & Campion, M. A. (2004). Profiles in quitting: Integrating process and content turnover theory. Academy of Management Journal, 47(4), 566–582. doi: 10.2307/20159602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mahajan, A., Bishop, J. W., & Scott, D. (2012). Does trust in top management mediate top management communication, employee involvement and organizational commitment relationships? Journal of Managerial Issues, 24(2), 173–190.Google Scholar
  71. Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (1999). The effect of the performance appraisal system on trust for management: A field quasi-experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(1), 123–136. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.84.1.123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709–734. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1995.9508080.Google Scholar
  73. Mayer, R. C., & Gavin, M. B. (2005). Trust in management and performance: Who minds the shop while the employees watch the boss? Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 874–888. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2005.18803928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McAllister, D. J. (1995). Affect- and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 24–59. doi: 10.2307/256727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., Lee, T. W., Sablynski, C. J., & Erez, M. (2001). Why people stay: Using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44(6), 1102–1121. doi: 10.2307/3069391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nadkarni, S., & Herrmann, P. (2010). CEO personality, strategic flexibility, and firm performance: The case of the Indian business process outsourcing industry. Academy of Management Journal, 53(5), 1050–1073. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2010.54533196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Newman, A., Kiazad, K., Miao, Q., & Cooper, B. (2014). Examining the cognitive and affective trust-based mechanisms underlying the relationship between ethical leadership and organisational citizenship: A case of the head leading the heart? Journal of Business Ethics, 123(1), 113–123. doi: 10.1007/s10551-013-1803-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nishii, L. H., & Mayer, D. M. (2009). Do inclusive leaders help to reduce turnover in diverse groups? The moderating role of leader-member exchange in the diversity to turnover relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6), 1412–1426. doi: 10.1037/a0017190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. O’Neill, J. W., Harrison, M. M., Cleveland, J., Almeida, D., Stawski, R., & Crouter, A. C. (2009). Work-family climate, organizational commitment, and turnover: Multilevel contagion effects of leaders. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(1), 18–29. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2008.10.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Plant, E. A., Hyde, J. H., Keltner, D., & Devine, P. G. (2000). The gender stereotyping of emotions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24(1), 81–92. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2000.tb01024.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Podsakoff, N. P., LePine, J. A., & LePine, M. A. (2007). Differential challenge stressor–hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 438–454. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.2.438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544. doi: 10.1177/014920638601200408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Powell, G. N., & Butterfield, D. A. (2015). The glass ceiling: What have we learned 20 years on? Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 2(4), 306–326. doi: 10.1108/JOEPP-09-2015-0032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Riedl, R., Hubert, M., & Kenning, P. (2010). Are there neural gender differences in online trust? An fMRI study on the perceived trustworthiness of eBay offers. MIS Quarterly, 34(2), 397–428.Google Scholar
  85. Schoorman, F. D., Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (2007). An integrative model of organizational trust: Past, present, and future. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 344–354. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2007.2434841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shaw, J. D., Park, T.-Y., & Kim, E. (2013). A resource-based perspective on human capital losses, HRM investments, and organizational performance. Strategic Management Journal, 34(5), 572–589. doi: 10.1002/smj.2025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Siemsen, E., Roth, A., & Oliveira, P. (2010). Common method bias in regression models with linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Organizational Research Methods, 13(3), 456–476. doi: 10.1177/1094428109351241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Simons, T. (2002). Behavioral integrity: The perceived alignment between managers’ words and deeds as a research focus. Organization Science, 13(1), 18–35. doi: 10.1287/orsc. Scholar
  89. Smith-Crowe, K., & Warren, D. E. (2014). The emotion-evoked collective corruption model: The role of emotion in the spread of corruption within organizations. Organization Science, 25(4), 1154–1171. doi: 10.1287/orsc.2014.0896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sosik, J. J., Gentry, W. A., & Chun, J. U. (2012). The value of the virtue in the upper echelons: A multisource examination of executive character strengths and performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(3), 367–382. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.08.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2002). An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior. Some parallels between counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Human Resource Management Review, 12(2), 269–292. doi: 10.1016/S1053-4822(02)00049-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stamarski, C. S., & Hing, L. S. S. (2015). Gender inequalities in the workplace: The effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1–20. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stroh, L. K., Brett, J. M., & Reilly, A. H. (1996). Family structure, glass ceiling, and traditional explanations for the differential rate of turnover of female and male managers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49(1), 99–118. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.1996.0036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sturman, M. C. (2003). Searching for the inverted U-shaped relationship between time and performance: Meta-analyses of the experience/performance, tenure/performance, and age/performance relationships. Journal of Management, 29(5), 609–640. doi: 10.1016/S0149-2063(03)00028-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46(2), 259–293. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1993.tb00874.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Thoresen, C. J., Kaplan, S. A., Barsky, A. P., Warren, C. R., & Chermont, K. (2003). The affective underpinnings of job perceptions and attitudes: A meta-analytic review and integration. Psychological Bulletin, 129(6), 914–945. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.129.6.914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tomlinson, E. C., & Mayer, R. C. (2009). The role of causal attribution dimensions in trust repair. Academy of Management Review, 34(1), 85–104. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2009.35713291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Treviño, L. K., Brown, M. E., & Hartman, L. P. (2003). A qualitative investigation of perceived ethical leadership: Perceptions from inside and outside the executive suite. Human Relations, 56(1), 5–37. doi: 10.1177/0018726703056001448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Walter, F., & Bruch, H. (2009). An affective events model of charismatic leadership behavior: A review, theoretical integration, and research agenda. Journal of Management, 35(6), 1428–1452. doi: 10.1177/0149206309342468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang, G., Holmes, R. M., Oh, I. S., & Zhu, W. (2016). Do CEOs matter to firm strategic actions and firm performance? A meta-analytic investigation based on upper echelons theory. Personnel Psychology, 69(4), 775–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1994). The PANAS-X: Manual for the positive and negative affect schedule-expanded form. Iowa City: University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  102. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Weeks, W. A., Moore, C. W., McKinney, J. A., & Longenecker, J. G. (1999). The effects of gender and career stage on ethical judgement. Journal of Business Ethics, 20(4), 301–313. doi: 10.1023/A:1005955501120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 18, 1–74.Google Scholar
  105. Williams, M. (2007). Building genuine trust through interpersonal emotion management: A threat regulation model of trust and collaboration across boundaries. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 595–621. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2007.2435186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Xu, B., Xu, F., Caldwell, C., Sheard, G., & Floyd, L. (2016). Organizational trustworthiness—empirical insights from a Chinese perspective. Journal of Management Development, 35(8), 956–969. doi: 10.1108/JMD-03-2015-0035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yang, J., & Mossholder, K. W. (2010). Examining the effects of trust in leaders: A bases-and-foci approach. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(1), 50–63. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.10.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yukl, G. (2008). How leaders influence organizational effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(6), 708–722. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.09.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sophie Mölders
    • 1
    Email author
  • Prisca Brosi
    • 1
  • Matthias Spörrle
    • 2
    • 3
  • Isabell M. Welpe
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.TUM School of ManagementTechnical University of MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.University Seeburg Castle (USC)Seekirchen am WallerseeAustria
  3. 3.University of Applied Management (UAM)ErdingGermany
  4. 4.Bavarian State Institute for Higher Education Research and PlanningMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations