Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 139, Issue 1, pp 111–128 | Cite as

A Text Mining-Based Review of Cause-Related Marketing Literature

  • João GuerreiroEmail author
  • Paulo Rita
  • Duarte Trigueiros


Cause-related marketing (C-RM) has risen to become a popular strategy to increase business value through profit-motivated giving. Despite the growing number of articles published in the last decade, no comprehensive analysis of the most discussed constructs of cause-related marketing is available. This paper uses an advanced Text Mining methodology (a Bayesian contextual analysis algorithm known as Correlated Topic Model, CTM) to conduct a comprehensive analysis of 246 articles published in 40 different journals between 1988 and 2013 on the subject of cause-related marketing. Text Mining also allows quantitative analyses to be performed on the literature. For instance, it is shown that the most prominent long-term topics discussed since 1988 on the subject are “brand-cause fit”, “law and Ethics”, and “corporate and social identification”, while the most actively discussed topic presently is “sectors raising social taboos and moral debates”. The paper has two goals: first, it introduces the technique of CTM to the Marketing area, illustrating how Text Mining may guide, simplify, and enhance review processes while providing objective building blocks (topics) to be used in a review; second, it applies CTM to the C-RM field, uncovering and summarizing the most discussed topics. Mining text, however, is not aimed at replacing all subjective decisions that must be taken as part of literature review methodologies.


Cause-related marketing Text mining Topic models 


  1. Abzug, R., & Webb, N. J. (1999). Relationships between nonprofit and for-profit organizations: a stakeholder perspective. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 28(4), 416–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adkins, S. (1999). Cause-related marketing: Who cares wins. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  3. Amato, L. H., & Amato, C. H. (2007). The effects of firm size and industry on corporate giving. Journal of Business Ethics, 72(3), 229–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amato, L. H., & Amato, C. H. (2012). Retail philanthropy: Firm size, industry, and business cycle. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(4), 435–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aquino, K., Freeman, D., Reed, A., Lim, V. K., & Felps, W. (2009). Testing a social-cognitive model of moral behavior: the interactive influence of situations and moral identity centrality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(1), 123–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arendt, S., & Brettel, M. (2010). Understanding the influence of corporate social responsibility on corporate identity, image, and firm performance. Management Decision, 48(10), 1469–1492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aßländer, M. S. (2013). Honorableness or beneficialness? Cicero on natural law, virtues, glory, and (corporate) reputation. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(4), 751–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atakan, M. S., & Eker, T. (2007). Corporate identity of a socially responsible university-a case from the Turkish higher education sector. Journal of Business Ethics, 76(1), 55–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Atchison, J., & Shen, S. M. (1980). Logistic-normal distributions: Some properties and uses. Biometrika, 67(2), 261–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barone, M. J., Miyazaki, A. D., & Taylor, K. A. (2000). The influence of cause-related marketing on consumer choice: does one good turn deserve another? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 248–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Basil, D. Z., Runte, M. S., Easwaramoorthy, M., & Barr, C. (2009). Company support for employee volunteering: a national survey of companies in Canada. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(2), 387–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bennett, J. T., & McCrohan, K. F. (1993). Public policy issues in the marketing of seals of approval for food. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 27(2), 397–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berens, G., Van Riel, C. B., & Van Rekom, J. (2007). The CSR-quality trade-off: when can corporate social responsibility and corporate ability compensate each other? Journal of Business Ethics, 74(3), 233–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhattacharya, C., Sen, S., & Korschun, D. (2008). Using corporate social responsibility to win the war for talent. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(2), 37–44.Google Scholar
  15. Bigné, E., Currás-Pérez, R., & Aldás-Manzano, J. (2012). Dual nature of cause-brand fit: Influence on corporate social responsibility consumer perception. European Journal of Marketing, 46(3/4), 575–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blei, D. M., & Lafferty, J. D. (2007). A correlated topic model of science. The Annals of Applied Statistics, 1(1), 17–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blei, D. M., & Lafferty, J. D. (2009). Topic models. In A. N. Srivastava & M. Sahami (Eds.), Text mining: classification, clustering, and applications (pp. 71–94). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  18. Blei, D. M., Ng, A. Y., & Jordan, M. I. (2003). Latent Dirichlet allocation. The Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3, 993–1022.Google Scholar
  19. Bowie, N. E., & Dunfee, T. W. (2002). Confronting morality in markets. Journal of Business Ethics, 38(4), 381–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bravo, R., Matute, J., & Pina, J. M. (2012). Corporate social responsibility as a vehicle to reveal the corporate identity: A study focused on the websites of Spanish financial entities. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(2), 129–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brik, A. B., Rettab, B., & Mellahi, K. (2011). Market orientation, corporate social responsibility, and business performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(3), 307–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown, T. J., & Dacin, P. A. (1997). The company and the product: Corporate associations and consumer product responses. Journal of Marketing, 61(1), 68–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Campbell, L., Gulas, C. S., & Gruca, T. S. (1999). Corporate giving behavior and decision-maker social consciousness. Journal of Business Ethics, 19(4), 375–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carroll, A. B. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497–505.Google Scholar
  25. Carroll, A. B. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business Horizons, 34(4), 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carter, R. E., & Curry, D. J. (2010). Transparent pricing: Theory, tests, and implications for marketing practice. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(6), 759–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chabowski, B. R., Mena, J. A., & Gonzalez-Padron, T. L. (2011). The structure of sustainability research in marketing, 1958–2008: A basis for future research opportunities. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(1), 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chang, C.-T. (2008). To donate or not to donate? Product characteristics and framing effects of cause-related marketing on consumer purchase behavior. Psychology & Marketing, 25(12), 1089–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Delen, D., & Crossland, M. D. (2008). Seeding the survey and analysis of research literature with text mining. Expert Systems with Applications, 34(3), 1707–1720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Deng, X. (2012). Understanding consumer’s responses to enterprise’s ethical behaviors: An investigation in China. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(2), 159–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Du, S., Swaen, V., Lindgreen, A., & Sen, S. (2013). The roles of leadership styles in corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 114(1), 155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Du, S., & Vieira, E. T, Jr. (2012). Striving for legitimacy through corporate social responsibility: Insights from oil companies. Journal of Business Ethics, 110(4), 413–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ellen, P. S., Mohr, L. A., & Webb, D. J. (2000). Charitable programs and the retailer: Do they mix? Journal of Retailing, 76(3), 393–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Erwin, P. M. (2011). Corporate codes of conduct: The effects of code content and quality on ethical performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(4), 535–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ettenson, R., & Klein, J. G. (2005). The fallout from French nuclear testing in the South Pacific: A longitudinal study of consumer boycotts. International Marketing Review, 22(2), 199–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Feinerer, I., Hornik, K., & Meyer, D. (2008). Text mining infrastructure in R. Journal of Statistical Software, 25(5), 1–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. File, K. M., & Prince, R. A. (1998). Cause related marketing and corporate philanthropy in the privately held enterprise. Journal of Business Ethics, 17(14), 1529–1539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Filo, K., Funk, D. C., O’Brien, D., et al. (2011). Examining motivation for charity sport event participation: A comparison of recreation-based and charity-based motives. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(4), 491–518.Google Scholar
  39. Fock, H. K., Woo, K., & Hui, M. K. (2005). The impact of a prestigious partner on affinity card marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 39(1/2), 33–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Freeman, R. E., Harrison, J. S., & Wicks, A. C. (2007). Managing for stakeholders: Business in the 21st century. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Griffiths, T. L. & Steyvers, M. (2004). Finding scientific topics. In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (pp. 5228–5235).Google Scholar
  42. Grün, B., & Hornik, K. (2011). Topicmodels: An R package for fitting topic models. Journal of Statistical Software, 40(13), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hawkins, R. (2012). A new frontier in development? The use of cause-related marketing by international development organisations. Third World Quarterly, 33(10), 1783–1801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hearst, M. A. (1999). Untangling text data mining. In Proceedings of the 37th annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics on Computational Linguistics (pp. 3–10).Google Scholar
  45. Henderson, T., & Arora, N. (2010). Promoting brands across categories with a social cause: Implementing effective embedded premium programs. Journal of Marketing, 74(6), 41–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hoeffler, S., & Keller, K. L. (2002). Building brand equity through corporate societal marketing. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 21(1), 78–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Holmes, D. I., & Kardos, J. (2003). Who was the author? An introduction to stylometry. Chance, 16(2), 5–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. IEG (2013). IEG Sponsorship Report. Retrieved August, 2014, from
  49. Jurafsky, D., & James, H. (2000). Speech and language processing an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics, and speech. NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  50. Kim, J.-E., & Johnson, K. K. P. (2013). The impact of moral emotions on cause-related marketing campaigns: A cross-cultural examination. Journal of Business Ethics, 112(1), 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kim, H., Lee, M., Lee, H.-T., & Kim, N.-M. (2010). Corporate social responsibility and employee-company identification. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(4), 557–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. King, S. (1991). Brand building in the 1990s. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 8(4), 43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Knox, S., & Gruar, C. (2007). The application of stakeholder theory to relationship marketing strategy development in a non-profit organization. Journal of Business Ethics, 75(2), 115–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Krishna, A., & Rajan, U. (2009). Cause marketing: Spillover effects of cause-related products in a product portfolio. Management Science, 55(9), 1469–1485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kropp, F., Lavack, A. M., & Silvera, D. H. (2005). Values and collective self-esteem as predictors of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence among university students. International Marketing Review, 22(1), 7–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. La Ferle, C., Kuber, G., & Edwards, S. M. (2013). Factors impacting responses to cause-related marketing in India and the United States: Novelty, altruistic motives, and company origin. Journal of Business Research, 66(3), 364–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lafferty, B. A. (2007). The relevance of fit in a cause-brand alliance when consumers evaluate corporate credibility. Journal of Business Research, 60(5), 447–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Larson, B. V., Flaherty, K. E., Zablah, A. R., Brown, T. J., & Wiener, J. L. (2008). Linking cause-related marketing to sales force responses and performance in a direct selling context. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(2), 271–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Leonidou, C. N., Katsikeas, C. S., & Morgan, N. A. (2013). “Greening” the marketing mix: Do firms do it and does it pay off? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(2), 151–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Leszczyc, P. T. P., & Rothkopf, M. H. (2010). Charitable motives and bidding in charity auctions. Management Science, 56(3), 399–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Li, Z., Wang, C., Xie, X., Wang, X. & Ma, W.-Y. (2008). Exploring LDA-based document model for geographic information retrieval. In Advances in Multilingual and Multimodal Information Retrieval (pp. 842–849). Amsterdam: Springer.Google Scholar
  62. Li, H., Zhang, J. J., Mao, L. L., & Min, S. D. (2012). Assessing corporate social responsibility in China’s sports lottery administration and its influence on consumption behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28(3), 515–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lindorff, M., Jonson, E. P., & McGuire, L. (2012). Strategic corporate social responsibility in controversial industry sectors: The social value of harm minimisation. Journal of Business Ethics, 110(4), 457–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Liu, Y., Niculescu-Mizil, A. & Gryc, W. (2009). Topic-link LDA: joint models of topic and author community. In Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference on Machine Learning (pp. 665–672). New York: ACM.Google Scholar
  65. Liu, Y., & Weinberg, C. B. (2004). Are nonprofits unfair competitors for businesses? An analytical approach. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 23(1), 65–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Low, W., & Davenport, E. (2005). Has the medium (roast) become the message? The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream. International Marketing Review, 22(5), 494–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lu, L. Y., Lin, B. J., Liu, J. S., & Yu, C.-Y. (2012). Ethics in nanotechnology: What’s being done? What’s missing? Journal of Business Ethics, 109(4), 583–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Maas, K., & Liket, K. (2011). Talk the walk: Measuring the impact of strategic philanthropy. Journal of Business Ethics, 100(3), 445–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Maignan, I., Ferrell, O. C., & Hult, G. T. M. (1999). Corporate citizenship: Cultural antecedents and business benefits. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(4), 455–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Manning, C. D., & Raghavan, P. (2008). Introduction to information retrieval. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Martinez, C. V. (2003). Social alliance for fundraising: How Spanish nonprofits are hedging the Risks. Journal of Business Ethics, 47(3), 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mazodier, M., & Rezaee, A. (2013). Are sponsorship announcements good news for the shareholders? Evidence from international stock exchanges. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(5), 586–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meyskens, M., & Paul, K. (2010). The evolution of corporate social reporting practices in Mexico. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(2), 211–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Miller, T. W. (2004). Data and text mining: A business application approach. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.Google Scholar
  75. Mohr, L. A., EroĞlu, D., & Ellen, P. S. (1998). The development and testing of a measure of skepticism toward environmental claims in marketers’ communications. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 32(1), 30–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mostafa, M. M. (2013). More than words: Social networks’ text mining for consumer brand sentiments. Expert Systems with Applications, 40(10), 4241–4251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Neville, B. A., Bell, S. J., & Mengüç, B. (2005). Corporate reputation, stakeholders and the social performance-financial performance relationship. European Journal of Marketing, 39(9/10), 1184–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Öberseder, M., Schlegelmilch, B. B., & Gruber, V. (2011). Why don’t consumers care about CSR? A qualitative study exploring the role of CSR in Consumption Decisions. Journal of Business Ethics, 104(4), 449–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Olsen, G. D., Pracejus, J. W., & Brown, N. R. (2003). When profit equals price: Consumer confusion about donation amounts in cause-related marketing. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 22(2), 170–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Palazzo, G., & Richter, U. (2005). CSR business as usual? The case of the tobacco industry. Journal of Business Ethics, 61(4), 387–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Parker, B., & Selsky, J. W. (2004). Interface dynamics in cause-based partnerships: An exploration of emergent culture. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33(3), 458–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Paul, M. & Girju, R. (2009). Topic modeling of research fields: An interdisciplinary perspective. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (pp. 337–342).Google Scholar
  83. Peloza, J., & Hassay, D. N. (2006). Intra-organizational volunteerism: Good soldiers, good deeds and good politics. Journal of Business Ethics, 64(4), 357–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pérez, A., & del Bosque, I. R. (2012). The role of CSR in the corporate identity of banking service providers. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(2), 145–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pérez, A., Salmones, M. M. G., & del Bosque, I. R. (2013). The effect of corporate associations on consumer behaviour. European Journal of Marketing, 47(1/2), 218–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pirsch, J., Gupta, S., & Grau, S. L. (2007). A framework for understanding corporate social responsibility programs as a continuum: An exploratory study. Journal of Business Ethics, 70(2), 125–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Porter, M. F. (1980). An algorithm for suffix stripping. Program, 14(3), 130–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78–92.Google Scholar
  89. Pracejus, J. W., & Olsen, G. D. (2004). The role of brand/cause fit in the effectiveness of cause-related marketing campaigns. Journal of Business Research, 57(6), 635–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pracejus, J. W., Olsen, G. D., & Brown, N. R. (2003). On the prevalence and impact of vague quantifiers in the advertising of cause-related marketing (CRM). Journal of Advertising, 32(4), 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Red (2013). Red. Retrieved January, 2014, from
  92. Savage, G. T., Nix, T. W., Whitehead, C. J., & Blair, J. D. (1991). Strategies for assessing and managing organizational stakeholders. Executive, 5(2), 61–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sen, S., & Bhattacharya, C. B. (2001). Does doing good always lead to doing better? Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility. Journal of Marketing Research, 38(2), 225–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Simpson, D., Lefroy, K., & Tsarenko, Y. (2011). Together and apart: Exploring structure of the corporate-NPO relationship. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(2), 297–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Singh, S., Kristensen, L., & Villaseñor, E. (2009). Overcoming skepticism towards cause related claims: The case of Norway. International Marketing Review, 26(3), 312–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Smalheiser, N., & Swanson, D. (1994). Assessing a gap in the biomedical literature-magnesium-deficiency and neurologic disease. Neuroscience Research Communications, 15(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  97. Srinivasan, P. (2004). Text mining: Generating hypotheses from MEDLINE. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 55(5), 396–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Strahilevitz, M., & Myers, J. (1998). Donations to charity as purchase incentives: How well they work may depend on what you are trying to sell. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 434–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Subrahmanyan, S. (2004). Effects of price premium and product type on the cause-related brands: A Singapore perspective. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 13(2), 116–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Swanson, D. R., & Smalheiser, N. R. (1997). An interactive system for finding complementary literatures: A stimulus to scientific discovery. Artificial Intelligence, 91(2), 183–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Teegen, H., Doh, J., & Vachani, S. (2004). The importance of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in global governance and value creation: An international business research agenda. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(6), 463–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vaaland, T. I., Heide, M., & Grønhaug, K. (2008). Corporate social responsibility: Investigating theory and research in the marketing context. European Journal of Marketing, 42(9/10), 927–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Varadarajan, P. R., & Menon, A. (1988). Cause-related marketing: A coalignment of marketing strategy and corporate philanthropy. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 58–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Waagstein, P. R. (2011). The mandatory corporate social responsibility in Indonesia: Problems and implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 98(3), 455–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wallach, H. M. (2006). Topic modeling. Beyond bag-of-words. Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference of Machine Learning (pp. 977–984).Google Scholar
  106. Wei, X. & Croft, W. B. (2006). LDA-based document models for ad-hoc retrieval. In Proceedings of the 29th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (pp. 178–185).Google Scholar
  107. Weyzig, F. (2009). Political and economic arguments for corporate social responsibility: Analysis and a proposition regarding the CSR agenda. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(4), 417–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Winterich, K. P., & Barone, M. J. (2011). Warm glow or cold, hard cash? Social identity effects on consumer choice for donation versus discount promotions. Journal of Marketing Research, 48(5), 855–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Woisetschläger, D. M., & Michaelis, M. (2012). Sponsorship congruence and brand image: A pre-post event analysis. European Journal of Marketing, 46(3/4), 509–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Woo, K., Fock, H. K., & Hui, M. K. (2006). An analysis of endorsement effects in affinity marketing: The case for affinity credit cards. Journal of Advertising, 35(3), 103–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zdravkovic, S., Magnusson, P., & Stanley, S. M. (2010). Dimensions of fit between a brand and a social cause and their influence on attitudes. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 27(2), 151–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zhang, W., Yoshida, T., Ho, T. B., & Tang, X. (2009). Augmented mutual information for multi-word extraction. International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, 5(2), 543–554.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • João Guerreiro
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paulo Rita
    • 1
  • Duarte Trigueiros
    • 2
  1. 1.Business Research Unit (BRU-IUL), ISCTE- University Institute of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.University of MacauMacauChina

Personalised recommendations