Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 144, Issue 2, pp 279–291 | Cite as

A Question of Fit: Cultural and Individual Differences in Interpersonal Justice Perceptions

  • Annilee M. Game
  • Jonathan R. Crawshaw
Article
  • 492 Downloads

Abstract

This study examined the link between employees’ adult attachment orientations and perceptions of line managers’ interpersonal justice behaviors, and the moderating effect of national culture (collectivism). Participants from countries categorized as low collectivistic (N = 205) and high collectivistic (N = 136) completed an online survey. Attachment anxiety and avoidance were negatively related to interpersonal justice perceptions. Cultural differences did not moderate the effects of avoidance. However, the relationship between attachment anxiety and interpersonal justice was non-significant in the Southern Asia (more collectivistic) cultural cluster. Our findings indicate the importance of ‘fit’ between cultural relational values and individual attachment orientations in shaping interpersonal justice perceptions, and highlight the need for more non-western organizational justice research.

Keywords

Attachment Culture Ethics Fit Interpersonal justice Line manager Perception 

References

  1. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  3. Armes, K., & Ward, C. (1989). Cross-cultural transitions and sojourner adjustment in Singapore. Journal of Social Psychology, 129, 273–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bies, R. J. (2005). Are procedural justice and interactional justice conceptually distinct? In J. Greenberg & J. A. Colquitt (Eds.), Handbook of organizational justice (pp. 85–112). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  6. Boatwright, K. J., Lopez, F. G., Sauer, E. M., VanDerWege, A., & Huber, D. M. (2010). The influence of adult attachment styles on workers’ preferences for relational leadership behaviors. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 13, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and loss: Attachment (2nd revised ed.). Basic Books: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  8. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Separation, anxiety and anger. London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  9. Brennan, K., Clark, C., & Shaver, P. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46–76). London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Caldwell, C., Bischoff, S. J., & Karri, R. (2002). The four umpires: A paradigm for ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 36, 153–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caligiuri, P., Lazarova, M., & Tarique, I. (2005). Training, learning and development in multinational organisations. In H. Scullion & M. Linehan (Eds.), International human resource management: A critical text (pp. 71–90). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collins, N. L. (1996). Working models of attachment: Implications for explanation, emotion, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 810–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Collins, N. L., & Read, S. (1994). Cognitive representations of adult attachment: The structure and function of working models. In K. Bartholomew & D. Perlman (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships: Attachment processes in adulthood (Vol. 5, pp. 53–90). London: Jessica-Kingsley.Google Scholar
  15. Colquitt, J. A. (2001). On the dimensionality of organizational justice: A construct validation of a measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 386–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 425–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Colquitt, J. A., & Rodell, J. B. (2011). Justice, trust and trustworthiness: A longitudinal analysis integrating three theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Journal, 54, 1183–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cropanzano, R., Byrne, Z. S., Bobocel, D. R., & Rupp, D. E. (2001). Moral virtues, fairness heuristics, social entities, and other denizens of organizational justice. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 164–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davidovitz, R., Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., Izsak, R., & Popper, M. (2007). Leaders as Attachment figures: Leaders’ attachment orientations predict leadership-related mental representations and followers’ performance and mental health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 632–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. De Cremer, D., Brebels, L., & Sedikides, C. (2008). Being uncertain about what? general uncertainty and belongingness uncertainty. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1520–1525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Cremer, D., & Sedikides, C. (2005). Self-uncertainty and responsiveness to procedural justice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 157–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DeConinck, J. B. (2010). The effect of organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and perceived supervisor support on marketing employees’ level of trust. Journal of Business Research, 63, 1349–1355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Erdogan, B., & Liden, R. C. (2006). Collectivism as a moderator of responses to organizational justice: Implications for leader-member exchange and ingratiation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Felfe, J., Yan, W., & Six, B. (2008). The impact of individual collectivism on commitment and its influence on organizational citizenship behaviour and turnover in three countries. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 8, 211–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Friedman, M., Rholes, S. W., Simpson, J., Bond, M., Diaz-Loving, R., & Chan, C. (2010). Attachment avoidance and the cultural fit hypothesis: A cross-cultural investigation. Personal Relationships, 17, 107–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Game, A. M. (2008). Negative emotions in supervisory relationships: The role of relational models. Human Relations, 61, 355–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gelfand, M. J., Erez, M., & Aycan, Z. (2007). Cross-cultural organizational behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 479–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greenberg, J. (2001). Studying organizational justice cross-culturally: Fundamental challenges. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 12, 365–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gupta, V., Hanges, P. J., & Dorfman, P. (2002). Cultural clusters: Methodology and findings. Journal of World Business, 37, 11–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guzzo, R. A. (1996). Fundamental considerations about work groups. In M. A. West (Ed.), Handbook of work group psychology. Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Hardy, G. E., & Barkham, M. (1994). The relationship between interpersonal attachment styles and work difficulties. Human Relations, 47, 263–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harms, P. D. (2011). Adult attachment styles in the workplace. Human Resource Management Review, 21, 285–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1990). Love and work: An attachment-theoretical perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 270–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hofstede, G. H. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  36. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Holtz, B. C., & Harold, C. M. (2013). Interpersonal justice and deviance: The moderating effects of interpersonal justice values and justice orientation. Journal of Management, 39, 339–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P., & Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: An introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business, 37, 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jones, D. A. (2009). Getting even with one’s supervisor and one’s organization: Relationships among types of injustice, desires for revenge, and counterproductive work behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 525–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones, D. A., & Martens, M. L. (2009). The mediating role of overall fairness and the moderating role of trust certainty in justice–criteria relationships: The formation and use of fairness heuristics in the workplace. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 1025–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Keller, H. (2012). Cross-cultural psychology: Taking people, contexts, and situations seriously. In J. Valisner (Ed.), The oxford handbook, of culture and psychology (pp. 116–131). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Keller, H. (2013). Attachment and culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 175–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Keller, H., & Cacciope, R. (2001). Leader-follower attachments: understanding parental images at work. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 22, 70–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kim, T., & Leung, K. (2007). Forming and reacting to overall fairness: A cross-cultural comparison. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 104, 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lavelle, J. J., Rupp, D. E., & Brockner, J. (2007). Taking a multifoci approach to the study of justice, social exchange, and citizenship behavior: The target similarity model? Journal of Management, 33, 841–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lavy, S., Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., & Gillath, O. (2009). Intrusiveness in romantic relationships: A cross-cultural perspective on imbalances between proximity and autonomy. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26, 989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lilly, J. D., & Virick, M. (2006). The effect of personality on perceptions of justice. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 438–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lind, E. A., Kray, L., & Thompson, L. (2001). Primacy effects in justice judgments: Testing predictions from fairness heuristic theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 85, 189–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mayer, D. M., Bardes, M., & Piccolo, R. F. (2008). Do servant-leaders help satisfy follower needs? An organizational justice perspective. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17, 180–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mikulincer, M. (1998). Attachment working models and the sense of trust: An exploration of interaction goals and affect regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1209–1224. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2005). Attachment theory and emotions in close relationships: Exploring the attachment related dynamics of emotional reactions to relational events. Personal Relationships, 12, 149–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics and change. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  54. Neubert, M. J., Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., Roberts, J. A., & Chonko, L. B. (2009). The virtuous influence of ethical leadership; evidence from the field. Journal of Business Ethics, 90, 157–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. O’Reilly, C. A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. F. (1991). People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person–organization fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 487–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Parkes, L. P., Bochner, S., & Schneider, S. K. (2001). Person–organization fit across cultures: An empirical investigation of individualism and collectivism. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50, 81–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Primeaux, S. M., Karri, R., & Caldwell, C. (2003). Cultural insights to justice: A theoretical perspective through a subjective lens. Journal of Business Ethics, 46, 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Richards, D. A., & Hackett, R. D. (2012). Attachment and emotion regulation: Compensatory interactions and leader–member exchange. The Leadership Quarterly, 23, 686–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Richards, D. A., & Schat, A. C. (2011). Attachment at (not to) work: Applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 169–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rothbaum, F., Weisz, J., Pott, M., Miyake, K., & Morelli, G. (2000). Attachment and culture: Security in the United States and Japan. American Psychologist, 55(10), 1093–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schirmer, L. L., & Lopez, F. G. (2001). Probing the social support and work strain relationship among adult workers: Contributions of adult attachment orientations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 17–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schmitt, et al. (2004). Patterns and universals of adult romantic attachment across 62 cultural regions: Are models of self and of other pan-cultural constructs? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35, 367–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schriesheim, C. A., Castro, S. L., & Cogliser, C. C. (1999). Leader-member exchange (LMX) research: A comprehensive review. Leadership Quarterly, 10, 63–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Searle, W., & Ward, C. (1990). The prediction of psychological and sociological adjustment during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14, 449–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shi, J., Lin, H., Wang, L., & Wang, M. (2009). Linking the big five personality constructs to organizational justice. Social Behavior and Personality, 37, 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  67. Triandis, H. C., McCusker, C., & Hui, C. H. (1990). Multimethod probes of individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1006–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Triandis, H. C., & Suh, E. M. (2002). Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 133–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tung, R. L. (2008). The cross-cultural research imperative: The need to balance cross-national vis-à-vis international diversity. Journal of International Business Studies, 39, 41–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Van de Vijver, F., & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross cultural research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  71. Van Hiel, A., De Cremer, D., & Stouten, J. (2008). The personality basis of justice: The five-factor model as an integrative model of personality and procedural fairness effects on cooperation. European Journal of Personality, 22, 519–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ward, C., & Chang, W. C. (1997). “Cultural fit”: A new perspective on personality and sojourner adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 21, 525–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ward, C., & Searle, W. (1991). The impact of value discrepancies and cultural identity on psychological and sociocultural adjustment of sojourners. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15, 209–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wasti, S. A. (2003). The influence of cultural values on antecedents of organizational commitment: An individual-level analysis. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 52, 533–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yao, X., & Wang, L. (2006). The predictability of normative organizational commitment for turnover in Chinese companies: A cultural perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17, 1058–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwich Business SchoolUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK
  2. 2.Aston Business SchoolAston UniversityBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations