Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 153, Issue 3, pp 763–773 | Cite as

The Interactive Effect of Authentic Leadership and Leader Competency on Followers’ Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Work Engagement

  • Feng Wei
  • Yi Li
  • Yi Zhang
  • Shubo Liu
Original Paper

Abstract

The effect of authentic leadership and leader competency on employee job performance has received growing attention in the past decades; however, few studies have simultaneously integrated these two leadership perspectives. We have thus developed a mediated moderation model to test the interactive effect of authentic leadership and competency on followers’ job performance through work engagement. Based on a sample of 248 subordinate–supervisor pairs, hierarchical regression analyses reveal that (1) authentic leadership positively relates to followers’ task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB); (2) leader competency moderates the relationship between authentic leadership and OCB; (3) and followers’ work engagement mediates the main effect of authentic leadership and the interactive effect of authentic leadership and competency on followers’ task performance and OCB. All the three results are consistent with our hypotheses.

Keywords

Authentic leadership Work engagement Task performance OCB Leader competency 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Funding was provided by National Social Science Fund of China (Grant No. 1509093); National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 71102028).

References

  1. Algera, P., & Lips-Wiersma, M. (2012). Radical authentic leadership: Co-creating the conditions under which all members of the organization can be authentic. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(1), 118–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arkin, R. M. (1981). Self-presentation styles. In J. Tedeschi (Ed.), Impression management theory and research (pp. 311–333). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Avolio, B. J., & Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 315–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Walumbwa, F. O., Luthans, F., & May, D. R. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(6), 801–823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Azanza, G., Mariano, J. A., Molero, F., & Mangin, J.-P. L. (2015). The effects of authentic leadership on turnover intention. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 36(8), 955–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bass, B. M. (1960). Leadership, psychology and organizational behavior. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  8. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baumeister, R. F., Smart, L., & Boden, J. M. (1996). Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem. Psychological Review, 103, 5–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Breevaart, K., Bakker, A., Demerouti, E., & van den Heuvel, M. (2015). Leader-member exchange, work engagement, and job performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(7), 754–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written materials. In H. C. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 389–444). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  12. Chen, X.-P., Hui, C., & Sego, D. J. (1998). The role of organizational citizenship behavior in turnover: Conceptualization and preliminary tests of key hypotheses. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(6), 922–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, Y., Ferris, D. L., Kwan, H. K., Yan, M., Zhou, M., & Hong, Y. (2013). Self-love’s lost labor: A self-enhancement model of workplace incivility. Academy of Management Journal, 56(4), 1199–1219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Christian, M. S., Garza, A. S., & Slaughter, J. E. (2011). Work engagement: A quantitative review and test of its relations with task and contextual performance. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 89–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clapp-Smith, R., Vogelgesang, G. R., & Avey, J. B. (2009). Authentic leadership and positive psychological capital: The mediating role of trust at the group level of analysis. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 15(3), 227–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Draganidis, F., & Mentzas, G. (2006). Competency based management: A review of systems and approaches. Information Management & Computer Security, 14(1), 51–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dutton, J. E., Dukerich, J. M., & Harquail, C. V. (1994). Organizational images and member identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 57–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Evan, W., & Zelditch, M. (1961). A laboratory experiment on bureaucratic authority. American Sociological Review, 26, 883–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ferris, D. L., Lian, H., Brown, D. J., Pang, F. X. J., & Keeping, L. M. (2010). Self-esteem and job performance: The moderating role of self-esteem contingencies. Personnel Psychology, 63, 561–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gardner, W. L., Cogliser, C. C., Davis, K. M., & Dickens, M. P. (2011). Authentic leadership: A review of the literature and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(6), 1120–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. George, W., & Sims, P. (2007). True north: Discover your authentic leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  22. Giallonardo, L. M., Wong, C. A., & Iwasiw, C. L. (2010). Authentic leadership of preceptors: Predictor of new graduate nurses’ work engagement and job satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(8), 993–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goldstein, H. W., Yusko, K. P., & Nicolopoulos, V. (2001). Exploring black–white subgroup differences of managerial competencies. Personnel Psychology, 54(4), 783–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gong, Y., Kim, T. Y., Zhu, J., & Lee, D. R. (2013). A multilevel model of team goal orientation, information exchange, and creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 56, 827–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gramzow, R. H. (2011). Academic exaggeration: Pushing self-enhancement boundaries. In M. D. Alicke & C. Sedikides (Eds.), Handbook of self-enhancement and self-protection (pp. 455–471). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  26. Harman, H. H. (1960). Modern factor analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hassan, A., & Ahmed, F. (2011). Authentic leadership, trust and work engagement. International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation, 5(8), 1036–1042.Google Scholar
  28. Hmieleski, K. M., Cole, M. S., & Baron, R. A. (2012). Shared authentic leadership and new venture performance. Journal of Management, 38, 1476–1499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hooijberg, R., & Choi, J. (1999). From Austria to the United States and from evaluating therapists to developing cognitive resources theory: An interview with Fred Fiedler. The Leadership Quarterly, 10, 653–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. House, R. J., & Baetz, J. L. (1979). Leadership: Some empirical generalizations and new research directions. Research in Organizational Behavior, 1, 341–423.Google Scholar
  31. Hsieh, C., & Wang, D. (2015). Does supervisor-perceived authentic leadership influence employee work engagement through employee-perceived authentic leadership and employee trust? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(18), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hsiung, H.-H. (2012). Authentic leadership and employee voice behavior: A multi-level psychological process. Journal of Business Ethics, 107, 349–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ilies, R., Morgeson, F. P., & Nahrgang, J. D. (2005). Authentic leadership and eudaemonic well-being: Understanding leader–follower outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 373–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jensen, S. M., & Luthans, F. (2006). Entrepreneurs as authentic leaders: Impact on employees’ attitudes. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 27(8), 646–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jordan, A. H., & Audia, P. G. (2012). Self-enhancement and learning from performance feedback. Academy of Management Review, 37, 211–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Justis, R. T., Kedia, B. L., & Stephens, D. B. (1978). The effect of position power and perceived task competence on trainer effectiveness: A partial utilization of Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership. Personnel Psychology, 31(1), 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724.Google Scholar
  38. Kim, T.-Y., Cable, D., Kim, S., & Wang, J. (2009). Emotional competence and work performance: The mediating effect of proactivity and the moderating effect of job autonomy. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 90, 983–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Korman, A. K. (2001). Self-enhancement and self-protection: Toward a theory of work motivation. In M. Erez, U. Kleinbeck, & H. Thierry (Eds.), Work motivation in the context of a globalizing economy (pp. 121–130). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  40. Kruglanski, A. W. (1980). Lay epistemologic process and contents: Another look at attribution theory. Psychological Reviews, 87, 70–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leroy, H., Anseel, F., Gardner, W. L., & Sels, L. (2015). Authentic leadership, authentic followership, basic need satisfaction, and work role performance: A cross-level study. Journal of Management, 41(6), 1677–1697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Leroy, H., Palanski, M. E., & Simons, T. (2012). Authentic leadership and behavioral integrity as drivers of follower commitment and performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 107, 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Levenson, A. R., Van der Stede, W. A., & Cohen, S. G. (2006). Measuring the relationship between managerial competencies and performance. Journal of Management, 32(3), 360–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liu, J., Lee, C., Hui, C., Kwan, H. K., & Wu, L. Z. (2013). Idiosyncratic deals and organizational contribution: The mediating roles of social exchange and self-enhancement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(5), 832–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Authentic leadership development. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 241–261). San Francisco: Barrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  46. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 99–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Markos, S., & Sridevi, M. S. (2010). Employee engagement: The key to improving performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 89–97.Google Scholar
  48. Mausner, B. (1953). Studies in social interaction: Effect of variation in one partner’s prestige on the interaction of observer pairs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 37(5), 391–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mausner, B. (1954). The effect of one partner’s success in a relevant task on the interaction of observer pairs. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49(4), 557–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. May, D. R., Chan, A., Hodges, T., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Developing the moral component of authentic leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 32(3), 247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. O’Boyle, E. H., Humphrey, R. H., Pollack, J. M., Hawver, T. H., & Story, P. A. (2011). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(5), 788–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  53. Owens, B., & Hekman, D. R. (2012). Modeling how to grow: An inductive examination of humble leader behaviors, outcomes, and contingencies. Academy of Management Journal, 55(4), 787–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Penger, S., & Černe, M. (2014). Authentic leadership, employees’ job satisfaction, and work engagement: A hierarchical linear modelling approach. Economic Research, 27(1), 508–526.Google Scholar
  55. Peus, C., Wesche, J. S., Streicher, B., Braun, S., & Frey, D. (2012). Authentic leadership: An empirical test of its antecedents, consequences, and mediating mechanisms. Journal of Business Ethics, 107, 331–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Podsakoff, P. M., Todor, W. D., & Schuler, R. (1983). Leader expertise as a moderator of the effects of instrumental and supportive leader behaviors. Journal of Management, 9, 173–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Assessing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42(1), 185–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rich, B. L., LePine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 53(3), 617–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Robinson, I. (2006). Human resource management in organisations. London: CIPD.Google Scholar
  61. Salanova, M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Job resources, engagement and proactive behaviour. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(1), 116–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout and: A confirmative analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sedikides, C., & Strube, M. J. (1997). Self-evaluation: To thine ownself be good, to thine own self be sure, to thine own self be true, and to thine own self be better. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 29, 209–269.Google Scholar
  65. Sosik, J. J., Juzbasich, J., & Chun, J. (2011). Effects of moral reasoning and management level on ratings of charismatic leadership, in-role and extra-role performance of managers: A multi-source examination. Leadership Quarterly, 22, 434–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Stevens, C. K. (1997). Effects of preinterview beliefs on applicants’ reactions to campus interviews. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 947–966.Google Scholar
  67. Sulea, C., Virga, D., Maricutoiu, L. P., Schaufeli, W., Dumitru, C. Z., & Sava, F. A. (2012). Work engagement as mediator between job characteristics and positive and negative extra-role behaviors. Career Development International, 17(3), 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tett, R. P., Guterman, H. A., Bleier, A., & Murphy, P. J. (2000). Development and content validation of a hyper dimensional taxonomy of managerial competence. Human Performance, 13(3), 205–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tourangeau, R., Rips, L. J., & Rasinski, K. (2000). The psychology of survey response. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management, 34(1), 89–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wang, H., Sui, Y., Luthans, F., Wang, D., & Wu, Y. (2014). Impact of authentic leadership on performance: Role of followers’ positive psychological capital and relational processes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(1), 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wong, C. A., & Cummings, G. G. (2009). The influence of authentic leadership behaviors on trust and work outcomes of health care staff. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(2), 6–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wong, C. A., Spence Laschinger, H. K., & Cummings, G. G. (2010). Authentic leadership and nurses’ voice behaviour and perceptions of care quality. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(8), 889–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yagil, D., & Medler-Liraz, H. (2014). Service employees’ trait authenticity and customer satisfaction. In W. J. Zerbe, N. M. Ashkanasy, & C. E. J. Härtel (Eds.), Individual sources, dynamics, and expressions of emotion (pp. 169–185). Bingley: Emerald Group.Google Scholar
  76. Yukl, G., & Lepsinger, R. (2005). Why integrating the leading and managing roles is essential for organizational effectiveness. Organizational Dynamics, 34(4), 361–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Yukl, G. A. (2002). Leadership in organizations (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  78. Yun, S., Takeuchi, R., & Liu, W. (2007). Employee self-enhancement motives and job performance behaviors: Investigating the moderating effects of employee role ambiguity and managerial perceptions of employee commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 745–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Business AdministrationTongji UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Business AdministrationShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of Business AdministrationZayed UniversityDubaiUnited Arab Emirates
  4. 4.Department of Business AdministrationCentral University of Finance and EconomicsBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations