Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 133, Issue 2, pp 261–277 | Cite as

Ordinary Aristocrats: The Discursive Construction of Philanthropists as Ethical Leaders

  • Helena Liu
  • Christopher Baker
Article

Abstract

Philanthropic giving among leaders is often assumed to be an expression of ethical leadership in both academic and media discourses; however, this assumption can overlook the ways in which philanthropy produces and is underpinned by inequality. In order to extend current understandings of ethical leadership, this study employs a critical discourse analytic approach to examine how the link between philanthropy and ethical forms of leadership is verbally and visually constructed in the media. Based on the analysis, the article demonstrates how the construction of Australian philanthropists as ethical leaders is achieved through their representation via three paradoxical identities: Aristocratic Battlers; Caring Controllers; and Publicity-Shy Celebrities. These discourses are mediated by Australian cultural norms and serve to conceal yet ultimately reinforce social and economic inequality. The article proposes that a critical discursive approach to understanding leadership ethics can help to explore the hidden or adverse effects of ostensibly ethical practices.

Keywords

Ethics Discourse Leadership Media Philanthropy Spirituality Wisdom 

References

  1. Acott, K. (2013, October 15). $65 m gift. The West Australian, p. 1.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, D. (2007, May 19). Private property. The Age.Google Scholar
  3. Ailon-Souday, G., & Kunda, G. (2003). The local selves of global workers: The social construction of national identity in the face of organizational globalization. Organization Studies, 24(7), 1073–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvesson, M., & Kärreman, D. (2000a). Taking the linguistic turn in organizational research: Challenges, responses, consequences. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 36(2), 136–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alvesson, M., & Kärreman, D. (2000b). Varieties of discourse: On the study of organizations through discourse analysis. Human Relations, 53(9), 1125–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alvesson, M., & Sveningsson, S. (2003). Good visions, bad micro-management and ugly ambiguity: Contradictions of (non-)leadership in a knowledge-intensive organization. Organization Studies, 24(6), 961–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Auvinen, T. P., Lämsä, A.-M., Sintonen, T., & Takala, T. (2013). Leadership manipulation and ethics in storytelling. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(2), 415–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker, C., & Liu, H. (2014, March 19). Will Andrew Forrest convince Australia’s billionaires to open their wallets? The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/mar/19/andrew-forrest-global-freedom-network-philanthropy. Accessed 16 April 2014.
  9. Bell, A., & Garrett, P. (1998). Media and discourse: A critical overview. In A. Bell & P. Garrett (Eds.), Approaches to media discourse (pp. 1–20). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Boland, M. (2011, July 1). A philanthropist’s review from Harold Mitchell. The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/arts/a-philanthropists-review-from-harold-mitchell/story-e6frg8n6-1226085122345. Accessed 17 Dec 2013.
  11. Bono, J. E., Shen, W., & Snyder, M. (2010). Fostering integrative community leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(2), 324–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. (R. Nice, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bourdieu, P. (2001). Practical reason. Oxford: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  14. Breit, E. (2010). On the (re)construction of corruption in the media: A critical discursive approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 92(4), 619–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, M. E., & Mitchell, M. S. (2010). Ethical and unethical leadership: Exploring new avenues for future research. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(4), 583–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 595–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 117–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Browne, R. (2013, April 20). No glamour but all heart. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 2.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, D., Moore, G., & Metzger, M. (2002). Corporate philanthropy in the UK 1985–2000: Some empirical findings. Journal of Business Ethics, 39(1/2), 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen, S. (2010). The role of ethical leadership versus institutional constraints: A simulation study of financial misreporting by CEOs. Journal of Business Ethics, 93(1), 33–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen, C. C., & Meindl, J. R. (1991). The construction of leadership images in the popular press: The case of Donald Burr and People Express. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(4), 521–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Childhood ordeal was a lesson in sharing. (2007, November 21). The Australian, p. 5.Google Scholar
  23. Choi, J., & Wang, H. (2007). The promise of a managerial values approach to corporate philanthropy. Journal of Business Ethics, 75(4), 345–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clegg, S., & Pharoah, C. (2006). International comparisons of charitable giving. Kent: Charities Aid Foundation.Google Scholar
  25. Connell, R. W. (2002). Moloch mutates: Global capitalism and the evolution of the Australian ruling class, 1977–2002. Overland, 167, 4–14.Google Scholar
  26. D’Angelo Fisher, L. (2013, November 14). A gift out of giving. Business Review Weekly, p. 55.Google Scholar
  27. Denison, D., R., Hooijberg, R., & Quinn, R. E. (1995). Paradox and performance: toward a theory of behavioural complexity in managerial leadership. Organization Science, 6(5), 524–540.Google Scholar
  28. Dodd, T. (2013, November 15). Health centres get Poche treatment. Australian Financial Review, p. 3.Google Scholar
  29. Eisenbeiss, S. A. (2012). Re-thinking ethical leadership: An interdisciplinary integrative approach. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(5), 791–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. The Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550.Google Scholar
  31. Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  32. Fairclough, N. (1992). Critical language awareness. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  33. Fairclough, N. (1995). Media discourse. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  34. Fairhurst, G. T., & Grant, D. (2010). The social construction of leadership: A sailing guide. Management Communication Quarterly, 24(2), 171–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fairhurst, G. T., & Uhl-Bien, M. (2012). Organizational discourse analysis (ODA): Examining leadership as a relational process. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(6), 1043–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ferguson, A. (2012, October 24). Rich Americans leave stingy Aussies in wake. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 8.Google Scholar
  37. Fletcher, J. K. (2004). The paradox of postheroic leadership: An essay on gender, power, and transformational change. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(5), 647–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ford, J. D., & Backoff, R. W. (1988). Organizational change in and out of dualities and paradox. In R. E. Quinn & K. S. Cameron (Eds.), Paradox and transformation: Toward a theory of change in organization and management (pp. 81–121). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  39. Forrests’ gesture should inspire others to follow. (2013, October 16). The West Australian, p. 26.Google Scholar
  40. Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 693–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fry, L. W., & Cohen, M. P. (2009). Spiritual leadership as a paradigm for organizational transformation and recovery from extended work hours cultures. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(2), 265–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fry, L. W., Vitucci, S., & Cedillo, M. (2005). Spiritual leadership and army transformation: Theory, measurement, and establishing a baseline. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 835–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gardner, W. L., & Avolio, B. J. (1998). The charismatic relationship: A dramaturgical perspective. The Academy of Management Review, 23(1), 32–58.Google Scholar
  44. Gardner, W. L., Cogliser, C. C., Davis, K. M., & Dickens, M. P. (2011). Authentic leadership: A review of the literature and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(6), 1120–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Garner, S. (2007). Whiteness: An introduction. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Garvey, P. (2013, May 9). Power behind Forrest’s legacy. The Australian, p. 17.Google Scholar
  47. Gautier, A., & Pache, A.-C. (2013). Research on corporate philanthropy: A review and assessment. Journal of Business Ethics, 61, 29–44.Google Scholar
  48. Generous Twiggy’s burden of billions. (2013, October 15). Australian Associated Press.Google Scholar
  49. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  50. Goldberg, E. (2014, March 19). Bill Gates: It’s fulfilling to “take from the most wealthy and give to the least wealthy.” The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/19/bill-gates-ted2014_n_4993934.html. Accessed 16 April 2014.
  51. Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the prison notebooks. (Q. Hoare & G. N. Smith, Eds.). New York: International Publisher.Google Scholar
  52. Grant, D., Hardy, C., Oswick, C., & Putnam, L. (2004). The Sage handbook of organizational discourse. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  53. Gunn, S. (2005). Translating Bourdieu: Cultural capital and the English middle class in historical perspective. The British Journal of Sociology, 56(1), 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Guthey, E., & Jackson, B. (2005). CEO portraits and the authenticity paradox. Journal of Management Studies, 42(5), 1057–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hardy, C., Harley, B., & Phillips, N. (2004). Discourse analysis and content analysis: Two solitudes? Qualitative Methods, 2(1), 19–22.Google Scholar
  56. Hare, J., & Lane, B. (2013, March 13). The most influential in higher education. The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/top50/2013/education. Accessed 17 April 2014.
  57. Heathcote, A. (2013, February 14). How the Rich Invest: Graham Tuckwell. Business Review Weekly.Google Scholar
  58. Hewett, J. (2010, January 30). Lowy espouses need for input to society. The Australian, p. 25.Google Scholar
  59. Hewett, J. (2013a, October 14). Forrests’ $65 m giveaway to University of Western Australia. The Australian Financial Review. http://www.afr.com/p/forrests_giveaway_to_university_GNV5ri71bCuddGwbi7c70I. Accessed 19 Dec 2013.
  60. Hewett, J. (2013b, October 15). Billionaire Andrew Forrest donates biggest ever grant to UWA. The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/business/billionaire-andrew-forrest-donates-biggest-ever-grant-to-uwa-20131015-2vjb8.html#ixzz2nthWwGyn. Accessed 17 Jan 2014.
  61. Hill, R., & Doyle, L. (2011). Strategies for increasing high net worth and ultra high net worth giving. Commonwealth Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs.Google Scholar
  62. Humphreys, M., & Brown, A. D. (2002). Dress and identity: A Turkish case study. Journal of Management Studies, 39(7), 927–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Iedema, R. (2007). On the multi-modality, materially and contingency of organization discourse. Organization Studies, 28(6), 931–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jameson, J. (2010, September). Passing the bucks. The Sydney Magazine, 89, 48–54.Google Scholar
  65. Jaworski, A., & Coupland, N. (1999). Introduction: Perspectives on discourse analysis. In A. Jaworski & N. Coupland (Eds.), The discourse reader (pp. 1–44). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. Jayasuriya, L., Walker, D., & Gothard, J. (Eds.). (2003). Legacies of White Australia: Race, culture and nation. Crawley, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press.Google Scholar
  67. Jepson, D. (2009). Studying leadership at cross-country level: A critical analysis. Leadership, 5(1), 61–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Johnson, G. (2013, February 5). $50 million donation for Australian National University. Fundraising & Philanthropy Magazine. http://www.fpmagazine.com.au/50-million-donation-for-australian-national-university-316794/. Accessed 14 April 2014.
  69. Johnston, C. (2009, August 21). Mitchell tells all about a life lived large. The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/national/mitchell-tells-all-about-a-life-lived-large-20090820-es2f.html. Accessed 8 April 2014.
  70. Jones, C. A. (2005). Wisdom paradigms for the enhancement of ethical and profitable business practices. Journal of Business Ethics, 57(4), 363–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Josephson, M. (2010). The Robber Barons: The great American capitalists, 1861–1901. New Jersey: Transaction Publications.Google Scholar
  72. Kanungo, R. N., & Mendonca, M. (1996). Ethical dimensions of leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  73. Keenan, C. (2010, August 7). The art of giving needs to spread and get stronger, says Balnaves. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 12.Google Scholar
  74. Kirkhaug, R. (2010). Charisma or group belonging as antecedents of employee work effort? Journal of Business Ethics, 96(4), 647–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kitney, D. (2012, January 28). Family matters but Schwartz carves her own path. The Australian, p. 25.Google Scholar
  76. Knights, D., & O’Leary, M. (2006). Leadership, ethics and responsibility to the Other. Journal of Business Ethics, 67(2), 125–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kress, G., Leite-García, R., & van Leeuwen, T. (1997). Discourse semiotics. In T. A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as structure and process. Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction (Vols. 1–2, pp. 257–291). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  78. Kriger, M., & Seng, Y. (2005). Leadership with inner meaning: A contingency theory of leadership based on the worldviews of five religions. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 771–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kwek, D. (2003). Decolonizing and re-presenting culture’s consequences: A postcolonial critique of cross- cultural studies in management. In A. Prasad (Ed.), Postcolonial theory and organizational analysis: A critical engagement (pp. 121–146). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  80. Liffman, M. (2004). A tradition of giving: Seventy-five years of Myer Family philanthropy. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Liffman, M. (2007, May 16). Philanthropic paradox. The Australian, p. 26.Google Scholar
  82. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  83. Lindsay, N., & Butler, B. (2008, September 27). Coast ebb and flow. Herald Sun, p. 3.Google Scholar
  84. Liu, H. (2010). When leaders fail: A typology of failures and framing strategies. Management Communication Quarterly, 24(2), 232–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Livingstone, T. (2011, March 5). Portraits of power. The Australian Magazine, 22.Google Scholar
  86. Livingstone, N. (2013). Capital’s charity. Capital & Class, 37(3), 347–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Macdonald, E. (2013a, February 5). I could have bought a yacht… but then how could I sit in church? The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/act-news/i-could-have-bought-a-yacht-but-then-how-could-i-sit-in-church-20130205-2dvg3.html. Accessed 21 Jan 2014.
  88. Macdonald, E. (2013b, February 6). Gasps at ANU old boys $50 m for scholarships. The Canberra Times, p. A001.Google Scholar
  89. Marszalek, J. (2013, February 6). $50 m giveaway: Hopes generous gesture will be inspiration for others. The Advertiser, p. 11.Google Scholar
  90. McKenna, B., Rooney, D., & Boal, K. B. (2009). Wisdom principles as a meta-theoretical basis for evaluating leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(2), 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Meacham, S. (2008, March 1). The retiring philanthropist. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 31.Google Scholar
  92. Mitchell, H. (2013, July 12). A half-century of hard work has been a gift, not a demand. The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/business/media-and-marketing/a-halfcentury-of-hard-work-has-been-a-gift-not-a-demand-20130712-2pu8c.html#ixzz2ntowj9Pd. Accessed 19 Dec 2013.
  93. Morris, L. (2010, October 23). Feminism turns capitalist. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 19.Google Scholar
  94. Morvaridi, B. (2012). Capitalist philanthropy and hegemonic partnerships. Third World Quarterly, 33(7), 1191–1210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nancarrow, K. (2007, July 2). Auction ear. The Age.Google Scholar
  96. Narayan, U. (2000). Undoing the “package picture” of cultures. Signs, 25(4), 1083–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Odendahl, T. (1989). Charitable giving patterns by elites in the United States. In V. A. Hodgkinson & R. W. Lyman (Eds.), The future of the nonprofit sector: Challenges, changes, and policy considerations (pp. 416–429). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  98. Ostrander, S. A. (1989). The problem of poverty and why philanthropy neglects it. In V. A. Hodgkinson & R. W. Lyman (Eds.), The future of the nonprofit sector: Challenges, changes, and policy considerations (pp. 219–236). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  99. Ostrander, S. A. (2007). The growth of donor control: Revisiting the social relations of philanthropy. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(2), 356–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ostrower, F. (1995). Why the wealthy give: The culture of elite philanthropy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Our heroes philanthropic. (2013, March 25). Herald Sun, p. 43.Google Scholar
  102. Parry, K. W., & Bryman, A. (2006). Leadership in organizations. In S. Clegg (Ed.), The sage handbook of organization studies (2nd ed., pp. 447–468). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  103. Peeters, B. (2004). Tall poppies and egalitarianism in Australian discourse: From key word to cultural value. English World-Wide, 25(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Perkin, C. (2007, June 9). Private passions. The Australian, p. 1.Google Scholar
  105. Perkin, C. (2009, May 30). Every gift makes a difference. The Australian, p. 21.Google Scholar
  106. Phillips, N., & Hardy, C. (2002). Discourse analysis: Investigating processes of social construction. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  107. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2002). The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy. Harvard Business Review, 80(12), 56–69.Google Scholar
  108. Quinn, K. (2007, March 12). Sold on giving. The Age.Google Scholar
  109. Reave, L. (2005). Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 655–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Richard Pratt: From refugee to corporate royalty. (2009, April 28). Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) News. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2009-04-28/richard-pratt-from-refugee-to-corporate-royalty/1666234. Accessed 14 April 2014.
  111. Rochfort, S. (2010, May 31). Man with a past wins them over. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 2.Google Scholar
  112. Salamon, L. M. (1992). America’s nonprofit sector: A primer. New York: Foundation Center.Google Scholar
  113. Sarros, J. C., Densten, I. L., & Santora, J. C. (1999). Leadership and values: Australian executives and the balance of power, profits and people. Sydney: Harper Business.Google Scholar
  114. Schervish, P. G. (2007). Is today’s philanthropy failing beneficiaries? Always a risk, but not for the most part. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(2), 373–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shields, J., & Harvey, A. (2010). Succumbing to the burden of foreignness: A social constructionist analysis of Australian print media representations of Telstra CEO, Sol Trujillo. Management Communication Quarterly, 24(2), 288–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Siltaoja, M. E., & Vehkaperä, M. J. (2010). Constructing illegitimacy? Cartels and cartel agreements in Finnish business media from critical discursive perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 92(4), 493–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sinclair, A. (2012). Leading with body. In E. Jeanes, D. Knights, & P. Yancey Martin (Eds.), Handbook of Gender, Work and Organization (pp. 117–130). Chicester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  118. Skeggs, B. (2004). Class, self, culture. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  119. Smith, S. (2013, July 18). Social agenda helped by iron ore wealth. The West Australian, p. 63.Google Scholar
  120. Spangler, W. D., Gupta, A., Kim, D. H., & Nazarian, S. (2012). Developing and validating historiometric measures of leader individual differences by computerized content analysis of documents. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(6), 1152–1172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Steffens, M. (2011, June 4). Philanthropy is big business—Except in corporate Australia. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 8.Google Scholar
  122. Stensholt, J. (2013, August 17). Change agent provocateur. Australian Financial Review, p. 48.Google Scholar
  123. Stewart, C. (2007, October 6). Richard Pratt profile: A rich man’s world. The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/features/richard-pratt-a-rich-mans-world/story-e6frg6z6-1225701033257. Accessed 15 Jan 2014.
  124. Students could get $100,000 in new award. (2013, March 6). The Canberra Times, p. A003.Google Scholar
  125. Takala, T., Tanttu, S., Lämsä, A.-M., & Virtanen, A. (2013). Discourses of charisma: Barack Obama’s first 6 months as the President of the USA. Journal of Business Ethics, 115(1), 149–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Talbot, M. (2007). Media discourse: Representation and interaction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Thorup, M. (2013). Pro Bono? On philanthrocapitalism as ideological answer to inequality. Ephemera, 13(3), 555–576.Google Scholar
  128. Titscher, S., Meyer, M., Wodak, R., & Vetter, E. (2000). Methods of text and discourse analysis, (B. Jenner, Trans.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  129. Tracy, S. J. (2010). Qualitative quality: Eight “big-tent” criteria for excellent qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(10), 837–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Trenoweth, S. (2008, May 2). Helping hands. Wish Magazine, p. 26.Google Scholar
  131. Treviño, L. K., Brown, M. E., & Hartman, L. P. (2003). A qualitative investigation of perceived executive ethical leadership: Perceptions from inside and outside the executive suite. Human Relations, 56(1), 5–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Treviño, L. K., Butterfield, K. D., & McCabe, D. L. (1998). The ethical context in organizations: Influences on employee attitudes and behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly, 8(3), 447–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Treviño, L. K., Hartman, L. P., & Brown, M. E. (2000). Moral person and moral manager: How executives develop a reputation for ethical leadership. California Management Review, 42(4), 128–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Van Dijk, T. A. (1997). The study of discourse. In T. A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as structure and process. Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction (Vols. 1–2, pp. 1–34). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  135. Van Leeuwen, T. (2005). Introducing social semiotics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  136. Walker, D. (2003). Race building and the disciplining of White Australia. In L. Jayasuriya, D. Walker, & J. Gothard (Eds.), Legacies of White Australia: Race, culture and nation (pp. 33–50). Crawley, WA: University of Western Australia Press.Google Scholar
  137. Wang, H., & Qian, C. (2011). Corporate philanthropy and corporate financial performance: The roles of stakeholder response and political access. Academy of Management Journal, 54(6), 1159–1181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Westwood, M. (2012, September 25). Council’s new chief wants to lead from behind in support of cultural life. The Australian, p. 17.Google Scholar
  139. Whitman, K. (2013). The “Aussie battler” and the hegemony of centralising working-class masculinity in Australia: Gender, class, mainstreaming and the axis of visibility in Kenny. Australian Feminist Studies, 28(75), 50–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Williams, S. (2011, December 30). $750 m man sells joy of giving. The Australian, p. 15.Google Scholar
  141. Winter, R. (2011). The principled legal firm: Insights into the professional ideals and ethical values of partners and lawyers. Journal of Business Ethics, 98(2), 297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (2009). Critical discourse analysis: History, agenda, theory and methodology. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (2nd ed., pp. 1–33). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  143. Yang, S. (2011). Wisdom displayed through leadership: Exploring leadership-related wisdom. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(4), 616–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Yates, S. (2013, July 25). Scholars have done Tuck-well. In Woroni. http://www.woroni.com.au/news/scholars-have-done-tuck-well/. Accessed 21 Jan 2014.
  145. Young, L. (2013, May 27). Universities look to wealthy to open their wallets. The Age, p. 18.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Swinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia

Personalised recommendations