Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 156, Issue 2, pp 417–438 | Cite as

Achieving Top Performance While Building Collegiality in Sales: It All Starts with Ethics

  • Omar S. ItaniEmail author
  • Fernando Jaramillo
  • Larry Chonko
Original Paper


While previous literature provides evidence of the positive relationship between ethical climate and job satisfaction, the possible mechanisms of this relationship are still underexplored. This study aims to enhance scholars’ and practitioners’ understanding of the ethical climate–job satisfaction relationship by identifying and testing two of the possible mechanisms. More specifically, this study fills an existing research gap by examining social and interpersonal mechanisms, referred to in this study as workplace isolation of colleagues and salesperson’s teamwork, of the ethical climate–job satisfaction relationship. This is vital for the selling profession because job satisfaction is known to drive higher levels of salespeople’s performance. The arguments for such mechanisms are built on the foundations of social/psychological contract theory and ethical climate literature. Empirical testing using a large sample of salespeople shows higher levels of ethical climate to decrease workplace isolation and increase teamwork. Findings support hypothesized model where ethical climate positively relates to job satisfaction as partially mediated by workplace isolation and teamwork. Ethical climate is negatively related to workplace isolation and positively to teamwork. Further, findings indicate negative effect of workplace isolation on teamwork and sales performance. Job satisfaction is found to be key factor in driving performance of salespeople.


Ethical climate Job satisfaction Performance Salespeople Social/psychological contract theory Teamwork Workplace isolation 



Social contract theory


Psychological contract theory


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. Ågerfalk, P. J., & Fitzgerald, B. (2008). Outsourcing to an unknown workforce: Exploring open sourcing as a global sourcing strategy. MIS Quarterly, 32(2), 385–409.Google Scholar
  2. Agnihotri, R., Gabler, C. B., Itani, O. S., Jaramillo, F., & Krush, M. T. (2017). Salesperson ambidexterity and customer satisfaction: Examining the role of customer demandingness, adaptive selling, and role conflict. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 37(1), 27–41.Google Scholar
  3. Agnihotri, R., & Krush, M. T. (2015). Salesperson empathy, ethical behaviors, and sales performance: The moderating role of trust in one’s manager. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 35(2), 164–174.Google Scholar
  4. Ahearne, M., & Lam, S. K. (2011). Sales force performance: A typology and future research priorities. In Gary L. Lilien & Rajdeep Grewal (Eds.), Business-to-business marketing handbook. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Ahearne, M., MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., Mathieu, J. E., & Lam, S. K. (2010). The role of consensus in sales team performance. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(3), 458–469.Google Scholar
  6. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (2014). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Alegre, I., Mas-Machuca, M., & Berbegal-Mirabent, J. (2016). Antecedents of employee job satisfaction: Do they matter? Journal of Business Research, 69(4), 1390–1395. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.10.113.Google Scholar
  8. Amyx, D., Bhuian, S., Sharma, D., & Loveland, K. E. (2008). Salesperson corporate ethical values (SCEV) scale: Development and assessment among salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 28(4), 387–401. doi: 10.2753/PSS0885-3134280404.Google Scholar
  9. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.Google Scholar
  10. Anderson, E., & Robertson, T. S. (1995). Inducing multiline salespeople to adopt house brands. The Journal of Marketing, 59(2), 16–31.Google Scholar
  11. Anderson, N., & Schalk, R. (1998). Editorial: The psychological contract in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 637–647.Google Scholar
  12. Babin, B. J., Boles, J. S., & Robin, D. P. (2000). Representing the perceived ethical work climate among marketing employees. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(3), 345–358.Google Scholar
  13. Bahrami, H., & Evans, S. (1997). Human resource leadership in knowledge-based entities: Shaping the context of work. Human Resource Management, 36, 23–28.Google Scholar
  14. Barnett, T., & Schubert, E. (2002). Perceptions of the ethical work climate and covenantal relationships. Journal of Business Ethics, 36(3), 279–290.Google Scholar
  15. Bhuian, S. N., & Mengue, B. (2002). An extension and evaluation of job characteristics, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an expatriate, guest worker, sales setting. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 22(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  16. Bigné, E., Küster, I., & Torán, F. (2003). Market orientation and industrial salesforce: Diverse measure instruments. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 18(1), 59–81.Google Scholar
  17. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Briggs, E., Jaramillo, F., & Weeks, W. A. (2012). The influences of ethical climate and organization identity comparisons on salespeople and their job performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 32(4), 421–436.Google Scholar
  19. Brockner, J. (1996). Understanding the interaction between procedural and distributive justice: The role of trust. In R. M. Kramer & T. R. Tyler (Eds.), Trust in organizations: Frontiers of theory and research (pp. 390–413). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Brown, S. P., & Peterson, R. A. (1994). The effect of effort on sales performance and job satisfaction. The Journal of Marketing, 58(2), 70–80.Google Scholar
  21. Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 117–134.Google Scholar
  22. Bulutlar, F., & Öz, E. Ü. (2009). The effects of ethical climates on bullying behaviour in the workplace. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(3), 273–295.Google Scholar
  23. Burton, B. K., & Goldsby, M. (2005). The golden rule and business ethics: An examination. Journal of Business Ethics, 56(4), 371–383.Google Scholar
  24. Bush, V., Bush, A. J., Oakley, J., & Cicala, J. E. (2015). The sales profession as a subculture: Implications for ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2753-7.Google Scholar
  25. Challagalla, G., Shervani, T., & Huber, G. (2000). Supervisory orientations and salesperson work outcomes: The moderating effect of salesperson location. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 20(3), 161–171.Google Scholar
  26. Chen, C.-F., & Kao, Y.-L. (2012). Investigating the antecedents and consequences of burnout and isolation among flight attendants. Tourism Management, 33(4), 868–874. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2011.09.008.Google Scholar
  27. Cheng, M.-Y., & Wang, L. (2015). The mediating effect of ethical climate on the relationship between paternalistic leadership and team identification: A team-level analysis in the Chinese context. Journal of Business Ethics, 129(3), 639–654.Google Scholar
  28. Chonko, L. B., Wotruba, T. R., & Loe, T. W. (2002). Direct selling ethics at the top: An industry audit and status report. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 22(2), 87–95.Google Scholar
  29. Cullen, J. B., Parboteeah, K. P., & Victor, B. (2003). The effects of ethical climates on organizational commitment: A two-study analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 46(2), 127–141.Google Scholar
  30. Cummings, T. G. (1978). Self-regulating work groups: A socio-technical synthesis. Academy of Management Review, 3(3), 625–634.Google Scholar
  31. de Jong, A., de Ruyter, K., & Lemmink, J. (2005). Service climate in self-managing teams: Mapping the linkage of team member perceptions and service performance outcomes in a business-to-business setting. Journal of Management Studies, 42(8), 1593–1620.Google Scholar
  32. DeConinck, J. B. (2011). The effects of ethical climate on organizational identification, supervisory trust, and turnover among salespeople. Journal of Business Research, 64(6), 617–624. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2010.06.014.Google Scholar
  33. Demirtas, O., & Akdogan, A. A. (2015). The effect of ethical leadership behavior on ethical climate, turnover intention, and affective commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(1), 59–67. doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2196-6.Google Scholar
  34. Dickson, M. W., Smith, D. B., Grojean, M. W., & Ehrhart, M. (2001). An organizational climate regarding ethics: The outcome of leader values and the practices that reflect them. The Leadership Quarterly, 12(2), 197–217.Google Scholar
  35. Dixon, A. L., Gassenheimer, J. B., & Barr, T. F. (2002). Bridging the distance between us: How initial responses to sales team conflict help shape core selling team outcomes. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 22(4), 247–257.Google Scholar
  36. Dixon, A. L., Gassenheimer, J. B., & Feldman Barr, T. (2003). Identifying the lone wolf: A team perspective. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 23(3), 205–219.Google Scholar
  37. Donaldson, L., & Davis, J. H. (1991). Stewardship theory or agency theory: CEO governance and shareholder returns. Australian Journal of Management, 16(1), 49–64.Google Scholar
  38. Donaldson, T., & Dunfee, T. W. (1994). Toward a unified conception of business ethics: Integrative social contracts theory. Academy of Management Review, 19(2), 252–284. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1994.9410210749.Google Scholar
  39. Donaldson, T., & Dunfee, T. W. (1995). Integrative social contracts theory. Economics and Philosophy, 11(1), 85–112. doi: 10.1017/S0266267100003230.Google Scholar
  40. Donaldson, T., & Dunfee, T. W. (1999). Ties that bind: A social contracts approach to business ethics. Boston: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  41. Driskell, J. E., & Salas, E. (1992). Collective behavior and team performance. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 34(3), 277–288.Google Scholar
  42. Dubinsky, A. J., Howell, R. D., Ingram, T. N., & Bellenger, D. N. (1986). Salesforce socialization. The Journal of Marketing, 50(4), 192–207.Google Scholar
  43. Dunfee, T. W., Smith, N. C., & Ross, W. T. (1999). Social contracts and marketing ethics. Journal of Marketing, 63(3), 14–32. doi: 10.2307/1251773.Google Scholar
  44. Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P. D., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 42–51.Google Scholar
  45. El-Ansary, A. L., Zabriskie, N. B., & Browning, J. M. (1993). Sales teamwork: A dominant strategy for improving salesforce effectiveness. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 8(3), 65–72.Google Scholar
  46. Evans, K. R., McFarland, R. G., Dietz, B., & Jaramillo, F. (2012). Advancing sales performance research: A focus on five under researched topic areas. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 32(1), 89–105.Google Scholar
  47. Fang, E., Palmatier, R. W., & Evans, K. R. (2004). Goal-setting paradoxes? Trade-offs between working hard and working smart: The United States versus China. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(2), 188–202.Google Scholar
  48. Fournier, C., Tanner, J. F., Jr., Chonko, L. B., & Manolis, C. (2010). The moderating role of ethical climate on salesperson propensity to leave. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 30(1), 7–22.Google Scholar
  49. Gensler, H. J. (2013). Ethics and the golden rule. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Griffin, M. A., Patterson, M. G., & West, M. A. (2001). Job satisfaction and teamwork: The role of supervisor support. Journal of organizational behavior, 22(5), 537–550.Google Scholar
  51. Grisaffe, D. B., & Jaramillo, F. (2007). Toward higher levels of ethics: Preliminary evidence of positive outcomes. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 27(4), 355–371.Google Scholar
  52. Grisaffe, D. B., VanMeter, R., & Chonko, L. B. (2016). Serving first for the benefit of others: Preliminary evidence for a hierarchical conceptualization of servant leadership. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 36(1), 40–58. doi: 10.1080/08853134.2016.1151303.Google Scholar
  53. Gundlach, G. T., & Murphy, P. E. (1993). Ethical and legal foundations of relational marketing exchanges. Journal of Marketing, 57(4), 35–46. doi: 10.2307/1252217.Google Scholar
  54. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  55. Hartmann, N. N., & Rutherford, B. N. (2015). Psychological contract breach’s antecedents and outcomes in salespeople: The roles of psychological climate, job attitudes, and turnover intention. Industrial Marketing Management, 51, 158–170.Google Scholar
  56. Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408–420.Google Scholar
  57. Herndon, N. C., Fraedrich, J. P., & Yeh, Q.-J. (2001). An investigation of moral values and the ethical content of the corporate culture: Taiwanese versus U.S. sales people. Journal of Business Ethics, 30(1), 73–85. doi: 10.1023/A:1006493907563.Google Scholar
  58. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.Google Scholar
  59. Hwang, S., & Der-Jang, C. (2005). Relationships among internal marketing, employee job satisfaction and international hotel performance: An empirical study. International Journal of Management, 22(2), 285–293.Google Scholar
  60. Ingram, T. N., LaForge, R. W., & Schwepker, C. H., Jr. (2007). Salesperson ethical decision making: The impact of sales leadership and sales management control strategy. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 27(4), 301–315.Google Scholar
  61. Isabella, L. A., & Waddock, S. A. (1994). Top management team certainty: Environmental assessments, teamwork, and performance implications. Journal of Management, 20(4), 835–858.Google Scholar
  62. Itani, O. S., & Inyang, A. E. (2015). The effects of empathy and listening of salespeople on relationship quality in the retail banking industry: The moderating role of felt stress. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 33(6), 692–716.Google Scholar
  63. Jaramillo, F., Bande, B., & Varela, J. (2015). Servant leadership and ethics: A dyadic examination of supervisor behaviors and salesperson perceptions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 35(2), 108–124.Google Scholar
  64. Jaramillo, F., Carrillat, F. A., & Locander, W. B. (2005). A meta-analytic comparison of managerial ratings and self-evaluations. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 25(4), 315–328.Google Scholar
  65. Jaramillo, F., Mulki, J. P., & Boles, J. S. (2011). Workplace stressors, job attitude, and job behaviors: Is interpersonal conflict the missing link? Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 31(3), 339–356. doi: 10.2753/PSS0885-3134310310.Google Scholar
  66. Jaramillo, F., Mulki, J. P., & Boles, J. S. (2013). Bringing meaning to the sales job: The effect of ethical climate and customer demandingness. Journal of Business Research, 66(11), 2301–2307.Google Scholar
  67. Jaramillo, F., Mulki, J. P., & Solomon, P. (2006). The role of ethical climate on salesperson’s role stress, job attitudes, turnover intention, and job performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 26(3), 271–282.Google Scholar
  68. Johnsen, D. B. (2009). The ethics of “commercial bribery”: Integrative social contract theory meets transaction cost economics. Journal of Business Ethics, 88, 791–803.Google Scholar
  69. Jones, E., Dixon, A. L., Chonko, L. B., & Cannon, J. P. (2005). Key accounts and team selling: A review, framework, and research agenda. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 25(2), 181–198.Google Scholar
  70. Kaptein, M. (2008). Developing and testing a measure for the ethical culture of organizations: The corporate ethical virtues model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(7), 923–947.Google Scholar
  71. Kaptein, M., & Schwartz, M. S. (2008). The effectiveness of business codes: A critical examination of existing studies and the development of an integrated research model. Journal of Business Ethics, 77(2), 111–127.Google Scholar
  72. Kirkman, B. L., Rosen, B., Gibson, C. B., Tesluk, P. E., & McPherson, S. O. (2002). Five challenges to virtual team success: Lessons from Sabre, Inc. The Academy of Management Executive, 16(3), 67–79.Google Scholar
  73. Kirmeyer, S. L., & Lin, T.-R. (1987). Social support: Its relationship to observed communication with peers and superiors. Academy of Management Journal, 30(1), 138–151.Google Scholar
  74. Koh, C., Ang, S., & Straub, D. W. (2004). IT outsourcing success: A psychological contract perspective. Information Systems Research, 15(4), 356–373.Google Scholar
  75. Koh, H. C., & Boo, E. H. Y. (2001). The link between organizational ethics and job satisfaction: A study of managers in Singapore. Journal of Business Ethics, 29(4), 309–324.Google Scholar
  76. Lam, L. W., & Lau, D. C. (2012). Feeling lonely at work: Investigating the consequences of unsatisfactory workplace relationships. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(20), 4265–4282.Google Scholar
  77. Landis, R. S., Beal, D. J., & Tesluk, P. E. (2000). A comparison of approaches for forming composite measures in structural equation modeling. Organizational Research Methods, 3(2), 186–207.Google Scholar
  78. Lavorata, L. (2007). Proposal for a measurement scale of the ethical climate in business: A study in the area of B-to-B selling. Recherche et Applications en Marketing (English Edition), 22(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
  79. Leung, A. S. M. (2008). Matching ethical work climate to in-role and extra-role behaviors in a collectivist work setting. Journal of Business Ethics, 79(1/2), 43–55.Google Scholar
  80. Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1279–1343). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  81. Loveman, G. W. (1998). Employee satisfaction, customer loyalty, and financial performance: An empirical examination of the service profit chain in retail banking. Journal of Service Research, 1(1), 18–31.Google Scholar
  82. Marshall, G. W., Michaels, C. E., & Mulki, J. P. (2007). Workplace isolation: Exploring the construct and its measurement. Psychology & Marketing, 24(3), 195–223.Google Scholar
  83. Martin, K. (2016). Understanding privacy online: Development of a social contract approach to privacy. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(3), 551–569.Google Scholar
  84. Martin, K. D., & Cullen, J. B. (2006). Continuities and extensions of ethical climate theory: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Business Ethics, 69(2), 175–194.Google Scholar
  85. Menguc, B., Auh, S., Katsikeas, C. S., & Jung, Y. S. (2016). When does (mis) fit in customer orientation matter for frontline employees’ job satisfaction and performance? Journal of Marketing, 80(1), 65–83.Google Scholar
  86. Moon, M. A., & Gupta, S. F. (1997). Examining the formation of selling centers: A conceptual framework. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 17(2), 31–42.Google Scholar
  87. Mulki, J. P., Bardhi, F., Lassk, F. G., & Nanavaty-Dahl, J. (2009a). Set up remote workers to thrive. MIT Sloan Management Review, 51(1), 63–69.Google Scholar
  88. Mulki, J. P., & Jaramillo, F. (2011). Workplace isolation: Salespeople and supervisors in USA. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(4), 902–923.Google Scholar
  89. Mulki, J. P., Jaramillo, F., & Locander, W. B. (2006). Effects of ethical climate and supervisory trust on salesperson’s job attitudes and intentions to quit. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 26(1), 19–26. doi: 10.2753/PSS0885-3134260102.Google Scholar
  90. Mulki, J. P., Jaramillo, J. F., & Locander, W. B. (2008a). Effect of ethical climate on turnover intention: Linking attitudinal-and stress theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 559–574.Google Scholar
  91. Mulki, J. P., Jaramillo, F., & Locander, W. B. (2009b). Critical role of leadership on ethical climate and salesperson behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(2), 125–141.Google Scholar
  92. Mulki, J. P., Jaramillo, F., & Marshall, G. W. (2007). Lone wolf tendencies and salesperson performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 27(1), 25–38.Google Scholar
  93. Mulki, J. P., Locander, W. B., Marshall, G. W., Harris, E. G., & Hensel, J. (2008b). Workplace isolation, salesperson commitment, and job performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 28(1), 67–78.Google Scholar
  94. Neubert, M. J., Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., Roberts, J. A., & Chonko, L. B. (2009). The virtuous influence of ethical leadership behavior: Evidence from the field. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(2), 157–170.Google Scholar
  95. Nicotera, A. M., & Cushman, D. P. (1992). Organizational ethics: A within organization view. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 20(4), 437–462. doi: 10.1080/00909889209365348.Google Scholar
  96. Nielsen, T. M., Bachrach, D. G., Sundstrom, E., & Halfhill, T. R. (2012). Utility of OCB organizational citizenship behavior and group performance in a resource allocation framework. Journal of Management, 38(2), 668–694.Google Scholar
  97. Oliver, R. L., & Anderson, E. (1994). An empirical test of the consequences of behavior-and outcome-based sales control systems. The Journal of Marketing, 58(4), 53–67.Google Scholar
  98. Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  99. Ozcelik, H., & Barsade, S. (2011). Work loneliness and employee performance. In Academy of management proceedings, pp. 1–6. doi: 10.5465/AMBPP.2011.65869714.
  100. Park, J. E., & Deitz, G. D. (2006). The effect of working relationship quality on salesperson performance and job satisfaction: Adaptive selling behavior in Korean automobile sales representatives. Journal of Business Research, 59(2), 204–213.Google Scholar
  101. Pastoriza, D., Arino, M. A., Ricart, J. E., & Canela, M. A. (2015). Does an ethical work context generate internal social capital? Journal of Business Ethics, 129(1), 77–92.Google Scholar
  102. Peterson, R. A., & Wotruba, T. R. (1996). What is direct selling?—Definition, perspectives, and research agenda. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 16(4), 1–16.Google Scholar
  103. Pettijohn, C. E., Pettijohn, L. S., Pettijohn, J. B., & Taylor, A. J. (2007). How do the attitudes of students compare with the attitudes of salespeople? A comparison of perceptions of business, consumer and employer ethics. Marketing Management Journal, 17(1), 51–64.Google Scholar
  104. Pettijohn, C., Pettijohn, L., & Taylor, A. J. (2008). Salesperson perceptions of ethical behaviors: Their influence on job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 547–557.Google Scholar
  105. Piercy, N. F., Cravens, D. W., Lane, N., & Vorhies, D. W. (2006). Driving organizational citizenship behaviors and salesperson in-role behavior performance: The role of management control and perceived organizational support. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 244–262.Google Scholar
  106. Piercy, N. F., Cravens, D. W., & Morgan, N. A. (1997). Sources of effectiveness in the business-to-business sales organization. Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, 3(1), 45–71.Google Scholar
  107. Piercy, N. F., Cravens, D. W., & Morgan, N. A. (1998). Salesforce performance and behaviour-based management processes in business-to-business sales organizations. European Journal of Marketing, 32(1/2), 79–100. doi: 10.1108/03090569810197480.Google Scholar
  108. Ployhart, R. E., & Hakel, M. D. (1998). The substantive nature of performance variability: Predicting interindividual differences in intraindividual performance. Personnel Psychology, 51(4), 859–901.Google Scholar
  109. Pratt, M. G. (2000). The good, the bad, and the ambivalent: Managing identification among amway distributors. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45(3), 456–493. doi: 10.2307/2667106.Google Scholar
  110. Ramaswami, S. N., & Singh, J. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of merit pay fairness for industrial salespeople. Journal of Marketing, 67(4), 46–66.Google Scholar
  111. Rathert, C., & Fleming, D. A. (2008). Hospital ethical climate and teamwork in acute care: The moderating role of leaders. Health Care Management Review, 33(4), 323–331.Google Scholar
  112. Riggle, R. J. (2007). The impact of organizational climate variables of perceived organizational support, workplace isolation, and ethical climate on salesperson psychological and behavioral work outcomes. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida.Google Scholar
  113. Rousseau, D. M., & McLean Parks, J. (1993). The contracts of individuals and organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 15, 1–43.Google Scholar
  114. Saks, A. M., & Ashforth, B. E. (1997). Organizational socialization: Making sense of the past and present as a prologue for the future. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51(2), 234–279.Google Scholar
  115. Samnani, A.-K., & Singh, P. (2015). Workplace bullying: Considering the interaction between individual and work environment. Journal of Business Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2653-x.Google Scholar
  116. Schaufeli, W. B., van Dierendonck, D., & Gorp, K. V. (1996). Burnout and reciprocity: Towards a dual-level social exchange model. Work & Stress, 10(3), 225–237.Google Scholar
  117. Schminke, M., Arnaud, A., & Kuenzi, M. (2007). The power of ethical work climates. Organizational Dynamics, 36(2), 171–186.Google Scholar
  118. Schmitz, C., & Ganesan, S. (2014). Managing customer and organizational complexity in sales organizations. Journal of Marketing, 78(6), 59–77.Google Scholar
  119. Schwepker, C. H. (2001). Ethical climate’s relationship to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention in the salesforce. Journal of Business Research, 54(1), 39–52.Google Scholar
  120. Schwepker, C. H., Ferrell, O. C., & Ingram, T. N. (1997). The influence of ethical climate and ethical conflict on role stress in the sales force. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(2), 99–108.Google Scholar
  121. Schwepker, C. H., & Good, D. J. (2004). Marketing control and sales force customer orientation. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 24(3), 167–179.Google Scholar
  122. Schwepker, C. H., & Good, D. J. (2007). Sales management’s influence on employment and training in developing an ethical sales force. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 27(4), 325–339.Google Scholar
  123. Schwepker, C. H., & Schultz, R. J. (2015). Influence of the ethical servant leader and ethical climate on customer value enhancing sales performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 35(2), 93–107.Google Scholar
  124. Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N., & Liden, R. C. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader–member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(3), 219–227.Google Scholar
  125. Shin, Y. (2012). CEO ethical leadership, ethical climate, climate strength, and collective organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(3), 299–312.Google Scholar
  126. Simha, A., & Cullen, J. B. (2012). Ethical climates and their effects on organizational outcomes: Implications from the past and prophecies for the future. Academy of Management Perspectives, 26(4), 20–34. doi: 10.5465/amp.2011.0156.Google Scholar
  127. Sparrowe, R. T., Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Kraimer, M. L. (2001). Social networks and the performance of individuals and groups. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 316–325.Google Scholar
  128. Sriram, S., Balachander, S., & Kalwani, M. U. (2007). Monitoring the dynamics of brand equity using store-level data. Journal of Marketing, 71(2), 61–78.Google Scholar
  129. Stevens, B. (1994). An analysis of corporate ethical code studies: “Where do we go from here?”. Journal of Business Ethics, 13(1), 63–69.Google Scholar
  130. Sujan, H., Weitz, B. A., & Kumar, N. (1994). Learning orientation, working smart, and effective selling. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 39–52.Google Scholar
  131. Tanner, E. C., Tanner, J. F., & Wakefield, K. (2015). Panacea or paradox? The moderating role of ethical climate. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 35(2), 175–190. doi: 10.1080/08853134.2015.1010540.Google Scholar
  132. Tansu Barker, A. (2001). Salespeople characteristics, sales managers’ activities and territory design as antecedents of sales organization performance. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 19(1), 21–28.Google Scholar
  133. Thompson, J. A., & Hart, D. W. (2006). Psychological Contracts: A nano-level perspective on social contract theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 68(3), 229–241.Google Scholar
  134. Tsai, M. T., & Huang, C. C. (2008). The relationship among ethical climate types, facets of job satisfaction, and the three components of organizational commitment: A study of nurses in Taiwan. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(3), 565–581.Google Scholar
  135. Turnley, W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2000). Research Re-examining the effects of psychological Note contract violations: Unmet expectations and job dissatisfaction as mediators. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(1), 25–42.Google Scholar
  136. Valentine, S. (2009). Ethics training, ethical context, and sales and marketing professionals’ satisfaction with supervisors and coworkers. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 29(3), 227–242.Google Scholar
  137. Valentine, S., Fleischman, G., & Godkin, L. (2015). Rogues in the ranks of selling organizations: Using corporate ethics to manage workplace bullying and job satisfaction. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 35(2), 143–163.Google Scholar
  138. Valentine, S., Fleischman, G., & Godkin, L. (2016). Villains, victims, and verisimilitudes: An exploratory study of unethical corporate values, bullying experiences, psychopathy, and selling professionals’ ethical reasoning. Journal of Business Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2993-6.Google Scholar
  139. Valentine, S., Godkin, L., Fleischman, G. M., & Kidwell, R. (2011). Corporate ethical values, group creativity, job satisfaction and turnover intention: The impact of work context on work response. Journal of Business Ethics, 98(3), 353–372.Google Scholar
  140. Verbeke, W., Dietz, B., & Verwaal, E. (2011). Drivers of sales performance: A contemporary meta-analysis. Have salespeople become knowledge brokers? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(3), 407–428.Google Scholar
  141. Verbeke, W., Ouwerkerk, C., & Peelen, E. (1996). Exploring the contextual and individual factors on ethical decision making of salespeople. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(11), 1175–1187.Google Scholar
  142. Victor, B., & Cullen, J. B. (1988). The organizational bases of ethical work climates. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33(1), 101–125.Google Scholar
  143. Walker, O. C., Jr., Churchill, G. A., Jr., & Ford, N. M. (1977). Motivation and performance in industrial selling: Present knowledge and needed research. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(2), 156–168.Google Scholar
  144. Walsh, G., & Beatty, S. E. (2007). Customer-based corporate reputation of a service firm: Scale development and validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35(1), 127–143.Google Scholar
  145. Wang, Y.-D., & Hsieh, H.-H. (2011). Toward a better understanding of the link between ethical climate and job satisfaction: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 105(4), 535–545. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-0984-9.Google Scholar
  146. Weeks, W. A., Loe, T. W., Chonko, L. B., Martinez, C. R., & Wakefield, K. (2006). Cognitive moral development and the impact of perceived organizational ethical climate on the search for sales force excellence: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 26(2), 205–217.Google Scholar
  147. Weeks, W. A., Loe, T. W., Chonko, L. B., & Wakefield, K. (2004). The effect of perceived ethical climate on the search for sales force excellence. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 24(3), 199–214.Google Scholar
  148. Weeks, W. A., & Nantel, J. (1992). Corporate codes of ethics and sales force behavior: A case study. Journal of Business Ethics, 11(10), 753–760.Google Scholar
  149. Wieseke, J., Kraus, F., Ahearne, M., & Mikolon, S. (2012). Multiple identification foci and their countervailing effects on salespeople’s negative headquarters stereotypes. Journal of Marketing, 76(3), 1–20.Google Scholar
  150. Wiesenfeld, B. M., Raghuram, S., & Garud, R. (2001). Organizational identification among virtual workers: The role of need for affiliation and perceived work-based social support. Journal of Management, 27(2), 213–229.Google Scholar
  151. Wimbush, J. C., & Shepard, J. M. (1994). Toward an understanding of ethical climate: Its relationship to ethical behavior and supervisory influence. Journal of Business Ethics, 13(8), 637–647.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omar S. Itani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fernando Jaramillo
    • 2
  • Larry Chonko
    • 2
  1. 1.Hospitality Management and Marketing DepartmentLebanese American UniversityBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Marketing DepartmentUniversity of Texas at ArlingtonArlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations