Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 149, Issue 4, pp 769–784 | Cite as

“Why Does all the Girls have to Buy Pink Stuff?” The Ethics and Science of the Gendered Toy Marketing Debate

  • Cordelia Fine
  • Emma Rush
Article

Abstract

The gendered marketing of children’s toys is under considerable scrutiny, as reflected by numerous consumer-led campaigns and vigorous media debates. This article seeks to assist stakeholders to better understand the ethical and scientific assumptions that underlie the two opposing positions in this debate, and assess their relative strength. There is apparent consensus in the underlying ethical foundations of the debate, with all commentators seeming to endorse the values of corporate social responsibility and gender equality. However, the debate splits over three critical points of empirical disagreement: whether gendered toy marketing influences children’s toy preferences or simply reflects boys’ and girls’ fundamentally different interests; whether the effects of gendered toy marketing are negative, neutral or beneficial; and whether a shift to gender-neutral marketing would be economically viable. We assess the three points of disagreement against the available evidence and shared ethical principles underlying the debate, and conclude that current defences of gendered toy marketing fail.

Keywords

Essentialism Ethics Gender stereotypes Marketing Toys Corporate social responsibility 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Cordelia Fine was supported by Australian Research Council Future Fellowship FT110100658 during the preparation of this work. The authors thank Emma Rush's colleagues at the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics and at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, and Cordelia Fine's colleagues at the Melbourne Business School, for their feedback on earlier drafts of this work. The authors additionally thank Rebecca Bigler and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.

References

  1. Ah-King, M. (2009). Toy story: En vetenskaplig kritik av forskningom apors leksakspreferenser. Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, 1, 45–63.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, G., & Wilcox, T. (2012). Sex differences in early infancy. Child Development Perspectives, 6(4), 400–406.Google Scholar
  3. Arthur, A., Bigler, R., Liben, L., Gelman, S., & Ruble, D. (2008). Gender stereotyping and prejudice in young children: A developmental intergroup perspective. In S. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 66–86). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  4. Auster, C., & Mansbach, C. (2012). The gender marketing of toys: An analysis of color and type of toy on the Disney store website. Sex Roles, 67(7–8), 375–388.Google Scholar
  5. Bailey, R. (2011). Letting children be children: Report of an independent review of the commercialisation and sexualisation of childhood. UK: Department for Education.Google Scholar
  6. Bakir, A., Blodgett, J. G., & Rose, G. M. (2008). Children’s responses to gender-role stereotyped advertisements. Journal of Advertising Research, 48, 255–266.Google Scholar
  7. BBC News. (2014, February 6). Aiming toys at just boys or girls hurts economy—minister. BBC News. Retrieved from, http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-26064302.
  8. Bem, S. (1983). Gender schema theory and its implications for child development: Raising gender-aschematic children in a gender-schematic society. SIGNS: Journal of Women in Culture & Society, 8, 598–616.Google Scholar
  9. Berenbaum, S., & Resnick, S. (2007). The seeds of career choices: Prenatal sex hormone effects on psychology sex differences. In S. Ceci & C. Williams (Eds.), Why aren’t more women in science? Top researchers debate the evidence (pp. 147–157). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  10. Bigler, R. (1995). The role of classification skill in moderating environmental influences on children’s gender stereotyping: A study of the functional use of gender in the classroom. Child Development, 66, 1072–1087.Google Scholar
  11. Bigler, R., & Liben, L. (2007). Developmental intergroup theory: Explaining and reducing children’s social stereotyping and prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(3), 162–166.Google Scholar
  12. Blakemore, J., & Centers, R. (2005). Characteristics of boys’ and girls’ toys. Sex Roles, 53(9/10), 619–633.Google Scholar
  13. Booth, A., & Nolen, P. (2012). Choosing to compete: How different are girls and boys? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 81(2), 542–555.Google Scholar
  14. Bradbard, M. R., & Endsley, R. C. (1983). The effects of sex-typed labeling on preschool children’s information-seeking and retention. Sex Roles, 9(2), 247–260.Google Scholar
  15. Bradbard, M. R., Martin, C. L., Endsley, R. C., & Halverson, C. F. (1986). Influence of sex stereotypes on children’s exploration and memory: A competence versus performance distinction. Developmental Psychology, 22(4), 481–486.Google Scholar
  16. Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychological Review, 106(4), 676–713.Google Scholar
  17. Byrnes, J. P., Miller, D. C., & Schafer, W. D. (1999). Gender differences in risk taking: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125(3), 367–383.Google Scholar
  18. Cárdenas, J.-C., Dreber, A., von Essen, E., & Ranehill, E. (2012). Gender differences in competitiveness and risk taking: Comparing children in Colombia and Sweden. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 83(1), 11–23.Google Scholar
  19. Chatard, A., Guimond, S., & Selimbegovic, L. (2007). “How good are you in math?” The effect of gender stereotypes on students’ recollection of their school marks. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(6), 1017–1024.Google Scholar
  20. Cherney, I. D., Kelly-Vance, L., Gill Glover, K., Ruane, A., & Oliver Ryalls, B. (2003). The effects of stereotyped toys and gender on play assessment in children aged 18-47 months. Educational Psychology, 23(1), 95–106.Google Scholar
  21. Clifford, C. (2014, December 4). GoldieBox CEO: How I went from kickstarter to the Macy’s Day parade in two years. Entrepreneur.com. Retrieved from, http://www.entrepreneur.com/video/240370.
  22. Colarelli, S., & Dettman, J. (2003). Intuitive evolutionary perspectives in marketing practices. Psychology & Marketing, 20(9), 837–865.Google Scholar
  23. Connellan, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Batki, A., & Ahluwalia, J. (2000). Sex differences in human neonatal social perception. Infant Behavior & Development, 23, 113–118.Google Scholar
  24. Correll, S. J. (2001). Gender and the career choice process: The role of biased self-assessment. American Journal of Sociology, 106(6), 1691–1730.Google Scholar
  25. Correll, S. J. (2004). Constraints into preferences: Gender, status, and emerging career aspirations. American Sociological Review, 69(1), 93–113.Google Scholar
  26. Crane, A., & Kazmi, B. A. (2010). Business and children: Mapping impacts, managing responsibilities. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(4), 567–586.Google Scholar
  27. Cunningham, S. J., & Macrae, C. N. (2011). The colour of gender stereotyping. British Journal of Psychology, 102(3), 598–614.Google Scholar
  28. Davies, P., Spencer, S., Quinn, D., & Gerhardstein, R. (2002). Consuming images: How television commercials that elicit stereotype threat can restrain women academically and professionally. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(12), 1615–1628.Google Scholar
  29. Davies, P., Spencer, S., & Steele, C. M. (2005). Clearing the air: Identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women’s leadership aspirations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(2), 276–287.Google Scholar
  30. Dearden, L. (2014, December 2). Tony Abbott says campaigners against gendered toys should ‘let boys be boys and girls be girls’. The Independent.  Retrieved from, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/australasia/tony-abbott-says-campaigners-against-gendered-toys-should-let-boys-be-boys-and-girls-be-girls-9897135.html.
  31. Dreber, A., von Essen, E., & Ranehill, E. (2011). Outrunning the gender gap—boys and girls compete equally. Experimental Economics, 14(4), 567–582.Google Scholar
  32. Dreber, A., von Essen, E., & Ranehill, E. (2014). Gender and competition in adolescence: Task matters. Experimental Economics, 17(1), 154–172.Google Scholar
  33. Dupré, J. (2003). Darwin’s legacy: What evolution means today. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Dupré, J. (forthcoming). A postgenomic perspective on sex and gender. In D. Livingstone Smith (Ed.), How biology shapes philosophy: New foundations for naturalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Epstein, A. (2014, May 22). Try telling my little girl it’s sexist to love pink! Irish Daily Mail, p. 38.Google Scholar
  36. Escudero, P., Robbins, R. A., & Johnson, S. P. (2013). Sex-related preferences for real and doll faces versus real and toy objects in young infants and adults. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116(2), 367–379.Google Scholar
  37. Fabes, R., & Eisenberg, N. (1998) Meta-analyses of age and sex differences in children’s and adolescents’ prosocial behavior. Manuscript partially published in, Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1998). Prosocial Development. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child development (5th ed.) (Eisenberg, N. (Ed.) Social, emotional, and personality development (Vol. 3). Retrieved from, http://www.public.asu.edu/~sparky00/fabes/meta.pdf).
  38. Fine, C. (2010). Delusions of gender: How our minds, society, and neurosexism create difference. New York: WW Norton.Google Scholar
  39. Fine, C. (2014, March 31). Biology doesn’t justify gender divide for toys. New Scientist, 222, 28–29.Google Scholar
  40. Fine, C. (2015). Neuroscience, gender and “development to” and from”: The example of toy preferences. In J. Clausen & N. Levy (Eds.), Handbook of neuroethics (pp. 1737–1755). Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  41. Fine, C., & Duke, R. (2015). Expanding the role of gender essentialism in the single-sex education debate: A commentary on Liben. Sex Roles, 72, 427–433.Google Scholar
  42. Glick, P., Lameiras, M., Fiske, S. T., Eckes, T., Masser, B., Volpato, C., et al. (2004). Bad but bold: Ambivalent attitudes toward men predict gender inequality in 16 nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(5), 713–728.Google Scholar
  43. Griffiths, P. E. (2002). What is innateness? The Monist, 85(1), 70–85.Google Scholar
  44. Griner, D., & Ciambriello, R. (2015, January 29). Hugely popular ‘like a girl’ campaign from always will return as a Super Bowl Ad. P&G brand says video has a lasting impact on girls and boys alike. Adweek. Retrieved from, http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/hugely-popular-girl-campaign-always-will-return-sunday-super-bowl-ad-162619.
  45. Grossi, G., & Fine, C. (2012). The role of fetal testosterone in the development of “the essential difference” between the sexes: Some essential issues. In R. Bluhm, A. Jacobson, & H. Maibom (Eds.), Neurofeminism: Issues at the intersection of feminist theory and cognitive neuroscience (pp. 73–104). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  46. Gupta, V. K., & Bhawe, N. M. (2007). The influence of proactive personality and stereotype threat on women’s entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 13(4), 73–85.Google Scholar
  47. Halim, M., Ruble, D., & Amodio, D. (2011). From pink frilly dresses to ‘one of the boys’: A social-cognitive analysis of gender identity development and gender bias. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(11), 933–949.Google Scholar
  48. Halim, M., Ruble, D. N., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Zosuls, K. M., Lurye, L. E., & Greulich, F. K. (2014). Pink frilly dresses and the avoidance of all things “girly”: Children’s appearance rigidity and cognitive theories of gender development. Developmental Psychology, 50(4), 1091–1101.Google Scholar
  49. Haslam, N. (2011). Genetic essentialism, neuroessentialism, and stigma: Comment on Dar-Nimrod & Heine (2011). Psychological Bulletin, 137(5), 819–824.Google Scholar
  50. Haslam, N., Rothschild, L., & Ernst, D. (2000). Essentialist beliefs about social categories. British Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 113–127.Google Scholar
  51. Haslam, N., & Whelan, J. (2008). Human natures: Psychological essentialism in thinking about differences between people. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(3), 1297–1312.Google Scholar
  52. Heilman, M. E., & Parks-Stamm, E. J. (2010). Gender stereotypes in the workplace: Obstacles to women’s career progress. Advances in Group Processes, 24, 47–77.Google Scholar
  53. Hilliard, L. J., & Liben, L. S. (2010). Differing levels of gender salience in preschool classrooms: Effects on children’s gender attitudes and intergroup bias. Child Development, 81(6), 1787–1798.Google Scholar
  54. Hines, M. (2010). Sex-related variation in human behavior and the brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(10), 448–456.Google Scholar
  55. Hines, M. (2011). Gender development and the human brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 34, 69–88.Google Scholar
  56. Hines, M. (2013, July 12). There’s no good reason to push pink toys on girls. The Conversation. Retrieved from, http://theconversation.com/theres-no-good-reason-to-push-pink-toys-on-girls-15830.
  57. Hines, M., Pasterski, V., Spencer, D., Neufeld, S., Patalay, P., Hindmarsh, P. C., et al. (2016). Prenatal androgen exposure alters girls' responses to information indicating gender-appropriate behaviour. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0125.
  58. Hoff Sommers, C. (2012, December 6). You can give a boy a doll, but you can’t make him play with it. The Atlantic. Retrieved from, http://www.theatlantic.com/sexes/archive/2012/12/you-can-give-a-boy-a-doll-but-you-cant-make-him-play-with-it/265977/.
  59. Holehouse, M. (2014, June 28). No gender divisions in toy stores: U.K. minister; No blue, no pink. National Post, p. A2.Google Scholar
  60. Hyde, J. (1984). How large are gender differences in aggression? A developmental meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 20(4), 722–736.Google Scholar
  61. Hyde, J. (2005). The gender similarities hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60(6), 581–592.Google Scholar
  62. Ireland, J. (2014, December 2). ‘No gender December’: Greens senator calls for end to gender-based toys. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from, http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/no-gender-december-greens-senator-calls-for-end-to-genderbased-toys-20141202-11y4ro.html.
  63. Ireland, J. (2015, November 25). Greens get Senate inquiry to look into link between Barbies, toys and domestic violence. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from, http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/greens-link-barbies-trucks-and-childhood-toys-to-domestic-violence-in-call-for-gender-inquiry-20151124-gl716h.html.
  64. Jadva, V., Hines, M., & Golombok, S. (2010). Infants’ preferences for toys, colors, and shapes: Sex differences and similarities. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(6), 1261–1273.Google Scholar
  65. Janacsek, K., Fiser, J., & Nemeth, D. (2012). The best time to acquire new skills: Age-related differences in implicit sequence learning across the human lifespan. Developmental Science, 15(4), 496–505.Google Scholar
  66. Joel, D. (2012). Genetic-gonadal-genitals sex (3G-sex) and the misconception of brain and gender, or, why 3G-males and 3G-females have intersex brain and intersex gender. Biology of Sex Differences, 3(1), 27.Google Scholar
  67. Joel, D. (2014). Sex, gender, and brain: A problem of conceptualization. In S. Schmitz & G. Höppner (Eds.), Gendered neurocultures: Feminist and queer perspectives on current brain discourses (pp. 169–186). Zaglossus: University of Vienna.Google Scholar
  68. Joel, D., Berman, Z., Tavor, I., Wexler, N., Gaber, O., Stein, Y., et al. (2015). Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(50): 15468–15473.Google Scholar
  69. Johnson, F., & Young, K. (2002). Gendered voices in children’s television advertising. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 19(4), 461–480.Google Scholar
  70. Jordan-Young, R. (2010). Brain storm: The flaws in the science of sex differences. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Jordan-Young, R. (2012). Hormones, context, and “Brain Gender”: A review of evidence from congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Social Science and Medicine, 74(11), 1738–1744.Google Scholar
  72. Kahlenberg, S., & Hein, M. (2010). Progression on Nickelodeon? Gender-role stereotypes in toy commercials. Sex Roles, 62(11–12), 830–847.Google Scholar
  73. Kane, E. W. (2012). The gender trap: Parents and the pitfalls of raising boys and girls. New York and London: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Kennett, J. (2011). Science and normative authority. Philosophical Explorations, 14(3), 229–235.Google Scholar
  75. Kunda, Z., & Spencer, S. (2003). When do stereotypes come to mind and when do they color judgment? A goal-based theoretical framework for stereotype activation and application. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 522–544.Google Scholar
  76. Lamminmäki, A., Hines, M., Kuiri-Hänninen, T., Kilpeläinen, L., Dunkel, L., & Sankilampi, U. (2012). Testosterone measured in infancy predicts subsequent sex-typed behavior in boys and in girls. Hormones and Behavior, 61, 611–616.Google Scholar
  77. Let Toys Be Toys (2014, August 9). Toy crazes. Retrieved from, http://www.lettoysbetoys.org.uk/toy-craze/.
  78. Liben, L. (2015). Probability values and human values in evaluating single-sex education. Sex Roles, 72, 401–426.Google Scholar
  79. LoBue, V., & DeLoache, J. S. (2011). Pretty in pink: The early development of gender-stereotyped colour preferences. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29(3), 656–667.Google Scholar
  80. Lowther, M., & Bandtock, N. (2013). Boys will be boys… or will they? Toys ‘n Playthings, June, 34–35.Google Scholar
  81. Martin, C. L., Eisenbud, L., & Rose, H. (1995). Children’s gender-based reasoning about toys. Child Development, 66(5), 1453–1471.Google Scholar
  82. Martin, C. L., & Halverson, C. (1981). A schematic processing model of sex typing and stereotyping in children. Child Development, 52, 1119–1134.Google Scholar
  83. Martin, C. L., & Ruble, D. N. (2004). Children’s search for gender cues: Cognitive perspectives on gender development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(2), 67–70.Google Scholar
  84. Master, A., Markman, E. M., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). Thinking in categories or along a continuum: Consequences for children’s social judgments. Child Development, 83(4), 1145–1163.Google Scholar
  85. Masters, J., Ford, M., Arend, R., Grotevant, H., & Clark, L. (1979). Modeling and labeling as integrated determinants of children’s sex-typed imitative behavior. Child Development, 50, 364–371.Google Scholar
  86. Masunaga, S. (2015, August 10). Target plays catch-up in removing gender-based toy labels. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from, http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-target-gender-labeling-20150810-story.html.
  87. Mesure, S. (2012, December 9). Toys story! The battle of the sexes. The Independent. Retrieved from, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/toys-story-the-battle-of-the-sexes-8395996.html.
  88. Metz, I., & Kulik, C. (2014). The rocky climb: Women’s advancement in management. In S. Kumra, R. Simpson, & R. Burke (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of gender in organizations (pp. 175–199). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Meynell, L. (2008). The power and promise of developmental systems theory. Les Ateliers de L’Éthique, 3(2), 88–103.Google Scholar
  90. Meynell, L. (2012). Evolutionary psychology, ethology, and essentialism (because what they don’t know can hurt us). Hypatia, 27(1), 3–27.Google Scholar
  91. Midgley, C. (2014, September 8). Don’t paint your daughter’s room pink (like I did); Marketers want us to buy into a myth of ‘girlie’ colours, toys, even dreams. The Times, 4–5.Google Scholar
  92. Miller, C., Trautner, H., & Ruble, D. (2006). The role of gender stereotypes in children’s preferences and behavior. In L. Balter & C. Tamis-LeMonda (Eds.), Child psychology: A handbook of contemporary issues (2nd ed., pp. 293–323). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  93. Morrison, S. (2014, September 8). Gender-specific children’s books ‘are easier to sell’, insists children’s book publisher. The Independent. Retrieved from, http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/news/genderspecific-childrens-books-are-easier-to-sell-insists-childrens-book-publisher-9185067.html.
  94. Moseley, A. (2016). Political philosophy: Methodology. In J. Fieser & B. Dowden (Eds.), The internet encylopedia of philosophy. Martin, TN: The University of Tennessee.Google Scholar
  95. Nash, A., & Grossi, G. (2007). Picking Barbie’s brain: Inherent sex differences in scientific ability? Journal of Interdisciplinary Feminist Thought, 2(1), Article 5.Google Scholar
  96. Nelson, J. (2011). Economics for humans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  97. New York Times (2014, December 22). Why should toys come in pink and blue? Retrieved from, http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2014/12/22/why-should-toys-come-in-pink-and-blue?.
  98. O’Brien, M., & Nagle, K. J. (1987). Parents’ speech to toddlers: The effect of play context. Journal of Child Language, 14(02), 269–279.Google Scholar
  99. Okimoto, T., & Brescoll, V. (2010). The price of power: Power seeking and backlash against female politicians. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(7), 923–936.Google Scholar
  100. Olson, E. (2015, January 15). How corporate America is tackling unconscious bias. Fortune. Retrieved from, https://fortune.com/2015/01/15/how-corporate-america-is-tackling-unconscious-bias/.
  101. Orenstein, P. (2011, December 29). Should the world of toys be gender-free? New York Times. Retrieved from, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/30/opinion/does-stripping-gender-from-toys-really-make-sense.html?_r=0.
  102. Paton, G. (2014, January 16). Gender specific toys ‘put girls off’ maths and science, says Education Minister. The Telegraph. Retrieved from, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/10578106/Gender-specific-toys-put-girls-off-maths-and-science.html.
  103. Patterson, M., & Bigler, R. (2006). Preschool children’s attention to environmental messages about groups: Social categorization and the origins of intergroup bias. Child Development, 77(4), 847–860.Google Scholar
  104. Phelan, J., Moss-Rascusin, C., & Rudman, L. (2008). Competent yet out in the cold: Shifting criteria for hiring reflect backlash toward agentic women. Psycholgy of Women Quarterly, 32, 406–413.Google Scholar
  105. Pike, J., & Jennings, N. (2005). The effects of commercials on children’s perceptions of gender appropriate toy use. Sex Roles, 52(1/2), 83–91.Google Scholar
  106. Prentice, D. A., & Carranza, E. (2002). What women and men should be, shouldn’t be, are allowed to be, and don’t have to be: The contents of prescriptive gender stereotypes. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26(4), 269–281.Google Scholar
  107. Radford, B. (2011, December 29). The four-year-old feminist sensation—some questions, 2011. Retrieved from, http://news.discovery.com/human/psychology/riley-four-year-old-feminist-111229.htm.
  108. Rothbart, M., & Taylor, M. (1992). Category labels and social reality: Do we view social categories as natural kinds? In G. R. Semin & K. E. Fiedler (Eds.), Language, interaction and social cognition (pp. 11–36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  109. Rudman, L., & Glick, P. (1999). Feminized management and backlash toward agentic women: The hidden costs to women of a kinder, gentler image of middle managers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1004–1010.Google Scholar
  110. Rudman, L., & Glick, P. (2001). Prescriptive gender stereotypes and backlash toward agentic women. Journal of Social Issues, 57(4), 743–762.Google Scholar
  111. Rudman, L., & Glick, P. (2008). The social psychology of gender: How power and intimacy shape gender relations. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  112. Rudman, L., Phelan, J., Moss-Rascusin, C., & Nauts, S. (2009). Status incongruity and backlash effects: Defending the gender hierarchy motivates prejudice toward female leaders. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(1), 165–179.Google Scholar
  113. Saad, G. (2007). The evolutionary bases of consumption. Mahwah: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  114. Schwartz, S. H., & Rubel, T. (2005). Sex differences in value priorities: Cross-cultural and multimethod studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(6), 1010–1028.Google Scholar
  115. Serbin, L., Poulin-Dubois, D., Colburne, K., Sen, M., & Eichstedt, J. (2001). Gender stereotyping in infancy: Visual preferences for and knowledge of gender-stereotyped toys in the second year. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25(1), 7–15.Google Scholar
  116. Serbin, L., Zelkowitz, P., Doyle, A., & Gold, D. (1990). The socialization of sex-differentiated skills and academic performance: A mediational model. Sex Roles, 23(11/12), 613–628.Google Scholar
  117. Servin, A., Bohlin, G., Nordenstrom, A., & Larsson, A. (2003). Prenatal androgens and gender-typed behavior: A study of girls with mild and severe forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Developmental Psychology, 39(3), 440–450.Google Scholar
  118. Shutts, K., Banaji, M. R., & Spelke, E. S. (2010). Social categories guide young children’s preferences for novel objects. Developmental Science, 13(4), 599–610.Google Scholar
  119. Smithers, R. (2013, December 18). Marks & Spencer agrees to gender-neutral toy packaging. Retrieved from, http://www.theguardian.com/money/2013/dec/17/marks-and-spencer-gender-neutral-toys.
  120. Spence, J. T. (1993). Gender-related traits and gender ideology: Evidence for a multifactorial theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4), 624–635.Google Scholar
  121. Sweet, E. V. (2013). Boy builders and pink princesses. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California Davis, Davis, CA .Google Scholar
  122. Sweet, E. V. (2014, December 22). How did toys get stereotyped by sex? New York Times. Retrieved from, http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2014/12/22/why-should-toys-come-in-pink-and-blue/how-did-toys-get-stereotyped-by-sex.
  123. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers.Google Scholar
  124. The Marketing Society Forum. (2014, March 7). Should all marketing to children be gender-neutral? Campaign. Retrieved from, http://m.campaignlive.co.uk/article/1283685/marketing-children-gender-neutral.
  125. Thompson, S. (1975). Gender labels and early sex role development. Child Development, 43(2), 339–347.Google Scholar
  126. Tobin, D. D., Menon, M., Spatta, B. C., Hodges, E. V. E., & Perry, D. G. (2010). The intrapsychics of gender: A model of self-socialization. Psychological Review, 117(2), 601–622.Google Scholar
  127. Trawick-Smith, J., Russell, H., & Swaminathan, S. (2011). Measuring the effects of toys on the problem-solving, creative and social behaviours of preschool children. Early Child Development and Care, 181(7), 909–927.Google Scholar
  128. Valian, V. (2014). Interests, gender, and science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9(2): 225–230.Google Scholar
  129. van de Beek, C., Thijssen, J. H. H., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., van Goozen, S. H. M., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2004). Relationships between sex hormones assessed in amniotic fluid, and maternal and umbilical cord serum: What is the best source of information to investigate the effects of fetal hormonal exposure? Hormones and Behavior, 46(5), 663–669.Google Scholar
  130. Ward, A. (2014, September 5). Toymakers aim to inspire next generation of women engineers. Retrieved from, http://www.dailyfinance.com/2014/09/05/roominate-toymakers-inspire-girls-engineering-stem-careers/#!slide=2869928.
  131. Weisgram, E. S., Fulcher, M., & Dinella, L. M. (2014). Pink gives girls permission: Exploring the roles of explicit gender labels and gender-typed colors on preschool children’s toy preferences. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35(5), 401–409.Google Scholar
  132. Wilson, D. S., Dietrich, E., & Clark, A. B. (2003). On the inappropriate use of the naturalistic fallacy in evolutionary psychology. Biology and Philosophy, 18(5), 669–681.Google Scholar
  133. Wittenberg-Cox, A. (2014, September 15). LEGO’s girl problem starts with management. Harvard Business Review Blog Network. Retrieved from, http://blogs.hbr.org/2014/09/legos-girl-problem-starts-with-management/.
  134. Wolf, T. M. (1973). Effects of live modeled sex-inappropriate play behavior in a naturalistic setting. Developmental Psychology, 9(1), 120–123.Google Scholar
  135. Wong, W., & Hines, M. (2015). Effects of gender color-coding on toddlers’ gender-typical toy play. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44, 1233–1242.Google Scholar
  136. Zell, E., Krizan, Z., & Teeter, S. R. (2015). Evaluating gender similarities and differences using metasynthesis. American Psychologist, 70(1), 10–20.Google Scholar
  137. Zosuls, K., Ruble, D. N., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2014). Self-socialization of gender in African American, Dominican immigrant, and Mexican immigrant toddlers. Child Development, 85(6), 2202–2217.Google Scholar
  138. Zosuls, K., Ruble, D., Tamis-LeMonda, C., Shrout, P., Bornstein, M., & Greulich, F. (2009). The acquisition of gender labels in infancy: Implications for gender-typed play. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 688–701.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, Melbourne Business School & Centre for Ethical LeadershipUniversity of MelbourneCarltonAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Applied Philosophy & Public Ethics (CAPPE), and School of Humanities and Social SciencesCharles Sturt UniversityWagga WaggaAustralia

Personalised recommendations