Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 155, Issue 2, pp 321–342 | Cite as

CSR and Feminist Organization Studies: Towards an Integrated Theorization for the Analysis of Gender Issues

  • Kate GrosserEmail author
  • Jeremy Moon
Original Paper

Abstract

Although corporate social responsibility (CSR) practice increasingly addresses gender issues, and gender and CSR scholarship is expanding, feminist theory is rarely explicitly referenced or discussed in the CSR literature. We contend that this omission is a key limitation of the field. We argue that CSR theorization and research on gender can be improved through more explicit and systematic reference to feminist theories, and particularly those from feminist organization studies (FOS). Addressing this gap, we review developments in feminist organization theory, mapping their relevance to CSR. With reference to six major theoretical perspectives in CSR scholarship, we note feminist research relating to each. Drawing upon FOS theory and CSR theory, we then develop an integrated theoretical framework for the analysis of gender issues in CSR. Our framework enables us to identify research strengths in the gender and CSR literature, as well as gaps therein, to open new conversations and to posit future research directions for this emerging area of scholarship. Our paper illustrates how a better grounding of CSR in feminist theory can contribute to CSR research more broadly.

Keywords

Corporate social responsibility Feminist organization studies Feminist theory Gender 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Lauren McCarthy, Gavin Jack, Mike Humphreys, and contributors to the staff seminar on this paper at Department of Management, Society and Communication, Copenhagen Business School, for critical and constructive comments on previous iterations of this paper. Thanks also to three anonymous reviewers for their developmental comments and suggestions. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Velux Chair for Corporate Sustainability at Copenhagen Business School, which facilitated research collaboration on this article.

References

  1. Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender and Society, 4(2), 139–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acker, J. (1998). The future of “gender and organizations”: Connections and boundaries. Gender, Work and Organization, 5(4), 195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Acker, J. (2004). Gender, capitalism and globalization. Critical Sociology, 30(1), 17–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Acker, J. (2006). Inequality regimes: Gender, class, and race in organizations. Gender and Society, 20(4), 441–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aguilera, R. V., Rupp, D. E., Williams, C. A., & Ganapath, J. (2007). Putting the S back in corporate social responsibility: A multilevel theory of social change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 836–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A. (2012). What we know and don’t know about corporate social responsibility: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 44(4), 932–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Auld, G., Bernstein, S., & Cashore, B. (2008). The new corporate social responsibility. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 33, 413–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banerjee, S. B. (2008). Corporate social responsibility: The good, the bad and the ugly. Critical Sociology, 34(1), 51–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrientos, S., Dolan, C., & Tallontire, A. (2003). A gendered value chain approach to codes of conduct in African horticulture. World Development, 31(9), 1511–1526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barrientos, S., & Smith, S. (2007). Do workers benefit from ethical trade? Assessing codes of labour practice in global production systems. Third World Quarterly, 28(4), 613–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bear, S., Rahman, N., & Post, C. (2010). The impact of board diversity and gender composition on corporate social responsibility and firm reputation. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(2), 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benschop, Y., & Verloo, M. (2016). Feminist organization theories: Islands of treasure. In R. Mir, H. Willmott, & M. Greenwood (Eds.), The Routledge companion to philosophy in organization studies. Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Borgerson, J. (2007). On the harmony of feminist ethics and business ethics. Business and Society Review, 112(4), 477–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowie, N. E. (1999). Business ethics: A Kantian perspective. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  15. Burchell, J., & Cook, J. (2013). CSR, co-optation and resistance: The emergence of new agonistic relations between business and civil society. Journal of Business Ethics, 115(4), 741–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burton, B., & Dunn, C. (1996). Feminist ethics as moral grounding for stakeholder theory. Business Ethics Quarterly, 6(2), 133–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Butler, J. (2004). Undoing gender. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Calas, M. B., & Smircich, L. (1997). Feminist inquiries into business ethics. In A. Larson & E. Freeman (Eds.), Women’s studies and business ethics. Towards a new conversation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Calas, M. B., & Smircich, L. (2006). From the “Woman’s Point of View” ten years later: Towards a feminist organization studies. In S. Clegg, C. Hardy, W. Nord, & T. Lawrence (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Campbell, J. (2007). Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 946–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carroll, A. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coleman, G. (2002). Gender, power and post-structuralism in corporate citizenship. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 5, 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Collinson, D., & Hearn, J. (1994). Naming men as men: Implications for work, organization and management. Gender, Work and Organization, 1(1), 2–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crane, A., Henriques, I., Husted, B., & Matten, D. (2016). What constitutes a theoretical contribution in the business and society field? Business and Society, 55(6), 783–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crane, A., Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008a). Corporations and citizenship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crane, A., Mcwilliams, A., Matten, D., Moon, J., & Siegel, D. (2008b). The corporate social responsibility agenda. In A. Crane, A. Mcwilliams, D. Matten, J. Moon, & D. Siegel (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Crane, A., & Ruebottom, T. (2011). Stakeholder theory and social identity: Rethinking stakeholder. Journal of Business Ethics, 102(1), 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davis, K. (1973). The case for and against business assumption of social responsibilities. Academy of Management Journal, 16(2), 312–322.Google Scholar
  29. de Saussure, F. (1966). Course in general linguistics. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  30. del Mar Alonso-Almeida, M., Perramonb, J., & Bagur, L. (2015). Women managers and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Spain: Perceptions and drivers. Women’s Studies International Forum, 50, 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Derrida, J. (1978). Writing and difference. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Derry, R. (1996). Toward a feminist firm. Business Ethics Quarterly, 6(1), 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Derry, R. (1999). Feminist theory and business ethics. In R. E. Frederick (Ed.), A companion to business ethics. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  34. Derry, R. (2012). Reclaiming marginalized stakeholders. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(2), 253–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dolan, C., Johnstone-Louis, M., & Scott, L. (2012). Shampoo, saris and SIM cards: Seeking entrepreneurial futures at the bottom of the pyramid. Gender and Development, 20(1), 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dolan, C., & Scott, L. (2009). Lipstick evangelism: Avon trading circles and gender empowerment in South Africa. Gender and Development, 17(2), 203–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Donaldson, T., & Dunfee, T. (1994). Toward a unified conception of business ethics: Integrative social contracts theory. The Academy of Management Review, 19(2), 252–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Elias, J. (2008). Hegemonic masculinities, the multinational corporation, and the developmental state: Constructing gender in “Progressive” firms. Men and Masculinities, 10(4), 405–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Elson, D. (2016). Plan F: Feminist plan for a caring and sustainable economy. Globalizations, 13(6), 919–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Evan, W., & Freeman, E. (1988). Ethical theory and business. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  41. Ferguson, K. E. (1997). Postmodernism, feminism, and organizational ethics: Letting difference be. In A. L. Larson & R. E. Freeman (Eds.), Women’s studies and business ethics. Towards a new conversation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Fernandez-Feijoo, B., Romero, S., & Ruiz-Blanco, S. (2014). Women on boards: Do they affect sustainability reporting? Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 21(6), 351–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fleming, P., & Jones, M. C. (2013). The end of corporate social responsibility. London: Sage Publishing.Google Scholar
  44. Fletcher, J. K. (1994). Castrating the female advantage: Feminist standpoint research and management science. Journal of Management Inquiry, 3(1), 74–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fletcher, J. K. (1998). Relational practice: A feminist reconstruction of work. Journal of Management Inquiry, 7(2), 163–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fletcher, J. K. (2004). The paradox of postheroic leadership: An essay on gender, power, and transformational change. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(5), 647–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fotaki, M., Metcalfe, B. D., & Harding, N. (2014). Writing materiality into management and organization studies through and with Luce Irigaray. Human Relations, 67(10), 1239–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings, 1972–1977. London: Random House.Google Scholar
  49. Freeman, R. E., Harrison, J. S., & Wicks, A. C. (2007). Managing for stakeholders. Survival, reputation, and success. London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Garriga, M., & Melé, D. (2004). Corporate social responsibility theories: Mapping the territory. Journal of Business Ethics, 53(1), 51–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gherardi, S. (2010). Feminist theory and organization theory: A dialogue on new bases. In H. Tsoukas & C. Knudsen (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of organization theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Gond, J. P., Kang, N., & Moon, J. (2011). The government of self regulation: On the comparative dynamics of corporate social responsibility. Economy and Society, 40(4), 640–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grosser, K. (2009). CSR and gender equality: Women as stakeholders and the EU sustainability strategy. Business Ethics: A European Review, 18(3), 290–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grosser, K. (2016). Corporate social responsibility and multi-stakeholder governance: Pluralism, feminist perspectives and women’s NGOs. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(1), 65–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Grosser, K., McCarthy, L., & Kilgour, M. (Eds.). (2016). Gender equality and responsible business: Expanding CSR horizons. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
  57. Grosser, K., & Moon, J. (2005a). Gender mainstreaming and corporate social responsibility: Reporting workplace issues. Journal of Business Ethics, 62(4), 327–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Grosser, K., & Moon, J. (2005b). The role of corporate social responsibility in gender mainstreaming. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 7(4), 532–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Grosser, K., & Moon, J. (2008). Developments in company reporting on workplace gender equality? A corporate social responsibility perspective. Accounting Forum, 32(3), 179–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Habermas, J. (1998). The inclusion of the other: Studies in political theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  61. Hale, A., & Opondo, M. (2005). Humanising the cut flower chain: Confronting the realities of flower production for workers in Kenya. Antipode, 37(2), 301–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hale, A., & Wills, J. (2007). Women working worldwide: Transnational networks, corporate social responsibility and action research. Global Networks, 7(4), 453–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hamington, M., & Sander-Staudt, M. (2011). Applying care ethics to business. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hartman, E. (2013). Virtue in business: Conversations with Aristotle. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hayhurst, L. (2014). The “Girl Effect” and martial arts: Social entrepreneurship and sport, gender and development in Uganda. Gender, Place and Culture, 21(3), 297–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hearn, J. (2004). From hegemonic masculinity to the hegemony of men. Feminist Theory, 5(1), 609–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Holgersson, C. (2011). ‘When in Rome…’? On multinational companies, codes of conduct and commercial sex. In A. Biricik & J. Hearn (Eds.), GEXcel work in progress report Volume XV, Proceedings from GEXcel theme 9: Gendered sexualed transnationalisations, Deconstructing the Dominant: Transforming Men, “Centres” and Knowledge/Policy/Practice, Spring 2011. Linköping, Sweden: Tema Genus Report Series No. 21.Google Scholar
  68. Holgersson, C., & Thögersen, S. (2016). Corporate sexual responsibility: How companies can act against the purchasing of sex. In K. Grosser, L. McCarthy, & M. Kilgour (Eds.), Gender equality and responsible business: Expanding CSR horizons. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
  69. Holvino, E. (2010). Intersections: The simultaneity of race, gender and class in organization studies. Gender, Work and Organization, 17(3), 248–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. International Finance Corporation. (2007). Stakeholder engagement: A good practice handbook for companies doing business in emerging markets. Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation.Google Scholar
  71. Jackson, G., & Bartosch, J. (2016). Corporate responsibility in different varieties of capitalism: Exploring the role of national institutions. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Foundation.Google Scholar
  72. Johnstone-Louis, M. (2017). Corporate social responsibility and women’s entrepreneurship: Towards a more adequate theory of ‘work’. Business Ethics Quarterly. doi: 10.1017/beq.2017.6.
  73. Kabeer, N. (2004). Globalization, labour standards and women’s rights: Dilemmas of collective (in)action in an interdependent world. Feminist Economics, 10(1), 3–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Karam, C., & Jamali, D. (2013). Gendering CSR in the Arab Middle East: An institutional perspective. Business Ethics Quarterly, 23(1), 31–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Karam, C. M., & Jamali, D. (2015). A cross-cultural and feminist perspective on CSR in developing countries: Uncovering latent power dynamics. Journal of Business Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2737-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Keenan, J., Kemp, D., & Ramsay, R. (2014). Company–community agreements, gender and development. Journal of Business Ethics, 135(4), 607–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kemp, D., Keenan, J., & Gronow, J. (2010). Strategic resource or ideal source? Discourse, organizational change and CSR. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 23(5), 578–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kilgour, M. A. (2007). The UN Global Compact and substantive equality for women: Revealing a ‘well hidden’ mandate. Third World Quarterly, 28(4), 751–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kilgour, M. A. (2013). The global compact and gender inequality: A work in progress. Business and Society, 52(1), 105–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Knights, D., & Tullberg, M. (2012). Managing masculinity/mismanaging the corporation. Organization, 19(4), 385–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Knudsen, J. S., Moon, J., & Slager, R. (2015). Government policies for corporate social responsibility in Europe: Institutionalisation and structured convergence? Policy and Politics, 43(1), 81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kuhn, T., & Deetz, S. (2008). Critical theory and corporate responsibility: Can/should we get beyond cynical reasoning? In A. Crane, A. McWilliams, D. Matten, J. Moon, & D. Siegel (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Lahiri-Dutt, K., & Macintyre, M. (2006). Women miners in developing countries: Pit women and others. Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  84. Larrieta-Rubín de Celis, I., Velasco-Balmaseda, E., Fernández de Bobadilla, S., & del Mar Alonso-Almeida, M. (2015). Does having women managers lead to increased gender equality practices in corporate social responsibility? Business Ethics: A European Review, 24(1), 91–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lauwo, S. (2016). Challenging masculinity in CSR disclosures: Silencing of women’s voices in Tanzania’s mining industry. Journal of Business Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s10551-016-3047-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lawrence, T. B., & Suddaby, R. (2006). Institutions and institutional work. In S. R. Clegg, C. Hardy, T. B. Lawrence, & W. R. Nord (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  87. Liedtka, J. (1996). Feminist morality and competitive reality: A role for an ethic of care? Business Ethics Quarterly, 6(2), 179–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Loconto, A. (2015). Can certified-tea value chains deliver gender equality in Tanzania? Feminist Economics, 21(3), 191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Machold, S., Ahmed, P., & Farquhar, S. (2008). Corporate governance and ethics: A feminist perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(3), 665–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Margolis, J. D., & Walsh, J. P. (2003). Misery loves companies: Rethinking social initiatives by business. Administrative Science Quarterly, 48(2), 268–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Marshall, J. (1995). Women managers moving on. London: Thomson.Google Scholar
  92. Marshall, J. (2007). The gendering of leadership in corporate social responsibility. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 20(2), 165–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Marshall, J. (2011). En-gendering notions of leadership for sustainability. Gender, Work and Organization, 18(3), 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Martin, J. (1994). The organization of exclusion: Institutionalization of sex inequality, gendered faculty jobs and gendered knowledge in organizational theory and research. Organization, 1(2), 401–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Martin, J. (2000). Hidden gendered assumptions in mainstream organizational theory and research. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Martin, J., & Knopoff, K. (1997). The gendered implications of apparently gender-neutral theory: Rereading Max Weber. In A. L. Larson & R. E. Freeman (Eds.), Women’s studies and business ethics. Towards a new conversation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Matten, D., & Crane, A. (2005). Corporate Citizenship: Towards an extended theoretical conceptualization. Academy of Management Review, 30(1), 166–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008). “Implicit” and “Explicit” CSR: A conceptual framework for a comparative understanding of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Management Review, 33(2), 404–424.Google Scholar
  99. Maxfield, M. (2007). Linking business’s gender and diversity practices with corporate citizenship: Implications for Latin America. Academia, Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 38, 65–80.Google Scholar
  100. McBarnet, D., Voiculescu, A., & Campbell, T. (2007). The new accountability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  101. McCarthy, L. (2015). Organising CSR for gender equality: Institutional work in the cocoa value chain. Unpublished Doctoral thesis. University of Nottingham.Google Scholar
  102. McCarthy, L. & Muthuri, J. (2016). Engaging fringe stakeholders in business and society research: Applying visual participatory research methods. Business and Society. doi: 10.1177/0007650316675610.
  103. McWilliams, A., & Siegel, L. D. (2001). Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Metcalfe, D., & Woodhams, C. (2012). Introduction: New directions in gender, diversity and organization theorizing: Re-imagining feminist post-colonialism, transationalism and georgraphies of power. International Journal of Management Reviews, 14(2), 123–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Meyerson, D. E., & Kolb, D. M. (2000). Moving out of the “Armchair”: Developing a framework to bridge the gap between feminist theory and practice. Organization, 7(4), 553–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R., & Wood, D. J. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts. Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 853–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mohanty, C. T. (2003). “Under Western Eyes” revisited: Feminist solidarity through anticapitalist struggles. Signs, 28(2), 499–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Moon, J. (2002). The social responsibility of business and new governance. Government and Opposition, 37(3), 385–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Moon, J., Crane, A., & Matten, D. (2011). Corporations and citizenship in new institutions of global governance. In C. Crouch & C. MacLean (Eds.), The responsible corporation in a global economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Moon, J., & Vogel, D. (2008). CSR, government and civil society. In A. Crane, A. McWilliams, D. Matten, J. Moon, & D. Siegel (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Newell, P. (2005). Citizenship, accountability and community: The limits of the CSR agenda. International Affairs, 81(3), 541–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Orlitzky, M., Schmidt, F. L., & Rynes, S. L. (2003). Corporate social and financial performance: A meta-analysis. Organization Studies, 24(3), 403–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pearson, R. (2007). Beyond women workers: Gendering csr. Third World Quarterly, 28(4), 731–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Phillips, M. (2014). Re-writing organizational environmentalism: Ecofeminism, corporeality and the language of feeling. Gender, Work and Organization, 21(5), 443–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Plumwood, V. (1993). Feminism and the mastery of nature. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  116. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2011). Creating shared value. Harvard Business Review, 89(1/2), 62–77.Google Scholar
  117. Preston, L., & Post, J. (1981). Private management and public policy. California Management Review, 23(3), 56–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Prieto-Carrón, M. (2004). Is there anyone listening? Women workers in factories in Central America, and corporate codes of conduct. Development, 47(3), 101–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Prieto-Carrón, M. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in Latin America: Chiquita, women banana workers and structural inequalities. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 21, 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Prieto-Carrón, M. (2008). Women workers, industrialization, global supply chains and corporate codes of conduct. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(1), 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Prügl, E. (2015). Neoliberalising feminism. New Political Economy, 20(4), 614–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Prügl, E., & True, J. (2014). Equality means business? Governing gender through transnational public-private partnerships. Review of International Political Economy, 21(6), 1137–1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pullen, A. (2006). Gendering the research self: Social practice and the corporeal multiplicity in the writing of organization research. Gender, Work and Organization, 13(3), 277–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rasche, A., de Bakker, F., & Moon, J. (2013). Complete and partial organizing for corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 115(4), 651–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Roberts, A. (2012). Financial crisis, financial firms… and financial feminism? The rise of “transnational business feminism” and the necessity of Marxist-Feminist IPE. Socialist Studies/Études socialistes, 8(2), 85–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Roberts, A. (2015). The political economy of “Transnational Business Feminism”. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 17(2), 209–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rottenberg, C. (2014). The rise of neoliberal feminism. Cultural Studies, 28(3), 418–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rowley, T. (1997). Moving beyond dyadic ties: A network theory of stakeholder influences. Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 887–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Scherer, A., & Palazzo, G. (2007). Toward a political conception of corporate responsibility: Business and society seen from a Habermasian perspective. Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1096–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Scherer, A., & Palazzo, G. (2011). The new political role of business in a globalized world: A review of a new perspective on CSR and its implications for the firm, governance, and democracy. Journal of Management Studies, 48(4), 899–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Scherer, A. G., Rasche, A., Palazzo, G., & Spicer, A. (2016). Managing for political corporate social responsibility: New challenges and directions for PCSR 2.0. Journal of Management Studies, 53(3), 273–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Shamir, R. (2005). Mind the gap: The commodification of corporate social responsibility. Symbolic Interaction, 28(2), 229–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Shamir, R. (2008). The age of responsibilization: On market-embedded morality. Economy and Society, 37(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Shanley, M. L., & Pateman, C. (1991). Feminist interpretations and political theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  135. Singh, V., & Point, S. (2006). Strategic responses by European companies to the diversity challenge: An online comparison. Long Range Planning, 37(4), 295–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Slager, R., Gond, J. P., & Moon, J. (2012). Standardization as institutional work: The regulatory power of a responsible investment standard. Organization Science, 33(5–6), 763–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Spence, L. J. (2016a). Small business social responsibility: Expanding core CSR theory. Business and Society, 55(1), 23–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Spence, L. J. (2016b). The obfuscation of gender-awareness and feminism in CSR research and the academic community: An essay. In K. Grosser, L. McCarthy, & M. A. Kilgour (Eds.), Gender equality and responsible business: Expanding CSR horizons. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
  139. Standing, G. (1999). Global feminization through flexible labor: A theme revisited. World Development, 27(3), 583–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Terjesen, S., Aguilera, R., & Lorenz, R. (2015). Legislating a woman’s seat on the board: Institutional factors driving gender quotas for boards of directors. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(2), 233–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Thompson, L. (2008). Gender equity and corporate social responsibility in a post-feminist era. Business Ethics: A European Review, 17(1), 87–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Tinto, R. (2009). Why gender matters: A resource guide for integrating gender considerations into communities work at Rio Tinto. Melbourne: Rio Tinto.Google Scholar
  143. Tornhill, S. (2016). The wins of corporate gender equality politics: Coca-Cola and female micro entrepreneurship in South Africa. In K. Grosser, L. McCarthy, & M. Kilgour (Eds.), Gender equality and responsible business: Expanding CSR horizons. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
  144. UN Sustainable Development Goals. (2015). United Nations. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/.
  145. United Nations. (2011). Guiding principles on business and human rights: Implementing the United Nations Protect, Respect and Remedy Framework. A/HRC/17/31.Google Scholar
  146. Vogel, D. (2005). The market for virtue: The potential and limits of corporate social responsibility. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  147. Votaw, D. (1973). Genius becomes rare. In D. Votaw & S. P. Sethi (Eds.), The corporate dilemma. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  148. Walby, S. (2005). Gender mainstreaming: Productive tensions in theory and practice. Social Politics, 12(3), 321–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Werhane, P. (2007). Women leaders in a globalized world. Journal of Business Ethics, 74(4), 425–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. West, C., & Zimmerman, H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and Society, 1(2), 125–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wicks, A., Gilbert, D. J., & Freeman, E. (1994). A feminist reinterpretation of the stakeholder concept. Business Ethics Quarterly, 4(4), 475–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Williams, R. (2003). Women on corporate boards of directors and their influence on corporate philanthropy. Journal of Business Ethics, 42(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Windsor, D. (2001). The future of corporate social responsibility. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 9(3), 225–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Yancey-Martin, P. (2004). Gender as social institution. Social Forces, 82(4), 1249–1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Management, College of BusinessRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Management, Society and CommunicationCopenhagen Business SchoolFrederiksbergDenmark

Personalised recommendations