Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 141, Issue 3, pp 451–468 | Cite as

Spiritually Informed Not-for-profit Performance Measurement

  • Edward N. Gamble
  • Haley A. Beer


Performance measurement has far-reaching implications for not-for-profit organizations because it serves to legitimize, attract resources, and preserve expectations of stakeholders. However, the existing theory and practice of not-for-profit performance measurement have fallen short, due in part, to an overuse of profit-oriented philosophies. Therefore, we examine not-for-profit performance measurement by utilizing Marques’ (J Bus Ethics 92:211–225, 2010) “five spiritual practices of Buddhism.” Marques’ spiritual practices—a pro-scientific philosophy, greater personal responsibility, healthy detachment, collaboration, and embracing a wholesome view—are the foundation of our research design. Responses from senior not-for-profit practitioners (n = 63) support the linkages between spiritual practices and not-for-profit performance measurement. We identify three essential performance measurement principles and elaborate on their capacity to generate awareness, higher meaning, and connectedness within not-for-profits.


Buddhism Metrics Not-for-profit Performance measurement Social enterprise Spirituality 

List of Abbreviations


Balanced scorecard




Not-for-profit performance measurement


Performance measurement



The authors wish to thank Nancy A. Johnson for her editorial assistance on this paper.


  1. Alexander, J. (2010). Spirituality of work in nonprofit organizations. In R. A. Giacalone & C. L. Jurkiewicz (Eds.), Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance (3rd ed., pp. 291–305). Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  2. Alvord, S. H., Brown, L. D., & Letts, C. W. (2004). Social entrepreneurship and societal transformation: An exploratory study. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 40(3), 260–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashmos, D., & Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), 134–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Austin, J., Stevenson, H., & Wei-Skillern, J. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: Same, different, or both? Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, 30(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baggett, J. P. (2000). Habitat for humanity: Building private homes, building public religion. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bagnoli, L., & Megali, C. (2009). Measuring performance in social enterprises. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 40(1), 149–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baruch, Y., & Ramalho, N. (2006). Communalities and distinctions in the measurement of organizational performance and effectiveness across for-profit and nonprofit sectors. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 35(1), 39–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Battilana, J., Sengul, M., Pache, A. C., & Model, J. (2014). Harnessing productive tensions in hybrid organizations: The case of work integration social enterprises. Academy of Management Journal, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  10. Bertotti, M., Leahy, G., Sheridan, K., Tobi, P., & Renton, A. (2011). Measuring the impact of social enterprises. British Journal of Healthcare Management, 17(4), 152–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Briner, R. B., Denyer, D., & Rousseau, D. M. (2009). Evidence-based management: Concept cleanup time? The Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(4), 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brower, H. H., & Shrader, C. B. (2000). Moral reasoning and ethical climate: Not-for-profit vs. for-profit boards of directors. Journal of Business Ethics, 26(2), 147–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bull, M. (2007). “Balance”: The development of a social enterprise business performance analysis tool. Social Enterprise Journal, 3(1), 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Busby, J., & Grépin, K. A. (2015). What accounts for the World Health Organization’s failure on Ebola?. The politics and policy of Ebola. Political Science & Politics, 48(1), 12–13.Google Scholar
  15. Cavalluzzo, K. S., & Ittner, C. D. (2004). Implementing performance measurement innovations: Evidence from government. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 29(3), 243–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Copps, J. (2010). The Little Blue Book: NPC’s guide to analysing charities, for charities and funders. London: New Philanthropy Capital.Google Scholar
  17. Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(1), 98–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Costa, E., Ramus, T., & Andreaus, M. (2011). Accountability as a managerial tool in non-profit organizations: Evidence from Italian CSVs. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 22(3), 470–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dalai Lama, B, XIV (1995). The world of Tibetan Buddhism: An overview of its philosophy and practice. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  20. Daniels, D., Franz, R. S., & Wong, K. (2000). A classroom with a worldview: Making spiritual assumptions explicit in management education. Journal of Management Education, 24(5), 540–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dart, R. (2004). The legitimacy of social enterprise. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 14(4), 411–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dawson, A. (2010). A case study of impact measurement in a third sector umbrella organisation. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 59(6), 519–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daya, R. (2000). Buddhist psychology, a theory of change processes: Implications for counsellors. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 22(4), 257–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dean, K. L. (2004). Systems thinking’s challenge to research in spirituality and religion at work: An interview with Ian Mitroff. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(1), 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dees, J. G. (1998a). Enterprising nonprofits. Harvard Business Review, 76(1), 54–67.Google Scholar
  26. Dees, J. G. (1998b). The meaning of social entrepreneurship. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.Google Scholar
  27. Dees, J. G. (2012). A tale of two cultures: Charity, problem solving, and the future of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 321–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dees, J. G., & Anderson, B. B. (2003). Sector-bending: Blurring lines between nonprofit and for-profit. Society, 40(4), 16–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dees, J. G., Nash, M., Anderson, B., Kalafatas, J., Tolman, R., Kuran, W., & Bloom, P. (2008). Developing the field of social entrepreneurship. Durham, NC: Center for the Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship.Google Scholar
  30. Dent, E. B., Higgins, M. E., & Wharff, D. M. (2005). Spirituality and leadership: An empirical review of definitions, distinctions, and embedded assumptions. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 625–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Department of Trade and Industry. (2002). Social enterprise: A strategy for success. London: Department of Trade and Industry.Google Scholar
  32. DiMaggio, P. J., & Anheier, H. K. (1990). The sociology of nonprofit organizations and sectors. Annual Review of Sociology, 16(16), 137–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Diochon, M., & Anderson, A. R. (2009). Social enterprise and effectiveness: A process typology. Social Enterprise Journal, 5(1), 7–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Drucker, P. F. (1954). The practice of management. New York, NY: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  35. Drucker, P. F. (1995). Managing the non-profit organization: Practices and principles. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  36. Dyck, B. (2014). God on management: The world’s largest religions, the “theological turn”, and organization and management theory and practice. In P. Tracey, N. Phillips, & M. Lounsbury (Eds.), Religion and organization theory, research on the sociology of organizations (Vol. 41, pp. 23–62). West Yorkshire: Emerald Group Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dyck, B., Starke, F. A., & Dueck, C. (2009). Management, prophets, and self-fulfilling prophecies. Journal of Management Inquiry, 18(3), 184–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ebrahim, A. (2003). Making sense of accountability: Conceptual perspectives for northern and southern nonprofits. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 14(2), 191–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ebrahim, A., Battilana, J., & Mair, J. (2014). The governance of social enterprises: Mission drift and accountability challenges in hybrid organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 34, 81–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ebrahim, A. S., & Rangan, V. K. (2010). The limits of nonprofit impact: A contingency framework for measuring social performance, Harvard Business School General Management Unit Working Paper 10-099, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  41. Ebrahim, A., & Rangan, V. K. (2014). What impact? A framework for measuring the scale and scope of social performance. California Management Review, 56(3), 118–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fernando, M., & Jackson, B. (2006). The influence of religion-based workplace spirituality on business leaders’ decision-making: An inter-faith study. Journal of Management and Organization, 12(1), 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Forbes, D. P. (1998). Measuring the unmeasurable: Empirical studies of nonprofit organization effectiveness from 1977 to 1997. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 27(2), 183–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Franco-Santos, M., Lucianetti, L., & Bourne, M. (2012). Contemporary performance measurement systems: A review of their consequences and a framework for research. Management Accounting Research, 23(2), 79–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Freeman, R. E., Harrison, J. S., Wicks, A. C., Parmar, B. L., & De Colle, S. (2010). Stakeholder theory: The state of the art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fremont-Smith, M. R., & Kosaras, A. (2003) Wrongdoing by officers and directors of charities: A survey of press reports 1995–2002. Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations Working Paper 20, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  47. Gamble, E. N., & Moroz, P. W. (2014). Unpacking not-for-profit performance. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 5(1), 77–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gates, B. (2013). Annual letter from Bill Gates. Seattle, WA: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.Google Scholar
  49. Giacalone, R. A., & Jurkiewicz, C. L. (2003). Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  50. Glaeser, E. L. (2002). The governance of not-for-profit firms. National Bureau of Economic Research No. w8921, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  51. Gotsis, G., & Kortezi, Z. (2008). Philosophical foundations of workplace spirituality: A critical approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 575–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gümüsay, A. A. (2014). Entrepreneurship from an Islamic perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  53. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  54. Hall, M. (2008). The effect of comprehensive performance measurement systems on role clarity, psychological empowerment and managerial performance. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 33(2), 141–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Harding, R. (2004). Social enterprise: The new economic engine? Business Strategy Review, 15(4), 39–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Henry, E., & Pene, H. (2001). Kaupapa Maori: Locating indigenous ontology, epistemology and methodology in the academy. Organization, 8(2), 234–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hicks, D. A. (2003). Religion and the workplace: Pluralism, spirituality, leadership. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hollensbe, E., Wookey, C., Hickey, L., & George, G. (2014). Organizations with purpose. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1227–1234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hox, J. J. (1997). From theoretical concept to survey question. In L. Lyberg (Ed.), Survey measurement and process quality (pp. 47–69). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  60. Huxley, A. (1944). The perennial philosophy. New York, NY: Harper.Google Scholar
  61. Hynes, B. (2009). Growing the social enterprise–issues and challenges. Social Enterprise Journal, 5(2), 114–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kaplan, R. S. (2001). Strategic performance measurement and management in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 11(3), 353–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (1996). The Balanced Scorecard. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  64. Karakas, F. (2010a). Exploring value compasses of leaders in organizations: Introducing nine spiritual anchors. Journal of Business Ethics, 93(1), 73–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Karakas, F. (2010b). Spirituality and performance in organizations: A literature review. Journal of Business Ethics, 94(1), 89–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kloos, K., & Papi, D. (2014). Lost in translation. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 12(3), 59–60.Google Scholar
  67. Koufteros, X., Verghese, A. J., & Lucianetti, L. (2014). The effect of performance measurement systems on firm performance: A cross-sectional and a longitudinal study. Journal of Operations Management, 32(6), 313–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leahy, G., & Villeneuve-Smith, F. (2009). State of Social Enterprise Survey 2009. London: Social Enterprise Coalition.Google Scholar
  69. Lecy, J. D., Schmitz, H. P., & Swedlund, H. (2012). Non-governmental and not-for-profit organizational effectiveness: A modern synthesis. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 23(2), 434–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Liket, K. C., & Maas, K. (2013). Nonprofit organizational effectiveness: Analysis of best practices. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  71. Lingane, A., & Olsen, S. (2004). Guidelines for social return on investment. California Management Review, 46(3), 116–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lyon, F., & Sepulveda, L. (2009). Mapping social enterprises: Past approaches, challenges, and future directions. Social Enterprise Journal, 5(1), 83–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Maas, K., & Liket, K. (2011). Social impact measurement: Classification of methods. In R. Burritt (Ed.), Environmental Management Accounting and Supply Chain Management (Vol. 27, pp. 171–202). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mackey, J., & Sisodia, R. (2014). Conscious capitalism: Liberating the heroic spirit of business. New York, NY: Harvard Business Review Press.Google Scholar
  75. Mair, J., & Martí, I. (2006). Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 36–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Markow, F., & Klenke, K. (2005). The effects of personal meaning and calling on organizational commitment: An empirical investigation of spiritual leadership. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 13(1), 8–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Marques, J. (2010). Toward greater consciousness in the 21st century workplace: How Buddhist practices fit in. Journal of Business Ethics, 92(2), 211–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Marques, J. (2012). Consciousness at work: A review of some important values, discussed from a Buddhist perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 105(1), 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mason, C., Kirkbride, J., & Bryde, D. (2007). From stakeholders to institutions: The changing face of social enterprise governance theory. Management Decision, 45(2), 284–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McLoughlin, J., Kaminski, J., Sodagar, B., Khan, S., Harris, R., Arnaudo, G., & Mc Brearty, S. (2009). A strategic approach to social impact measurement of social enterprises: The SIMPLE methodology. Social Enterprise Journal, 5(2), 154–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Meadows, M., & Pike, M. (2010). Performance management for social enterprises. Systemic Practice & Action Research, 23(2), 127–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Melé, D. (2012). The firm as a “community of persons”: A pillar of humanistic business ethos. Journal of Business Ethics, 106(1), 89–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Metcalf, F., & Hateley, B. G. (2001). What would Buddha do at work?. Berkeley, CA: Seastone.Google Scholar
  84. Micheli, P., & Manzoni, J. F. (2010). Strategic performance measurement: Benefits, limitations and paradoxes. Long Range Planning, 43(4), 465–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Micheli, P., & Mari, L. (2014). The theory and practice of performance measurement. Management Accounting Research, 25(2), 147–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Millar, R., & Hall, K. (2013). Social return on investment (SROI) and performance measurement: The opportunities and barriers for social enterprises in health and social care. Public Management Review, 15(6), 923–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Miller, K. D. (2014). Organizational research as practical theology. Organizational Research Methods, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  88. Mitroff, I. I., & Denton, E. A.  (1999a). A spiritual audit of corporate America. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  89. Mitroff, I. I., & Denton, E. A. (1999b). A study of spirituality in the workplace. The Sloan Management Review, 40(4), 83–93.Google Scholar
  90. Morino, M. (2011). Leap of reason: Managing to outcomes in an era of scarcity. Washington, DC: Venture Philanthropy Partners.Google Scholar
  91. Moxham, C. (2009). Performance measurement: Examining the applicability of the existing body of knowledge to nonprofit organisations. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 29(7), 740–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nhat Hanh, T. (1998). The heart of the Buddha’s teaching. London: Rider.Google Scholar
  93. Nicholls, A. (2009). ‘We do good things, don’t we?’: Blended value accounting in social entrepreneurship. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 34(6), 755–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pache, A. C., & Santos, F. (2010). When worlds collide: The internal dynamics of organizational responses to conflicting institutional demands. Academy of Management Review, 35(3), 455–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pache, A. C., & Santos, F. (2013). Inside the hybrid organization: Selective coupling as a response to conflicting institutional logics. Academy of Management Journal, 56(4), 972–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Paton, R. (2003). Managing and measuring social enterprises. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  97. Peredo, A. M., & McLean, M. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: A critical review of the concept. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 56–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Perrini, F. (2006). The new social entrepreneurship: What awaits social entrepreneurial ventures?. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  99. Petchsawang, P., & Duchon, D. (2012). Workplace spirituality, meditation, and work performance. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 9(2), 189–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pfeffer, J., & Sutton, R. I. (2006). Evidence-based management. Harvard Business Review, 84(1), 62–74.Google Scholar
  101. Pfeffer, J., & Sutton, R. I. (2007). Suppose we took evidence-based management seriously: Implications for reading and writing management. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6(1), 153–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pio, E. (2007). Gurus and Indian epistemologies parables of labor-intensive organizations. Journal of Management Inquiry, 16(2), 180–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Polonsky, M. J. (2008). Evaluating the social value of charitable organizations: A conceptual foundation. Journal of Macromarketing, 28(2), 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Poole, E. (2009). Organisational spirituality: A literature review. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(4), 577–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pritchard, D., Ogain, E., & Lumley, T. (2012). Making an impact: Impact measurement among charities and social enterprises in the UK. London: New Philanthropy Capital.Google Scholar
  106. Purser, R. E., & Milillo, J. (2015). Mindfulness revisited a Buddhist-based conceptualization. Journal of Management Inquiry, 24(1), 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rego, A., & e Cunha, M. P. (2008). Workplace spirituality and organizational commitment: An empirical study. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 21(1), 53–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ryan, P. W., & Lyne, I. (2008). Social enterprise and the measurement of social value: Methodological issues with the calculation and application of the social return on investment. Education, Knowledge & Economy, 2(3), 223–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Salamon, L. M., Sokolowski, S. W., Haddock, M. A., & Tice, H. S. (2013). The State of Global Civil Society and Volunteering: Latest findings from the implementation of the UN Nonprofit Handbook, Working Paper No. 49, Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  110. Schumacher, E. F. (1993). Small is beautiful: A study of economics as if people mattered. London: Random House.Google Scholar
  111. Short, J. C., Moss, T. W., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2009). Research in social entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future opportunities. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(2), 161–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Simons, R. (1995). Control in an age of empowerment. Harvard Business Review, 73(2), 80–88.Google Scholar
  113. Somers, A. B. (2005). Shaping the balanced scorecard for use in UK social enterprises. Social Enterprise Journal, 1(1), 43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sørensen, B. M., Spoelstra, S., Höpfl, H., & Critchley, S. (2012). Theology and organization. Organization, 19(3), 267–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Speckbacher, G. (2003). The economics of performance management in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 13(3), 267–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Steingard, D. S. (2005). Spiritually-informed management theory toward profound possibilities for inquiry and transformation. Journal of Management Inquiry, 14(3), 227–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tracey, P. (2012). Religion and organization: A critical review of current trends and future directions. The Academy of Management Annals, 6(1), 87–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tracey, P., Phillips, N., & Lounsbury, M. (2014). Taking religion seriously in the study of organizations. In P. Tracey, N. Phillips, & M. Lounsbury (Eds.), Religion and organization theory, research on the sociology of organizations (Vol. 41, pp. 3–21). West Yorkshire: Emerald Group Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Trivedi, C., & Stokols, D. (2011). Social enterprises and corporate enterprises fundamental differences and defining features. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 20(1), 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tuan, M. T. (2008). Measuring and/or estimating social value creation: Insights into eight integrated cost approaches. Seattle, WA: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.Google Scholar
  121. VanSandt, C. V., Sud, M., & Marmé, C. (2009). Enabling the original intent: Catalysts for social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(3), 419–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Weaver, G. R., & Agle, B. R. (2002). Religiosity and ethical behavior in organizations: A symbolic interactionist perspective. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 77–97.Google Scholar
  123. Weber, M. (1958/1903). The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism (T. Parsons, Trans.). New York, NY: Scribner’s.Google Scholar
  124. Weerawardena, J., McDonald, R. E., & Mort, G. S. (2010). Sustainability of nonprofit organizations: An empirical investigation. Journal of World Business, 45(4), 346–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Weerawardena, J., & Mort, G. S. (2006). Investigating social entrepreneurship: A multidimensional model. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zahra, S. A., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D. O., & Shulman, J. M. (2009). A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 519–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Montana State UniversityBozemanUSA
  2. 2.University of WarwickCoventryUK

Personalised recommendations