Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 151, Issue 2, pp 579–598 | Cite as

Are Ethical Consumers Happy? Effects of Ethical Consumers' Motivations Based on Empathy Versus Self-orientation on Their Happiness

  • Kumju Hwang
  • Hyewon Kim
Article

Abstract

Studies on fair-trade consumption have concentrated on economic, demographic, and ethical issues, and research on consumers’ moral emotions and self-orientation is limited. Although consumers’ satisfaction with their consumption has been emphasized in consumer studies and marketing, little substantive empirical research has addressed ethical consumers’ emotional satisfaction and the link between their motivations and happiness. This study focused on ethical consumers who regularly purchase fair-trade coffee to understand their moral emotions and self-orientation as motivations for fair-trade consumption and determine whether empathy and self-oriented motivations led to their happiness. A survey was conducted on 471 regular purchasers of at least one cup of fair-trade coffee weekly or a pack of fair-trade coffee beans monthly. The survey data were analyzed using partial least squares. The results showed that guilt was positively associated with empathy, which positively influenced self-actualization. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, empathy did not elicit consumers’ happiness. As expected, narcissism affected self-actualization, which in turn elicited happiness. Happiness was positively associated with customers’ repurchase intentions for fair-trade coffee. The results of this study demonstrate the strong associations of the paths from narcissism to self-actualization, self-actualization to happiness, and self-actualization to repurchase intentions compared to the paths from guilt to empathy, empathy to happiness, and empathy to repurchase intentions. Contrary to common expectations, the results indicate that self-oriented motivations focused on self-actualization rather than moral emotions (guilt and empathy) play key roles in ethical consumers’ happiness with fair-trade consumption.

Keywords

Empathy Fair-trade coffee Guilt Happiness Narcissism Repurchase intention Self-actualization 

References

  1. Andorfer, V. A., & Liebe, U. (2014). Do information, price, or morals influence ethical consumption? A natural field experiment & customer survey on the purchase of fair trade coffee. Social Science Research, 52, 330–350.Google Scholar
  2. Arli, D., Leo, C., & Tjiptono, F. (2016). Investigating the impact of guilt and shame proneness on consumer ethics: A cross national study. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 40(1), 2–13.Google Scholar
  3. Arnot, C., Boxall, P. C., & Cash, S. B. (2006). Do ethical consumers care about price? A revealed preference analysis of fair trade coffee purchases. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d’agroeconomie, 54(4), 555–565.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, L. (2012). Buying into social change how private consumption choices engender concern for the collective. The Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science, 644(1), 191–206.Google Scholar
  5. Audebrand, L. K., & Pauchant, T. C. (2009). Can the fair trade movement enrich traditional business ethics? An historical study of its founders in mexico. Journal of Business Ethics, 87(3), 343–353.Google Scholar
  6. Auger, P., & Devinney, T. M. (2007). Do what consumers say matter? The misalignment of preferences with unconstrained ethical intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 76(4), 361–383.Google Scholar
  7. Babin, B. J., & Griffin, M. (1998). The nature of satisfaction: An updated examination & analysis. Journal of Business Research, 41(2), 127–136.Google Scholar
  8. Baier, K. (Ed.). (1993). Egoism. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  9. Ballet, J., & Carimentrand, A. (2010). Fair trade and the depersonalization of ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 92(2), 317–330.Google Scholar
  10. Banai, E., Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2005). “Self object” needs in Kohut’s self psychology: Links with attachment, self-cohesion, affect regulation, & adjustment. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 22(2), 224.Google Scholar
  11. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.Google Scholar
  12. Basil, D. Z., Ridgway, N. M., & Basil, M. D. (2008). Guilt & giving: A process model of empathy & efficacy. Psychology & Marketing, 25(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
  13. Basu, A. K., & Hicks, R. L. (2008). Label performance & the willingness to pay for fair trade coffee: A cross-national perspective. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 32(5), 470–478.Google Scholar
  14. Batson, C. (1991). The altruism question: Toward a social-psychological answer. Hillside, NJ: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  15. Batson, C. D. (1998). Altruism and prosocial behavior. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 282–316). Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  16. Batson, C. D., & Oleson, K. C. (1991). Current status of the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Review of personality & social psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 62–85). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Bayton, J. A. (1958). Motivation, cognition, learning: Basic factors in consumer behavior. The Journal of Marketing, 22, 282–289.Google Scholar
  18. Beaumont, S. L. (2009). Identity processing & personal wisdom: An information-oriented identity style predicts self-actualization & self-transcendence. Identity: An International Journal of Theory & Research, 9(2), 95–115.Google Scholar
  19. Bird, K., & Hughes, D. R. (1997). Ethical consumerism: The case of “fairly-traded” coffee. Business Ethics: A European Review, 6(3), 159–167.Google Scholar
  20. Bollen, K. A., & Stine, R. (1990). Direct and indirect effects: Classical and bootstrap estimates of variability. Sociological Methodology, 20(1), 15–140.Google Scholar
  21. Boonan, A., Huisman, W., Sarrucco-Fedorovtsjev, E., & Sarrucco, T. (2011). Fair trade facts & figures, a success story for producers and consumers. Culemborg: The Dutch Association of Worldshops.Google Scholar
  22. Brooker, G. (1976). The self-actualizing socially conscious consumer. Journal of Consumer Research, 3, 107–112.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, E., Dury, S., & Holdsworth, M. (2009). Motivations of consumers that use local, organic fruit and vegetable box schemes in Central England and Southern France. Appetite, 53(2), 183–188.Google Scholar
  24. Burnett, M. S., & Lunsford, D. A. (1994). Conceptualizing guilt in the consumer decision-making process. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 11(3), 33–43.Google Scholar
  25. Cailleba, P., & Casteran, H. (2010). Do ethical values work? A quantitative study of the impact of fair trade coffee on consumer behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(4), 613–624.Google Scholar
  26. Caprariello, P. A., & Reis, H. T. (2013). To do, to have, or to share? Valuing experiences over material possessions depends on the involvement of others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(2), 199.Google Scholar
  27. Carrigan, M., & Attalla, A. (2001). The myth of the ethical consumer-do ethics matter in purchase behavior. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(7), 560–578.Google Scholar
  28. Cha, T. H., & Ha, J. Y. (2010). Why do consumers purchase fair trade products? Exploratory study. Journal of Consumption Culture, 13(1), 1–20.Google Scholar
  29. Chamberlain, J. M., & Haaga, D. A. (2001). Unconditional self-acceptance and psychological health. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 19(3), 163–176.Google Scholar
  30. Chang, C. T. (2011). Guilt appeals in cause-related marketing: The subversive roles of product type and donation magnitude. International Journal of Advertising, 30(4), 587–616.Google Scholar
  31. Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern Methods for Business Research, 295(2), 295–336.Google Scholar
  32. Chowdhury, R. M., & Fernando, M. (2013). The role of spiritual well-being and materialism in determining consumers’ ethical beliefs: An empirical study with Australian consumers. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(1), 61–79.Google Scholar
  33. Cialdini, R. B., Brown, S. L., Lewis, B. P., Luce, C., & Neuberg, S. L. (1997). Reinterpreting the empathy–altruism relationship: When one into one equals oneness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(3), 481.Google Scholar
  34. Cialdini, R. B., Schaller, M., Houlihan, D., Arps, K., Fultz, J., & Beaman, A. L. (1987). Empathy-based helping: Is it selflessly or selfishly motivated? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(4), 749.Google Scholar
  35. Cimbora, D., & McIntosh, D. (2005). Understanding the link between moral emotions & behavior. In A. V. Clark (Ed.), Psychology of moods (pp. 1–27). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  36. Compton, W. C. (2005). Introduction to positive psychology. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  37. Cooper, A. M. (2000). Further developments in clinical diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. In E. F. Ronningstam (Ed.), Disorders of narcissism. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  38. Cranfield, J., Henson, S., Northey, J., & Masakure, O. (2010). An assessment of consumer preference for fair trade coffee in Toronto and Vancouver. Agribusiness, 26(2), 307–325.Google Scholar
  39. Daviron, B., & Ponte, S. (2005). The coffee paradox: Global markets, commodity trade & the elusive promise of development. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  40. De Ferran, F., & Grunert, K. G. (2007). French fair trade coffee buyers’ purchasing motives: An exploratory study using means-end chains analysis. Food Quality and Preference, 18(2), 218–229.Google Scholar
  41. De Pelsmacker, P., Driesen, L., & Rayp, G. (2003) Are fair trade labels good business? Ethics & coffee buying intentions. Working Paper of Faculty of Economics & Business Administration, Ghent, Belgium.Google Scholar
  42. De Pelsmacker, P., Driesen, L., & Rayp, G. (2005a). Do consumers care about ethics? Willingness to pay for fair-trade coffee. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 39(2), 363–385.Google Scholar
  43. De Pelsmacker, P., Janssens, W., & Mielants, C. (2005b). Consumer values & fair-trade beliefs, attitudes & buying behavior. International Review on Public & Non Profit Marketing, 2(2), 50–69.Google Scholar
  44. Desmeules, R. (2002). The impact of variety on consumer happiness: Marketing & the tyranny of freedom. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 12, 1–18.Google Scholar
  45. Devinney, T. M., Auger, P., & Eckhardt, G. (2012). Can the socially responsible consumer be mainstream? Retrieved May 10, 2015 from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2153784.
  46. Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. (2002). Very happy people. Psychological Science, 13(1), 81–84.Google Scholar
  47. Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Beyond money toward an economy of well-being. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5(1), 1–31.Google Scholar
  48. Dolan-Henderson, A. A. (2003). Shame, guilt, & ethical orientation. Unpublished psychology dissertation, Faculty of the Graduate School, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin.Google Scholar
  49. Doran, C. J. (2009). The role of personal values in fair trade consumption. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(4), 549–563.Google Scholar
  50. Doran, C. J. (2010). Fair trade consumption: In support of the out-group. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(4), 527–541.Google Scholar
  51. Dunn, E. W., Aknin, L. B., & Norton, M. I. (2008). Spending money on others promotes happiness. Science (New York), 319(5870), 1687–1688.Google Scholar
  52. Eisenberg, N. (2000). Emotion, regulation, & moral development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51(1), 665–697.Google Scholar
  53. Eisenberg, N., & Miller, P. A. (1987). The relation of empathy to prosocial & related behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 101(1), 91.Google Scholar
  54. Emmons, R. A. (1987). Narcissism: Theory & measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 11.Google Scholar
  55. Escalas, J. E., & Stern, B. B. (2003). Sympathy & empathy: Emotional responses to advertising dramas. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(4), 566–578.Google Scholar
  56. Fair-Trade International (FLO). (1997). Retrieved May 10, 2015 from http://www.fairtrade.net/.
  57. Fair-Trade Marketing Organization (FMO) Korea. (2014). Retrieved May 10, 2015 from http://ekf.or.kr/main/index.php.
  58. Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO). (2014). Retrieved June 22, 2016 from http://www.fairtrade.net/.
  59. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 382–388.Google Scholar
  60. Freestone, O. M., & McGoldrick, P. J. (2008). Motivations of the ethical consumer. Journal of Business Ethics, 79(4), 445–467.Google Scholar
  61. Fridell, G. (2007). Fair-trade coffee and commodity fetishism: The limits of market-driven social justice. Historical Materialism, 15(4), 79–104.Google Scholar
  62. Giacalone, R. A., Paul, K., & Jurkiewicz, C. L. (2005). A preliminary investigation into the role of positive psychology in consumer sensitivity to corporate social performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 58(4), 295–305.Google Scholar
  63. Gilovich, T., Kumar, A., & Jampol, L. (2014). A wonderful life: Experiential consumption and the pursuit of happiness. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 25(1), 138–151.Google Scholar
  64. Grankvist, G., Dahlstrand, U., & Biel, A. (2004). The impact of environmental labelling on consumer preference: Negative vs. positive labels. Journal of Consumer Policy, 27(2), 213–230.Google Scholar
  65. Green, T., & Peloza, J. (2014). How do consumers infer corporate social responsibility? The role of organisation size. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 13(4), 282–293.Google Scholar
  66. Gregory-Smith, D., Smith, A., & Winklhofer, H. (2013). Emotions and dissonance in ‘ethical’ consumption choices. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(11–12), 1201–1223.Google Scholar
  67. Griffiths, P. (2012). Ethical objections to fair-trade. Journal of Business Ethics, 105(3), 357–373.Google Scholar
  68. Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., & Van den Bergh, B. (2010). Going green to be seen: Status, reputation, and conspicuous conservation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(3), 392.Google Scholar
  69. Grunert, K. G., Hieke, S., & Wills, J. (2014). Sustainability labels on food products: Consumer motivation, understanding and use. Food Policy, 44, 177–189.Google Scholar
  70. Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 19(2), 139–152.Google Scholar
  71. Harder, D. W., & Lewis, S. J. (1987). The assessment of shame and guilt. Advances in Personality Assessment, 6, 89–114.Google Scholar
  72. Harris, N. (2003). Reassessing the dimensionality of the moral emotions. British Journal of Psychology, 94(4), 457–473.Google Scholar
  73. Hellén, K., & Sääksjärvi, M. (2011). Happiness as a predictor of service quality & commitment for utilitarian & hedonic services. Psychology & Marketing, 28(9), 934–957.Google Scholar
  74. Hemingway, C. A., & Maclagan, P. W. (2004). Managers’ personal values as drivers of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 50(1), 33–44.Google Scholar
  75. Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009a). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing (AIM), 20, 277–320.Google Scholar
  76. Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009b). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing (AIM), 20, 277–320.Google Scholar
  77. Heo, E. J. (2011). Determinants of consumer’s attitude and purchase intention on the ethical products. Korean Journal of Consumer Studies, 22(2), 89–111.Google Scholar
  78. Herrmann, A., Hahn, C. H., Johnson, M. D., & Huber, F. (2002). Capturing customer heterogeneity using a finite mixture PLS approach. Schmalenbach Business Review (SBR), 54, 243–269.Google Scholar
  79. Hibbert, S., Smith, A., Davies, A., & Ireland, F. (2007). Guilt appeals: Persuasion knowledge and charitable giving. Psychology & Marketing, 24(8), 723–742.Google Scholar
  80. Hoffman, M. L. (2000). Empathy & moral development: Implications for caring & justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Howard, J. A., & Sheth, J. N. (1969). The theory of buyer behavior. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  82. Hsee, C. K., & Rottenstreich, Y. (2004). Music, pandas, & muggers: On the affective psychology of value. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133(1), 23.Google Scholar
  83. Huang, M. H., & Rust, R. T. (2011). Sustainability & consumption. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(1), 40–54.Google Scholar
  84. Hunecke, M., Blöbaum, A., Matthies, E., & Höger, R. (2001). Responsibility and environment ecological norm orientation and external factors in the domain of travel mode choice behavior. Environment and Behavior, 33(6), 830–852.Google Scholar
  85. Ito, R. (2009). The commodification of social justice. Saeculum Undergraduate Academic Journal, 4(2), 1–13.Google Scholar
  86. Iyer, R., & Muncy, J. A. (2008). Service recovery in marketing education: It’s what we do that counts. Journal of Marketing Education, 30(1), 21–32.Google Scholar
  87. Julien, P., & Ramangalahy, C. (2003). Competitive strategy and performance of exporting SMEs: An empirical investigation of the impact of their export information search and competencies. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(3), 227–245.Google Scholar
  88. Kim, S., Thibodeau, R., & Jorgensen, R. S. (2011). Shame, guilt, & depressive symptoms: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), 68.Google Scholar
  89. Kimura, A., Mukawa, N., Yamamoto, M., Masuda, T., Yuasa, M., Goto, S., et al. (2012). The influence of reputational concerns on purchase intention of fair-trade foods among young Japanese adults. Food Quality and Preference, 26(2), 204–210.Google Scholar
  90. Kochanska, G., Forman, D. R., Aksan, N., & Dunbar, S. B. (2005). Pathways to conscience: Early mother–child mutually responsive orientation & children’s moral emotion, conduct, & cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(1), 19–34.Google Scholar
  91. Krebs, D. (1975). Empathy and altruism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(6), 1134.Google Scholar
  92. Kugler, K., & Jones, W. H. (1992). On conceptualizing & assessing guilt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(2), 318.Google Scholar
  93. Ladhari, R., & Tchetgna, N. M. (2015). The influence of personal values on Fair Trade consumption. Journal of Cleaner Production, 87, 469–477.Google Scholar
  94. Lasch, C. (1979). The culture of narcissism: American life in an age of diminishing expectations. New York: Warner.Google Scholar
  95. Lee, M. Y., Jackson, V., Miller-Spillman, K. A., & Ferrell, E. (2015a). Female consumers’ intention to be involved in fair-trade product consumption in the US: The role of previous experience, product features, and perceived benefits. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 23, 91–98.Google Scholar
  96. Lee, M., Jackson, V., Miller-Spillman, K. A., & Ferrell, E. (2015b). Female consumers’ intention to be involved in fair-trade product consumption in the US: The role of previous experience, product features, & perceived benefits. Journal of Retailing & Consumer Services, 23, 91–98.Google Scholar
  97. Lee, K. H., Yang, G., & Graham, J. L. (2006). Tension and trust in international business negotiations: American executives negotiating with Chinese executives. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(5), 623–641.Google Scholar
  98. Lindsey, L. L. M. (2005). Anticipated guilt as behavioral motivation an examination of appeals to help unknown others through bone marrow donation. Human Communication Research, 31(4), 453–481.Google Scholar
  99. Locke, R. M., Reavis, C., & Cameron, D. (2010). Fair trade coffee: The mainstream debate. Sloan Management MIT, Creative Commons, 27.Google Scholar
  100. Loureiro, M. L., & Lotade, J. (2005). Do fair trade and eco-labels in coffee wake up the consumer conscience? Ecological Economics, 53(1), 129–138.Google Scholar
  101. Lu, L., & Shih, J. B. (1997). Sources of happiness: A qualitative approach. The Journal of Social Psychology, 137(2), 181–187.Google Scholar
  102. Lyon, S. (2006). Evaluating fair trade consumption: Politics, defetishization and producer participation. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30(5), 452–464.Google Scholar
  103. Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46(2), 137–155.Google Scholar
  104. Ma, Y. J., & Lee, H. H. (2012). Understanding consumption behaviours for fair trade non-food products: Focusing on self-transcendence and openness to change values. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 36(6), 622–634.Google Scholar
  105. Maietta, O. W. (2003). The hedonic price of fair trade coffee for the Italian consumer. In Proceedings of the international conference on agricultural policy reform and the WTO: Where are we heading. Google Scholar
  106. Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation & personality. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  107. McDonald, S., Oates, C. J., Young, C. W., & Hwang, K. (2006). Toward sustainable consumption: Researching voluntary simplifiers. Psychology & Marketing, 23(6), 515–534.Google Scholar
  108. McEachern, M. G., Warnaby, G., Carrigan, M., & Szmigin, I. (2010). Thinking locally, acting locally? Conscious consumers and farmers’ markets. Journal of Marketing Management, 26(5–6), 395–412.Google Scholar
  109. McGowan, K. (2006). The pleasure paradox. Psychology Today, 38, 52–55.Google Scholar
  110. Mellers, B. A., & McGraw, A. P. (2001). Anticipated emotions as guides to choice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(6), 210–214.Google Scholar
  111. Menesini, E., & Camodeca, M. (2008). Shame & guilt as behaviour regulators: Relationships with bullying, victimization & prosocial behavior. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26(2), 183–196.Google Scholar
  112. Miceli, M., & Castelfranchi, C. (1998). How to silence one’s conscience: Cognitive defenses against the feeling of guilt. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 28(3), 287–318.Google Scholar
  113. Munro, D., Bore, M., & Powis, D. (2005). Personality factors in professional ethical behaviour: Studies of empathy & narcissism. Australian Journal of Psychology, 57(1), 49–60.Google Scholar
  114. Naderi, I., & Strutton, D. (2014). Can normal narcissism be managed to promote green product purchases? Investigating a counterintuitive proposition. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(5), 375–391.Google Scholar
  115. Nam, S. K. (2012). Development & validation of consumer happiness scale. Korean Journal of Consumer & Advertising Psychology, 13(3), 403–420.Google Scholar
  116. Nicholls, A., & Lee, N. (2006). Purchase decision-making in fair trade and the ethical purchase ‘gap’: ‘Is there a fair trade twix?’. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 14(4), 369–386.Google Scholar
  117. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychological theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  118. O’Connor, L. E., Berry, J. W., Weiss, J., Bush, M., & Sampson, H. (1997). Interpersonal guilt: The development of a new measure. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53(1), 73–89.Google Scholar
  119. O’Connor, L., Berry, J. W., & Weiss, J. (1999). Interpersonal guilt, shame, and psychological problems. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18(2), 181–203.Google Scholar
  120. Oliver, R. L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents & consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17, 460–469.Google Scholar
  121. Onwezen, M. C., Bartels, J., & Antonides, G. (2014). Environmentally friendly consumer choices: Cultural differences in the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 40, 239–248.Google Scholar
  122. Ozcaglar-Toulouse, N., Shiu, E., & Shaw, D. (2006). In search of fair trade: Ethical consumer decision making in France. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30(5), 502–514.Google Scholar
  123. Park, M. H., & Kang, L. J. (2009). Study on the concept & practice of ethical consumption. Journal of Korean Living Science Association, 18(5), 1047–1062.Google Scholar
  124. Peattie, K. (2001). Golden goose or wild goose? The hunt for the green consumer. Business Strategy and the Environment, 10(4), 187.Google Scholar
  125. Peloza, J., White, K., & Shang, J. (2013). Good and guilt-free: The role of self-accountability in influencing preferences for products with ethical attributes. Journal of Marketing, 77(1), 104–119.Google Scholar
  126. Phang, C. W., Sutanto, J., Kankanhalli, A., Li, Y., Tan, B. C., & Teo, H. H. (2006). Senior citizens’ acceptance of information systems: A study in the context of e-government services. Engineering Management, 53(4), 555–569.Google Scholar
  127. Pizarro, D. A., & Salovey, P. (2002). Being & becoming a good person: The role of emotional intelligence in moral development & behavior. Improving Academic Achievement: Impact of Psychological Factors on Education, 12, 248–268.Google Scholar
  128. Porter, L. W. (1963). Job attitudes in management: IV. Perceived deficiencies in need fulfillment as a function of size of company. Journal of Applied Psychology, 47(6), 386.Google Scholar
  129. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(4), 717–731.Google Scholar
  130. Raskin, R. N., & Hall, C. S. (1979). A narcissistic personality inventory. Psychological Reports, 45(2), 590.Google Scholar
  131. Raynolds, L. T. (2000). Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements. Agriculture and Human Values, 17(3), 297–309.Google Scholar
  132. Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary & sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(2), 95.Google Scholar
  133. Rogers, C. R. (1964). Toward a modern approach to values: The valuing process in the mature person. The Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 68(2), 160.Google Scholar
  134. Rüsch, N., Corrigan, P. W., Bohus, M., Jacob, G. A., Brueck, R., & Lieb, K. (2007). Measuring shame and guilt by self-report questionnaires: A validation study. Psychiatry Research, 150(3), 313–325.Google Scholar
  135. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069.Google Scholar
  136. Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719.Google Scholar
  137. Ryu, M. H., & Lee, S. S. (2013). A study on information needs according to purchase attitude & intention of fair trade products. Journal of Consumer Policy Studies, 44(1), 1–26.Google Scholar
  138. Scheler, M. (1973). Formalism in ethics & non-formal ethics of values: A new attempt toward the foundation of an ethical personalism (pp. 1–620). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  139. Schultz, P. W., & Zelezny, L. (2003). Reframing environmental messages to be congruent with American values. Human Ecology Review, 10(2), 126–136.Google Scholar
  140. Sedikides, C., Gregg, A. P., Cisek, S., & Hart, C. M. (2007). The I that buys: Narcissists as consumers. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17(4), 254–257.Google Scholar
  141. Sedikides, C., Hart, C. M., Cisek, S. Z., & Routledge, C. (2013). Finding meaning in the mirror: The existential pursuits of narcissists. In J. A. Hicks & C. Routledge (Eds.), The experience of meaning in life classical perspectives, emerging themes, and controversies (pp. 189–200). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  142. Seligman, M. E. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, & positive therapy. Handbook of Positive Psychology, 2, 3–12.Google Scholar
  143. Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Special issue on happiness, excellence, and optimal human functioning. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–183.Google Scholar
  144. Shaw, D., & Shiu, E. (2002). The role of ethical obligation and self-identity in ethical consumer choice. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26(2), 109–116.Google Scholar
  145. Shaw, D., & Shiu, E. (2003). Ethics in consumer choice: A multivariate modelling approach. European Journal of Marketing, 37(10), 1485–1498.Google Scholar
  146. Shaw, D., Shiu, E., & Clarke, I. (2000). The contribution of ethical obligation and self-identity to the theory of planned behaviour: An exploration of ethical consumers. Journal of Marketing Management, 16(8), 879–894.Google Scholar
  147. Snyder, C. R., Lopez, S. J., Aspinwall, L., Fredrickson, B. L., Haidt, J., Keltner, D., et al. (2002). The future of positive psychology: A declaration of independence (Vol. 829). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  148. Solomon, M. R., Bamossy, G. J., & Askegaard, S. (1999). Consumer behaviour, a European perspective. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  149. Soscia, I. (2007). Gratitude, delight, or guilt: The role of consumers’ emotions in predicting post consumption behaviors. Psychology & Marketing, 24(10), 871–894.Google Scholar
  150. Sparks, P., Shepherd, R., & Frewer, L. J. (1995). Assessing and structuring attitudes toward the use of gene technology in food production: The role of perceived ethical obligation. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16(3), 267–285.Google Scholar
  151. Steenhaut, S., & Van Kenhove, P. (2006). An empirical investigation of the relationships among a consumer’s personal values, ethical ideology and ethical beliefs. Journal of Business Ethics, 64(2), 137–155.Google Scholar
  152. Stone, M. H. (2000). Normal narcissism: An etiological & ethological perspective. In E. F. Ronningstam (Ed.), Disorders of narcissism. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  153. Stratton, J. P., & Werner, M. J. (2013). Consumer behavior analysis of fair trade coffee: Evidence from field research. The Psychological Record, 63(2), 363.Google Scholar
  154. Strelan, P. (2007). Who forgives others, themselves, & situations? The roles of narcissism, guilt, self-esteem, & agreeableness. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(2), 259–269.Google Scholar
  155. Tangney, J. P. (1991). Moral affect: The good, the bad, & the ugly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(4), 598.Google Scholar
  156. Tangney, J. P., & Dearing, R. L. (2002). Emotions and social behavior. Shame and guilt. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  157. Tangney, J. P. E., & Fischer, K. W. (1995). Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, & pride. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  158. Taylor, P. L. (2005). In the market but not of it: Fair trade coffee and forest stewardship council certification as market-based social change. World Development, 33(1), 129–147.Google Scholar
  159. Taylor, J. E., & Boasson, V. (2014). Who buys fair trade and why (or why not)? A random survey of households. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 48(2), 418–430.Google Scholar
  160. Totan, T., Doğan, T., & Sapmaz, F. (2013). Emotional self-efficacy, emotional empathy and emotional approach coping as sources of happiness. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 8(2), 247–256.Google Scholar
  161. Tsang, E. (2002). Acquiring knowledge by foreign partners from international joint ventures in a transition economy: Learning-by-doing and learning myopia. Strategic Management Journal, 23(9), 835–854.Google Scholar
  162. Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2008). Increases in positive self-views among high school students: Birth-cohort changes in anticipated performance, self-satisfaction, self-liking, & self-competence. Psychological Science, 19(11), 1082–1086.Google Scholar
  163. Valkila, J. (2009). Fair trade organic coffee production in Nicaragua—Sustainable development or a poverty trap? Ecological Economics, 68(12), 3018–3025.Google Scholar
  164. Van Stokkom, B. (2002). Moral emotions in restorative justice conferences. Managing shame, designing empathy. Theoretical Criminology, 6(3), 339–360.Google Scholar
  165. Velov, B., Gojković, V., & Đurić, V. (2014). Materialism, narcissism & the attitide towards conspicuous consumption. Psihologija, 47(1), 113–129.Google Scholar
  166. Vermeir, I., & Verbeke, W. (2006). Sustainable food consumption: Exploring the consumer “attitude–behavioral intention” gap. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 19(2), 169–194.Google Scholar
  167. Vetlesen, A. J. (1994). Perception, empathy, and judgment: An inquiry into the preconditions of moral performance. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  168. Wang, X. (2011). The role of anticipated negative emotions and past behavior in individuals’ physical activity intentions and behaviors. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(3), 300–305.Google Scholar
  169. White, K., MacDonnell, R., & Ellard, J. H. (2012). Belief in a just world: Consumer intentions and behaviors toward ethical products. Journal of Marketing, 76(1), 103–118.Google Scholar
  170. White, K., & Peloza, J. (2009). Self-benefit versus other-benefit marketing appeals: Their effectiveness in generating charitable support. Journal of Marketing, 73(4), 109–124.Google Scholar
  171. Williams, C. (2014). Fair trade coffee: A good choice for sustainability? Journal of the National Centre for Sustainability, 1, 1–8.Google Scholar
  172. Wink, P., Dillon, M., & Fay, K. (2005). Spiritual seeking, narcissism, & psychotherapy: How are they related? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 44(2), 143–158.Google Scholar
  173. Wold, H. (1975). Path models with latent variables. New York: Seminar Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Business Administration, College of Business and EconomicsChung-Ang UniversityDongjak-guSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations