Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 145, Issue 2, pp 239–258 | Cite as

Motives and Performance Outcomes of Sustainable Supply Chain Management Practices: A Multi-theoretical Perspective

  • Antony Paulraj
  • Injazz J. Chen
  • Constantin Blome


Many researchers believe the tremendous industrial development over the past two centuries is unsustainable because it has led to unintended ecological deterioration. Despite the ever-growing attention sustainable supply-chain management (SSCM) has received, most SSCM research and models look at the consequences, rather than the antecedents or motives of such responsible practices. The few studies that explore corporate motives have remained largely qualitative, and large-scale empirical analyses are scarce. Drawing on multiple theories and combining supply-chain and business ethics literature, we purport that instrumental, relational, and moral motives are behind a firm’s engagement in SSCM practices. Specifically, we examine the links between corporate motives, SSCM practices, and firm performance. Using a sample of 259 supply-chain firms in Germany, we empirically test five hypothesized relationships. Our results reveal that relational and moral motives are key drivers, and that firms exhibiting high levels of moral obligations tend to outperform those primarily driven by amoral considerations. Findings of this study contribute to multiple literatures espousing sustainability management and can help policy makers, stakeholder groups, and scholars develop more robust strategies for encouraging firms to practice SSCM.


Motives Environmental sustainability Supply-chain management Firm performance 


  1. Aerts, W., Cormier, D., & Magnan, M. (2006). Intra-industry imitation in corporate environmental reporting: An international perspective. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 25(3), 299–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilera, R. V., Rupp, D. E., Williams, C. A., & Ganapathi, J. (2007). Putting the S back in corporate social responsibility: A multilevel theory of social changes in organization. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 838–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A. (2012). What we know and don’t know about corporate social responsibility: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 38(4), 932–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akaike, H. (1987). Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika, 52, 317–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ameer, R., & Othman, R. (2012). Sustainability practices and corporate financial performance: A study based on the top global corporations. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(1), 61–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersen, M., & Skjoett-Larsen, T. (2009). Corporate social responsibility in global supply chains. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 14(2), 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anscombe, G. E. M. (1958). Modern moral philosophy. Philosophy, 33(124), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(3), 396–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arya, B., & Zhang, G. (2009). Institutional reforms and investor reactions to CSR announcements: Evidence from an emerging economy. Journal of Management Studies, 46(7), 1089–1112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 74–94.Google Scholar
  11. Bansal, P., & Clelland, I. (2004). Talking trash: Legitimacy, impression management, and unsystematic risk in the context of the natural environment. Academy of Management Journal, 47(1), 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bansal, P., & Roth, K. (2000). Why companies go green: A model of ecological responsiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 717–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barney, J. B. (2012). Purchasing, supply chain management and sustained competitive advantage: The relevance of resource-based theory. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 48(2), 3–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bina, O., & Vaz, S. G. (2011). Humans, environment and economies: from vicious relationships to virtuous responsibility. Ecological Economics, 72, 170–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blome, C., & Paulraj, A. (2013). Ethical climate and purchasing social responsibility: A benevolence focus. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(3), 567–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blome, C., Paulraj, A., & Schuetz, K. (2014). Supply chain collaboration and sustainability: A profile deviation analysis. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 34(5), 639–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowen, F. E., Cousins, P. D., Lamming, R. C., & Faruk, A. C. (2001). Horse for courses: Explaining the gap between the theory and practice of green supply. Greener Management International, 9(3), 41–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bowie, N. (1999). Business ethics: A Kantian perspective. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  19. Bozdogan, H. (1987). Model selection and Akaike’s information criterion (AIC): The general theory and its analytical extensions. Psychometrika, 52(3), 345–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bright, D. S., Cameron, K. S., & Caza, A. (2006). The amplifying and buffering effects of virtuousness in downsized organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 64(3), 249–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bronn, P. S., & Vidaver-Cohen, D. (2009). Corporate motives for social initiative: Legitimacy, sustainability, or the bottom line? Journal of Business Ethics, 87(1), 91–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Buysse, K., & Verbeke, A. (2003). Proactive environmental strategies: A stakeholder management perspective. Strategic Management Journal, 24(5), 453–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cafaro, P., & Sandler, R. (Eds.). (2005). Environmental virtue ethics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. Cameron, K. S., Bright, D. S., & Caza, A. (2004). Exploring the relationships between organizational virtuousness and performance. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(6), 766–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Campbell, J. L. (2007). Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 946–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cantor, D. E., Morrow, P. M., & Montabon, F. (2012). Engagement in environmental behaviors among supply chain management employees: An organizational support theoretical perspective. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 48(3), 33–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carroll, A. B. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business Horizons, 34(4), 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carter, C. R., & Easton, P. L. (2011). Sustainable supply chain management: Evolution and future directions. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 41(1), 46–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carter, C. R., Kale, R., & Grimm, C. M. (2000). Environmental purchasing and firm performance: An empirical investigation. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 36(3), 219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carter, C. R., & Rogers, D. S. (2008). A framework of sustainable supply chain management: Moving toward new theory. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 38(5), 360–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen, I. J., & Paulraj, A. (2004). Towards a theory of supply chain management: The constructs and measurements. Journal of Operations Management, 22(2), 119–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen, I. J., Paulraj, A., & Lado, A. (2004). Strategic purchasing, supply management, and firm performance. Journal of Operations Management, 22(5), 505–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Clarkson, M. E. (1995). A stakeholder framework for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review, 20(1), 92–117.Google Scholar
  34. Corbett, C. J. (2006). Global diffusion of ISO 9000 certification through supply chains. Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 8(4), 330–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cropanzano, R., Goldman, B., & Folger, R. (2003). Deonic justice: The role of moral principles in workplace fairness. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(8), 1019–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Curkovic, S., & Sroufe, R. (2007). Total quality environmental management and total cost assessment: An exploratory study. International Journal of Production Economics, 105(2), 560–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davis, K. (1973). The case for and against business assumption of social responsibilities. Academy of Management Journal, 16(2), 312–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Davis, J. H., Schoorman, F. D., & Donaldsonet, L. (1997). Toward a stewardship theory of management. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 20–47.Google Scholar
  39. De Giovanni, P. (2012). Do internal and external environmental management contribute to the triple bottom line? International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 32(3), 265–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. de Jong, P., Paulraj, A., & Blome, C. (2014). The financial impact of ISO 14001 certification: Top-line, bottom-line, or both? Journal of Business Ethics, 119(1), 131–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Delmas, M. A., & Cuerel Burbano, V. (2011). The drivers of greenwashing. California Management Review, 54(1), 64–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Delmas, M. A., & Toffel, M. W. (2008). Organizational responses to environmental demands: Opening the black box. Strategic Management Journal, 29(10), 1027–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dillman, D. A. (2007). Mail and internet surveys: The tailored design method. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Drake, M., & Schlachter, J. T. (2008). Virtue-ethics analysis of supply chain collaboration. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(4), 851–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Du, S., Bhattacharya, C. B., & Sen, S. (2011). Corporate social responsibility and competitive advantage: Overcoming the trust barrier. Management Science, 57(9), 1528–1545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dyer, J. H. (2000). Collaborative advantage: Winning through extended enterprise supplier networks. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Dyer, J. H., & Singh, H. (1998). The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(4), 660–679.Google Scholar
  49. Eesley, C., & Lenox, M. J. (2006). Firm responses to secondary stakeholder action. Strategic Management Journal, 27(8), 765–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Etzioni, A. (1988). The moral dimension: Toward a new economics. New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  51. Farzad, R. (2011, June 2). Subaru of Indiana: America’s scrappiest carmaker, Businessweek.Google Scholar
  52. Fernando, M., & Almeida, S. (2012). The organizational virtuousness of strategic corporate social responsibility: A case study of the Sri Lanka family-owned enterprise MAS Holdings. European Management Journal, 30(6), 564–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Marshfield: Pittman.Google Scholar
  55. Fresner, J. (1998). Cleaner production as a means for effective environmental management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 6(3–4), 171–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Friedman, M. (1970, September 13). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times, p. 32.Google Scholar
  57. Geffen, C. A., & Rothenberg, S. (2000). Suppliers and environmental innovation: The automotive paint process. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 20(2), 166–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. George, J. M. (2014). Compassion and capitalism: Implications for organizational studies. Journal of Management, 40(1), 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gimenez, C., & Sierra, V. (2013). Sustainable supply chains: Governance mechanisms to greening suppliers. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(1), 189–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Golicic, S. L., & Smith, C. D. (2013). A meta-analysis of environmentally sustainable supply chain management practices and firm performance. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 49(2), 78–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Graafland, J., & Van De Ven, B. (2006). Strategic and moral motivation for corporate social responsibility. Journal of Corporate Citizenship., 22, 111–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gulati, R. (2007). Silo busting: How to execute on the promise of customer focus. Harvard Business Review, 85(5), 98–108.Google Scholar
  63. Hahn, T., Figge, F., Pinkse, J., & Preuss, L. (2010). Trade-offs in corporate sustainability: You can’t have your cake and eat it. Business Strategy and the Environment, 19(4), 217–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hahn, T., & Scheermesser, M. (2006). Approaches to corporate sustainability among German companies. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 13(3), 150–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hair, J. F., Tatham, R. L., Anderson, R. E., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  66. Handfield, R., Sroufe, R., & Walton, S. (2005). Integrating environmental management and supply chain strategies. Business Strategy and the Environment, 14(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hill, R. P., Ainscough, T., Shank, T., & Manullang, D. (2007). Corporate social responsibility and socially responsible investing: A global perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 70(2), 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hoejmose, S. U., & Adrien-Kirby, A. J. (2012). Socially and environmentally responsible procurement: A literature review and future research agenda of a managerial issue in the 21st century. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 18(4), 232–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hofer, C., Cantor, D., & Dai, J. (2012). The competitive determinants of a firm‘s environmental management activities: Evidence from US manufacturing industries. Journal of Operations Management, 30(1–2), 69–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hoffman, A. J., & Haigh, N. (2011). Positive deviance for a sustainable world: Linking sustainability and positive organizational scholarship. In K. Cameron & G. Spreitzer (Eds.), Handbook on positive organizational scholarships (pp. 953–964). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Hollos, D., Blome, C., & Foerstl, K. (2012). Does sustainable supplier co-operation affect performance? Examining implications for the triple bottom line. International Journal of Production Research, 50(11), 2968–2986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hull, R. (2005). All about EVE: A report on environmental virtue ethics today. Ethics & the Environment, 10(1), 89–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hursthouse, R. (2013). Virtue ethics. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Husted, B. W. (2005). Risk management, real options, and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 60(2), 175–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Isaksson, R., Johansson, P., & Fischer, K. (2010). Detecting supply chain innovation potential for sustainable development. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(3), 425–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. James, L. R., Mulaik, S. A., & Brett, J. M. (2006). A tale of two methods. Organizational Research Methods, 9(2), 233–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jennings, M. M. (2013). Social responsibility and ethical considerations in the management of the supply chain. In C. Harland, G. Nassimbeni, & E. Schneller (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of strategic supply management (pp. 331–352). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  79. Kahn, K. B., Maltz, E. N., & Mentzer, J. T. (2006). Demand collaboration: Effect on knowledge creation, relationships, and supply chain performance. Journal of Business Logistics, 27(2), 191–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kanter, R. M. (1994). Collaborative advantage. Harvard Business Review, 72(4), 96–108.Google Scholar
  81. Kjaerheim, G. (2005). Cleaner production and sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production, 13(4), 329–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Krause, D. R., Vachon, S., & Klassen, R. D. (2009). Special topic forum on sustainable supply chain management: Introductions and reflections on the role of purchasing management. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 45(4), 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lado, A. A., Paulraj, A., & Chen, I. J. (2011). Customer focus, supply-chain relational capabilities and performance: Evidence form US manufacturing industries. International Journal of Logistics Management, 22(2), 202–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Laufer, W. S. (2003). Social accountability and corporate greenwashing. Journal of Business Ethics, 43(3), 253–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lee, S. Y., & Klassen, R. D. (2008). Drivers and enablers that foster environmental management capabilities in small- and medium-sized suppliers in supply chains. Production and Operations Management, 17(6), 573–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Logsdon, J. M., & Wood, D. J. (2002). Business citizenship: From domestic to global level of analysis. Business Ethics Quarterly, 12(2), 155–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Maigman, I., & Ferrell, O. C. (2004). Corporate social responsibility and marketing: An integrative framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(1), 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Marcus, A. A., & Fremeth, A. R. (2009). Green management matters regardless. Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(3), 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mardia, K. V. (1970). Measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis with applications. Biometrika, 57(3), 519–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Markman, G., & Krause, D. (2014). Theory building surrounding sustainable supply chain management. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 50(2), i–ii.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McGuire, J. B., Sundgren, A., & Schneeweis, T. (1988). Corporate social responsibility and firm financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 31(4), 854–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. S. (2001). Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 117–127.Google Scholar
  93. McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. S. (2011). Creating and capturing value: Strategic corporate social responsibility, resource-based theory, and sustainable competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 37(5), 1480–1495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Meyer, R. E., & Boxenbaum, E. (2010). Exploring European-ness in organization research. Organization Studies, 31(6), 737–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mill, J. S. (2007). Utilitarianism, liberty & representative government. Rockville, MA: Wildside Press LLC.Google Scholar
  96. Montabon, F., Sroufe, R., & Narasimhan, R. (2007). An examination of corporate reporting, environmental management practices and firm performance. Journal of Operations Management, 25(5), 998–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Moore, G. C., & Benbasat, I. (1991). Development of an instrument to measure the perceptions of adopting an information technology innovation. Information Systems Research, 2(3), 192–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Morali, O., & Searcy, C. (2013). A review of sustainable supply chain management practices in Canada. Journal of Business Ethics, 117(3), 635–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Narasimhan, R., & Schoenherr, T. (2012). The effects of integrated supply management practices and environmental management practices on relative competitive quality advantage. International Journal of Production Research, 50(4), 1185–1201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  101. Orlitzky, M., Schmidt, F. L., & Rynes, S. L. (2003). Corporate social and financial performance: A meta-analysis. Organization Studies, 24(3), 403–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Orsato, R. (2006). Competitive environmental strategies: When does it pay to be green? California Management Review, 48(2), 127–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pagell, M., & Shevchenko, A. (2014). Why research in sustainable supply chain management should have no future. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 50(1), 44–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pagell, M., & Wu, Z. (2009). Building a more complete theory of sustainable supply chain management using case studies of 10 exemplars. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 45(2), 37–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pagell, M., Yang, C. L., Krumwiede, D. W., & Sheu, C. (2004). Does the competitive environment influence the efficacy of investments in environmental management? Journal of Supply Chain Management, 40(2), 30–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Paine, L. S. (2002). Value shift. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  107. Palazzo, G., & Scherer, A. G. (2006). Corporate legitimacy as deliberation: A communicative framework. Journal of Business Ethics, 66(1), 71–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Parguel, B., Benoît-Moreau, F., & Larceneux, F. (2011). How sustainability ratings might deter ‘greenwashing’: A closer look at ethical corporate communication. Journal of Business Ethics, 102(1), 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Paulraj, A., Lado, A. A., & Chen, I. J. (2008). Inter-organizational communication as a relational competency: Antecedents and performance outcomes in collaborative buyer–supplier relationships. Journal of Operations Management, 26(1), 45–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pava, M. L., & Krausz, J. (1996). The association between corporate social responsibility and financial performance: The paradox of social cost. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(3), 321–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Perreault, W. D, Jr, & Leigh, L. E. (1989). Reliability of nominal data based on qualitative judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 26(2), 135–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. T. (2006). Strategy and society: The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78–92.Google Scholar
  114. Pullman, M., Maloni, M., & Carter, C. (2009). Food for thought: Social versus environmental sustainability practices and performance outcome. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 45(4), 38–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rao, P., & Holt, D. (2005). Do green supply chains lead to competitiveness and economic performance? International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 25(9), 898–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Reinhardt, F. L., Stavins, R. N., & Vietor, R. H. K. (2008). Corporate social responsibility through an economic lens. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 2(2), 219–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Reuter, C., Foerstl, K., Hartmann, E., & Blome, C. (2010). Sustainable global supplier management: The role of dynamic capabilities in achieving competitive advantage. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 46(2), 45–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rodrigo, P., & Arenas, D. (2008). Do employees care about CSR programs? A typology of employees according to their attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(2), 265–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Roe, M. J. (2003). Political determinants of corporate governance: Political context, corporate impact. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Rowley, T. J., & Moldoveanu, M. (2003). When stakeholder group act? An interest- and identity-based model of stakeholder group mobilization. Academy of Management Review, 28(2), 204–219.Google Scholar
  121. Sadler-Smith, E. (2013). Towards organizational environmental virtuousness. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 49(1), 123–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sandler, R. L. (2009). Character and environment: A virtue-oriented approach to environmental ethics. Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Sarkis, J., Gonzalez-Torre, P., & Adenso-Diaz, B. (2010). Stakeholder pressure and the adoption of environmental practices: The mediating effect of training. Journal of Operations Management, 28(2), 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sarkis, J., Zhu, Q., & Lai, K. (2011). An organizational theoretic review of green supply chain management literature. International Journal of Production Economics, 130(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Scott, W. R. (1994). Institutions and organizations: Towards a theoretical synthesis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  126. Seelos, C., & Mair, J. (2005). Social entrepreneurship: Creating new business models to serve the poor. Business Horizons, 48(3), 241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sekerka, L. E., Comer, D. R., & Godwin, L. N. (2014). Positive organizational ethics: Cultivating and sustaining moral performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(4), 435–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Seuring, S., & Muller, M. (2008). From a literature review to a conceptual framework for sustainable supply chain management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(15), 1699–1710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Shi, V. G., Koh, S. C. L., Baldwin, J., & Cucchiella, F. (2012). Natural resource based green supply chain management. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 17(1), 54–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Shrivastava, P. (1995). The role of corporations in achieving ecological sustainability. Academy of Management Review, 20(4), 936–960.Google Scholar
  131. Siegel, D. S. (2009). Green management matters only if it yields more green: An economic/strategic perspective. Journal of Management Perspectives, 23(3), 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Solomon, R. (1992). Ethics and excellence: Cooperation and integrity in business. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Stratman, J. K., & Roth, A. V. (2002). Enterprise resource planning (ERP) competence constructs: Two-stage multi-item scale development and validation. Decision Sciences, 33(4), 601–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Swanson, D. L. (1999). Toward an integrative theory for business and society: A research strategy for corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review, 24, 506–521.Google Scholar
  135. Tate, W. L., Ellram, L. M., & Kirchoff, J. F. (2010). Corporate social responsibility reports: A thematic analysis related to supply chain management. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 46(1), 19–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tsalikis, J., & Fritzsche, D. J. (1989). Business ethics: A literature review with a focus on marketing ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 8(9), 695–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Turillo, C. J., Folger, R., Lavelle, J. J., Umphress, E. E., & Gee, J. O. (2002). Is virtue its own reward? Self-sacrificial decisions for the sake of fairness. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 89(1), 839–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Vachon, S. (2007). Green supply chain practices and the selection of environmental technologies. International Journal of Production Research, 45(18), 4357–4379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Vachon, S., & Klassen, R. D. (2006). Extending green practices across the supply chain: The impact of upstream and downstream integration. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 26(7), 795–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Vachon, S., & Klassen, R. D. (2008). Environmental management and manufacturing performance: The role of collaboration in the supply chain. International Journal of Production Economics, 111(2), 299–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Vachon, S., & Mao, Z. (2008). Linking supply chain strength to sustainable development: a country-level analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(15), 1552–1560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Vlachos, P. A., Panagopoulos, N. G., & Rapp, A. A. (2013). Feeling good by doing good: Employee CSR-induced attributions, job satisfaction, and the role of charismatic leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 118(3), 577–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Vogel, D. (1992). The globalization of business ethics: Why America remains distinctive? California Management Review, 35(1), 30–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Walls, J. L., & Hoffman, A. J. (2013). Exceptional boards: Environmental experiences and positive deviance from institutional norms. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(2), 253–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development). (1987). Our common future (the `Brundtland report). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  146. Widaman, K. F. (1985). Hierarchically nested covariance structure models for multitrait-multimethod data. Applied Psychological Measurement, 9(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Williams, L. J., Cote, J. A., & Buckley, M. R. (1989). Lack of method variance in self-reported affect and perceptions at work: Reality or artifact? Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(3), 462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Winn, M., Pinkse, J., & Illge, L. (2012). Case studies on trade-offs in corporate sustainability. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 19(2), 63–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wong, C. W. Y., Lai, K.-H., Shang, K.-C., Lu, C.-S., & Leung, T. K. P. (2012). Green operations and the moderating role of environmental management capability of suppliers on manufacturing firm performance. International Journal of Production Economics, 140(1), 283–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wu, Z., & Pagell, M. (2011). Balancing priorities: Decision-making in sustainable supply chain management. Journal of Operations Management, 29(6), 577–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Zailani, S., Jeyaramana, K., Vengadasana, G., & Premkumar, R. (2012). Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) in Malaysia: A survey. International Journal of Production Economics, 140(1), 330–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Zhu, Q., & Sarkis, J. (2004). Relationships between operational practices and performance among early adopters of green supply chain management practices in Chinese manufacturing enterprises. Journal of Operations Management, 22(3), 265–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Zhu, Q., Sarkis, J., & Lai, K.-H. (2012). Examining the effects of green supply chain management practices and their mediations on performance improvements. International Journal of Production Research, 50(5), 1377–1394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zhu, Q., Sarkis, J., & Lai, K.-H. (2013). Institutional-based antecedents and performance outcomes of internal and external green supply chain management practices. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 19(2), 106–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antony Paulraj
    • 1
  • Injazz J. Chen
    • 2
  • Constantin Blome
    • 3
  1. 1.Manchester Business SchoolUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.Department of Operations and Supply Chain Management, College of Business AdministrationCleveland State UniversityClevelandUSA
  3. 3.School of Business, Management and EconomicsUniversity of SussexBrightonUK

Personalised recommendations