Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 129, Issue 3, pp 511–534 | Cite as

Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting: A Content Analysis in Family and Non-family Firms

  • Giovanna CampopianoEmail author
  • Alfredo De Massis


Family firms are ubiquitous and play a crucial role across all world economies, but how they differ in the disclosure of social and environmental actions from non-family firms has been largely overlooked in the literature. Advancing the discourse on corporate social responsibility reporting, we examine how family influence on a business organization affects CSR reporting. The arguments developed here draw on institutional theory, using a rich body of empirical evidence gathered through a content analysis of the CSR reports of 98 large- and medium-sized Italian firms. The grounded theory analysis informs and contextualizes several differences in the type and content of corporate social responsibility reports of family and non-family firms. Our findings show that in comparison to non-family firms, family firms disseminate a greater variety of CSR reports, are less compliant with CSR standards and place emphasis on different CSR topics. We, thus, contribute to the family business and corporate social responsibility reporting literatures in several ways, offering implications for practice and outlining promising avenues for future research.


Content analysis CSR reporting Social responsibility Family firms Family business Italian context 


  1. Abraham, B. P., & Moitra, S. D. (2001). Innovation assessment through patent analysis. Technovation, 21(4), 245–252.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, C. A. (2002). Internal organisational factors influencing corporate social and ethical reporting: Beyond current theorizing. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 15(2), 223–250.Google Scholar
  3. Adams, C. A., Hill, W., & Roberts, C. B. (1998). Corporate social reporting practices in Western Europe: Legitimating corporate behaviour? British Accounting Review, 30(1), 1–21.Google Scholar
  4. Adams, J., Taschian, A., & Shore, T. (1996). Ethics in family and non-family owned firms: An exploratory study. Family Business Review, 9(2), 157–170.Google Scholar
  5. Akerlof, G. A. (1997). Social distance and social decisions. Econometrica, 65(5), 1005–1027.Google Scholar
  6. Aldrich, H. E., & Cliff, J. E. (2003). The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: Toward a family embeddedness perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(5), 573–596.Google Scholar
  7. Aldrich, H. E., & Langton, N. (1998). Human resource management and organizational life cycles. In P. Reynolds, et al. (Eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurship research. Babson Park, MA: Babson College, Center for Entrepreneurial Studies.Google Scholar
  8. Anderson, R. C., & Reeb, D. M. (2003). Founding-family ownership and firm performance: Evidence from the S&P 500. Journal of Finance, 58(3), 1301–1327.Google Scholar
  9. Aronoff, C. E., & Ward, J. L. (1995). Family-owned businesses: A thing of the past or a model of the future? Family Business Review, 8(2), 121–130.Google Scholar
  10. Astrachan, J. H., & Shanker, M. C. (2003). Family businesses’ contribution to the U.S. economy: A closer look. Family Business Review, 16(3), 211–219.Google Scholar
  11. Barr, P. S., Stimpert, J. L., & Huff, A. S. (1992). Cognitive change, strategic action, and organizational renewal. Strategic Management Journal, 13(1), 15–36.Google Scholar
  12. Baumann-Pauly, D., Wickert, C., Spence, L., & Scherer, A. G. (2013). Organizing corporate social responsibility in small and large firms: Size matters. Journal of Business Ethics, 115(4), 693–705.Google Scholar
  13. Bebbington, J., Larrinaga, C., & Moneva, J. M. (2008). Corporate social reporting and reputation risk management. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 21(3), 337–361.Google Scholar
  14. Berrone, P., Cruz, C., & Gómez-Mejía, L. R. (2012). Socioemotional wealth in family firms theoretical dimensions, assessment approaches, and agenda for future research. Family Business Review, 25(3), 258–279.Google Scholar
  15. Berrone, P., Cruz, C., Gómez-Mejía, L. R., & Larraza-Kintana, M. (2010). Socioemotional wealth and corporate responses to institutional pressures: Do family-controlled firms pollute less? Administrative Science Quarterly, 55(1), 82–113.Google Scholar
  16. Béthoux, É., Didry, C., & Mias, A. (2007). What codes of conduct tell us: Corporate social responsibility and the nature of the multinational corporation. Corporate Governance, 15(1), 77–90.Google Scholar
  17. Bingham, J. B., Dyer, W. G, Jr, Smith, I., & Adams, G. L. (2011). A Stakeholder identity orientation approach to corporate social performance in family firms. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(4), 565–585.Google Scholar
  18. Block, J., & Wagner, M. (2010). Corporate social responsibility of large family and founder firms. erasmus research institute of management, report series research in management. Available at SSRN: or
  19. Boubaker, S., & Labégorre, F. (2008). Ownership structure, corporate governance and analyst following: A study of French listed firms. Journal of Banking & Finance, 32, 961–976.Google Scholar
  20. Brokaw, L. (1992). Why family businesses are best. Inc., 14(3), 72–81.Google Scholar
  21. Campbell, D. (2000). Legitimacy theory or managerial reality construction? Corporate Social disclosures in marks and spencer Plc corporate reports, 1969–1997. Accounting Forum, 24(1), 80–100.Google Scholar
  22. Campbell, D. (2004). A longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis of environmental disclosure in UK companies. A research note. British Accounting Review, 36, 107–117.Google Scholar
  23. Campbell, J. L. (2007). Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 946–967.Google Scholar
  24. Campbell, J. L., Hollingsworth, J. R., & Lindberg, L. N. (1991). Governance of the American economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Carlock, R. S., & Ward, J. L. (2001). Strategic planning for the family business: Parallel planning to unify the family and business. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  26. Carney, M. (2005). Corporate governance and competitive advantage in family-controlled firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(3), 249–265.Google Scholar
  27. Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Chen, S., & Bouvain, P. (2009). Is corporate responsibility converging? A comparison of corporate responsibility reporting in the USA, UK, Australia, and Germany. Journal of Business Ethics, 87(1), 299–317.Google Scholar
  29. Chiu, S. C., & Sharfman, M. (2011). Legitimacy, visibility, and the antecedents of corporate social performance: An investigation of the instrumental perspective. Journal of Management, 37(6), 1558–1585.Google Scholar
  30. Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J., & Litz, R. (2003). A unified system perspective of family firm performance: An extension and integration. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(4), 467–472.Google Scholar
  31. Chrisman, J., Chua, J. H., Pearson, A. W., & Barnett, T. (2012). Family involvement, family influence, and family-centered non-economic goals in small firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(2), 267–293.Google Scholar
  32. Chua, J. H., Chrisman, J. J., & Sharma, P. (1999). Defining the family business by behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 23, 19–40.Google Scholar
  33. Clatworthy, M. A., & Jones, M. J. (2001). The effect of thematic structure on the variability of annual report readability. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 14(3), 311–326.Google Scholar
  34. Colombo, M. G., De Massis, A., Piva, E., Rossi-Lamastra, C., & Wright, M. (2014). Sales and employment changes in entrepreneurial ventures with family ownership: Empirical evidence from high-tech industries. Journal of Small Business Management, 52(2), 226–245.Google Scholar
  35. Cooper, M. J., Upton, N., & Seaman, S. (2005). Customer relationship management: A comparative analysis of family and nonfamily business practices. Journal of Small Business Management, 43(3), 242–256.Google Scholar
  36. Cowen, S. S., Ferreri, L. B., & Parker, L. D. (1987). The impact of corporate characteristics on social responsibility disclosure: A typology and frequency based analysis. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 12(2), 111–122.Google Scholar
  37. Craig, J., & Dibrell, C. (2006). the natural environment, innovation, and firm performance: A comparative study. Family Business Review, 19(4), 275–288.Google Scholar
  38. Davis, P. S., & Harveston, P. D. (1998). The influence of family on the family business succession process: A multi-generational perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 22(3), 31–53.Google Scholar
  39. de Kok, J. M. P., Uhlaner, L. M., & Thurik, A. R. (2006). Professional HRM practices in family owned-managed enterprises. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(3), 441–460.Google Scholar
  40. De Massis, A., Chirico, F., Kotlar, J., & Naldi, L. (2014a). The temporal evolution of proactiveness in family firms: The horizontal S-curve hypothesis. Family Business Review, 27(1), 35–50.Google Scholar
  41. De Massis, A., Chua, J. H., & Chrisman, J. J. (2008). Factors preventing intra-family succession. Family Business Review, 21(2), 183–199.Google Scholar
  42. De Massis, A., Frattini, F., & Lichtenthaler, U. (2013a). Research on technological innovation in family firms: Present debates and future directions. Family Business Review, 26(1), 10–31.Google Scholar
  43. De Massis, A., Frattini, F., Pizzurno, E., & Cassia, L. (2013b). Product innovation in family versus non-family firms: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Small Business Management, forthcoming.,. doi: 10.1111/jsbm.12068.Google Scholar
  44. De Massis, A., Kotlar, J., Campopiano, G., & Cassia, L. (2013c). Dispersion of family ownership and the performance of small-to-medium size private family firms. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 4(3), 166–175.Google Scholar
  45. De Massis, A., Kotlar, J., Campopiano, G., & Cassia, L. (2013d). The impact of family involvement on SMEs’ performance: Theory and evidence. Journal of Small Business Management. doi: 10.1111/jsbm.12093.
  46. De Massis, A., Kotlar, J., Chua, J. H., & Chrisman, J. J. (2014b). Ability and willingness as sufficiency conditions for family-oriented particularistic behavior: Implications for theory and empirical studies. Journal of Small Business Management, 52(2), 344–364.Google Scholar
  47. De Massis, A., Sharma, P., Chua, J. H., & Chrisman, J. J. (2012). Family business studies: An annotated bibliography. Cheltenham Glos: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  48. Deegan, C., Rankin, M., & Voght, P. (2000). Firms’ disclosure reactions to major social incidents: Australian evidence. Accounting Forum, 24(1), 101–130.Google Scholar
  49. Denison, D., Lief, C., & Ward, J. L. (2004). Culture in family-owned enterprises: Recognizing and leveraging unique strengths. Family Business Review, 17(1), 61–70.Google Scholar
  50. Deniz, M. D. L. C. D., & Suárez, M. K. C. (2005). Corporate social responsibility and family business in Spain. Journal of Business Ethics, 56(1), 27–41.Google Scholar
  51. Dibrell, C. (2010). Life settlements from the perspective of institutional, real options, and stewardship theories. Family Business Review, 23(1), 94–98.Google Scholar
  52. DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48, 147–160.Google Scholar
  53. Ding, S. & Wu, Z. (2013). Family ownership and corporate misconduct in US small firms. Journal of Business Ethics, in press. doi: 10.1007/s10551-013-1812-1.
  54. Donckels, R., & Frohlich, E. (1991). Are family businesses really different? European experiences from STRATOS. Family Business Review, 4(2), 149–160.Google Scholar
  55. Dunn, B. (1996). Family enterprises in the UK: A special sector? Family Business Review, 9(2), 139–155.Google Scholar
  56. Dyer, W. G. (2003). The family: The missing variable in organizational research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(4), 401–416.Google Scholar
  57. Dyer, W. G., & Mortensen, S. P. (2005). Entrepreneurship and family business in a hostile environment: The case of Lithuania. Family Business Review, 18(3), 247–258.Google Scholar
  58. Dyer, W. G., & Whetten, D. A. (2006). Family firms and social responsibility: Preliminary evidence from the S&P 500. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(6), 785–802.Google Scholar
  59. Earley, P. C. (1989). Social loafing and collectivism: A comparison of the United States and the People’s Republic of China. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34(4), 565–581.Google Scholar
  60. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550.Google Scholar
  61. Esrock, S. L., & Leichty, G. B. (1998). Social responsibility and corporate web pages: Self-presentation or agenda-setting? Public Relations Review, 24(3), 305–319.Google Scholar
  62. European Commission (2008). Overview of family business relevant issues—Country fiche Italy. Available at: Accessed 20 Nov 2013.
  63. Fisher, J., Gunz, S., & McCutcheon, J. (2001). Private/public interest and the enforcement of a code of professional conduct. Journal of Business Ethics, 31(3), 191–207.Google Scholar
  64. Fombrun, C. J., Gardberg, N. A., & Barnett, M. L. (2000). Opportunity platforms and safety nets: corporate citizenship and reputational risk. Business and Society Review, 105(1), 85–106.Google Scholar
  65. Gamerschlag, R., Möller, K., & Verbeeten, F. (2011). Determinants of voluntary CSR disclosure empirical evidence from Germany. Review of Managerial Science, 5(2), 233–262.Google Scholar
  66. Glaser, B. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.Google Scholar
  67. Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies of Qualitative Research. London: Wiedenfeld & Nicholson.Google Scholar
  68. Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). (2000). Sustainability reporting guidelines on economic, environmental, and social performance. Boston, MA: GRI.Google Scholar
  69. Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). (2006). G3 sustainability reporting guidelines. Amsterdam: GRI.Google Scholar
  70. Godfrey, P. C. (2005). The relationship between corporate philanthropy and shareholder wealth: A risk management perspective. Academy of Management Review, 30(4), 777–798.Google Scholar
  71. Godfrey, J., Mather, P. R., & Ramsay, A. (2003). Earnings and impression management in financial reports: the case of CEO changes. Abacus, 39(1), 95–123.Google Scholar
  72. Goel, S., Voordeckers, W., van Gils, A., & van den Heuvel, J. (2012). CEO’s empathy and salience of socioemotional wealth in family SMEs—The moderating role of external directors. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 25(3–4), 111–134.Google Scholar
  73. Gómez-Mejía, L. R., Cruz, C., Berrone, P., & De Castro, J. (2011). The bind that ties: Socioemotional wealth preservation in family firms. Academy of Management Annuals, 5(1), 653–707.Google Scholar
  74. Gómez-Mejía, L. R., Haynes, K. T., Nunez-Nickel, M., Jacobson, K. J. L., & Moyano-Fuentes, J. (2007). socioemotional wealth and business risks in family-controlled firms: Evidence from Spanish olive oil mills. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52(1), 106–137.Google Scholar
  75. Gómez-Mejía, L. R., Nunez-Nickel, M., & Gutierrez, I. (2001). The role of family ties in agency contracts. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 81–95.Google Scholar
  76. Gray, R. H., Javad, M., Power, D. M., & Sinclair, C. D. (2001). Social and environmental disclosure and corporate characteristics: A research note and extension. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, 28(3–4), 327–356.Google Scholar
  77. Gray, R. H., Kouhy, R., & Lavers, S. (1995a). Corporate social and environmental reporting: reporting: A review of the literature and a longitudinal study of UK disclosure. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 8(2), 47–77.Google Scholar
  78. Gray, R. H., Kouhy, R., & Lavers, S. (1995b). Constructing a research database of social and environmental reporting by UK companies: A methodological note. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 8(2), 78–101.Google Scholar
  79. Gray, R. H., Owen, D., & Maunders, K. (1987). Corporate social reporting: Accounting & accountability. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall International.Google Scholar
  80. Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field methods, 18(1), 59–82.Google Scholar
  81. Gunz, S., & McCutcheon, J. (1998). Are academics committed to accounting ethics education? Journal of Business Ethics, 17(11), 1145–1154.Google Scholar
  82. Guthrie, J., & Parker, L. D. (1989). Corporate social reporting: A rebuttal of legitimacy theory. Accounting and Business Research, 19(76), 343–352.Google Scholar
  83. Hackston, D., & Milne, M. J. (1996). Some determinants of social and environmental disclosures in New Zealand companies. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 9(1), 77–108.Google Scholar
  84. Hodkinson, P. (2008). Grounded theory and inductive research. In N. Gilbert (Ed.), Researching social life (3rd ed., pp. 80–100). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  85. Hooghiemstra, R. (2000). Corporate communication and impression management—New perspectives why companies engage in corporate social reporting. Journal of Business Ethics, 27(1–2), 55–68.Google Scholar
  86. Jaggi, B., Leung, S., & Gul, F. (2009). Family control, board independence and earnings management: Evidence based on Hong Kong firms. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 28(4), 281–300.Google Scholar
  87. Jorissen, A., Laveren, E., Martens, R., & Reheul, A.-M. (2005). Real versus sample-based differences in comparative family business research. Family Business Review, 18(3), 229–246.Google Scholar
  88. Jose, A., & Lee, S. M. (2007). Environmental reporting of global corporations: a content analysis based on website disclosures. Journal of Business Ethics, 72(4), 307–321.Google Scholar
  89. Kabanoff, B., Waldersee, R., & Cohen, M. (1995). Espoused values and organizational change themes. Academy of Management Journal, 38(4), 1075–1104.Google Scholar
  90. Karra, N., Tracey, P., & Phillips, N. (2006). Altruism and agency in the family firm: Exploring the role of family, kinship, and ethnicity. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(6), 861–878.Google Scholar
  91. Khanin, D., Turel, O., & Mahto, R. V. (2012). How to increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions in the family firm: The family-business embeddedness perspective. Family Business Review, 25(4), 391–408.Google Scholar
  92. Kolk, A., & Perego, P. (2008). Determinants of the adoption of sustainability assurance statements: An international investigation. Business Strategy and the Environment, 19(3), 182–198.Google Scholar
  93. Kotlar, J., & De Massis, A. (2013). Goal setting in family firms: goal diversity, social interactions, and collective commitment to family-centered goals. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(6), 1263–1288.Google Scholar
  94. Kotlar, J., De Massis, A., Frattini, F., Bianchi, M., & Fang, H. (2013). Technology acquisition in family and nonfamily firms: A longitudinal analysis of Spanish manufacturing firms. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(6), 1073–1088.Google Scholar
  95. Krippendorff, K. (1969). Models of messages: Three prototypes. In G. Gerbner, O. R. Holsti, K. Krippendorff, G. J. Paisly, & Ph J Stone (Eds.), The analysis of communication content. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  96. Krippendorff, K. (1980). Content analysis. An introduction to its methodology. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  97. La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. (1999). Corporate ownership around the world. Journal of Finance, 54(2), 471–517.Google Scholar
  98. Le Breton-Miller, I., & Miller, D. (2006). Why do some family businesses out-compete? Governance, long-term orientations, and sustainable capability. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(6), 731–746.Google Scholar
  99. Le Breton-Miller, I. & Miller, D. (2009). Agency vs. stewardship in public family firms: A social embeddedness reconciliation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 33(6), 1169–1191.Google Scholar
  100. Llena, F., Moneva, J. M., & Hernandez, B. (2007). Environmental disclosures and compulsory accounting standards: the case of Spanish annual reports. Business Strategy and the Environment, 16(1), 50–63.Google Scholar
  101. Locke, K. (2001). Grounded theory in management research. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  102. Long, R. G., & Mathews, K. M. (2011). Ethics in the family firms: Cohesion through reciprocity and exchange. Business Ethics Quarterly, 21(2), 287–308.Google Scholar
  103. Lungeanu, R., & Ward, J. L. (2012). A governance-based typology of family foundations: The Effect of generation stage and governance structure on family philanthropic activities. Family Business Review, 25(4), 409–424.Google Scholar
  104. Lyman, A. R. (1991). Customer service: Does family ownership make a difference? Family Business Review, 4(3), 303–324.Google Scholar
  105. Maignan, I., & Ralston, D. A. (2002). Corporate social responsibility in Europe and the U.S.: Insights from businesses’ self-presentations. Journal of International Business Studies, 33(3), 497–514.Google Scholar
  106. Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008). “Implicit” and “explicit” CSR: A conceptual framework for a comparative understanding of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 404–424.Google Scholar
  107. Merkl-Davies, D. M., & Brennan, N. (2007). discretionary disclosure strategies in corporate narratives: Incremental information or impression management? Journal of Accounting Literature, 27, 116–196.Google Scholar
  108. Miller, D., & Le Breton-Miller, I. (2005). Management insights from great and struggling family businesses. Long Range Planning, 38(6), 517–530.Google Scholar
  109. Miller, D., & Le Breton-Miller, I. (2006). Family governance and firm performance: Agency, stewardship, and capabilities. Family Business Review, 19(1), 73–87.Google Scholar
  110. Miller, D., & Le Breton-Miller, I. (2007). Kicking the habit: Broadening our horizons by studying family businesses. Journal of Management Inquiry, 16(1), 27–30.Google Scholar
  111. Miller, D., Le Breton-Miller, I., & Scholnick, B. (2008). Stewardship versus stagnation: An empirical comparison of small family and non-family businesses. Journal of Management Studies, 45(1), 51–78.Google Scholar
  112. Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R., Chrisman, J. J., & Spence, L. J. (2011). Toward a theory of stakeholder salience in family firms. Business Ethics Quarterly, 21(2), 235–255.Google Scholar
  113. Morhardt, J. E. (2010). Corporate social responsibility and sustainability reporting on the internet. Business Strategy and the Environment, 19(7), 436–452.Google Scholar
  114. Mroczkowski, N. A., & Tanewski, G. (2007). delineating publicly listed family and nonfamily controlled firms: An approach for capital market research in Australia. Journal of Small Business Management, 45(3), 320–332.Google Scholar
  115. Mueller, M., Dos Santos, V. G., & Seuring, S. (2009). The contribution of environmental and social standards towards ensuring legitimacy in supply chain governance. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(4), 509–523.Google Scholar
  116. Neu, D., Warsame, H., & Pedwell, K. (1998). Managing public impressions: Environmental disclosures in annual reports. Accounting, Organisations, and Society, 23(3), 265–282.Google Scholar
  117. Neuendorf, K. A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  118. Niehm, L. S., Swinney, J., & Miller, N. J. (2008). Community social responsibility and its consequences for family business performance. Journal of Small Business Management, 46(3), 331–350.Google Scholar
  119. O’Donovan, G. (1997). Legitimacy theory and corporate environmental disclosure: Some case study evidence. Paper Presented at 1997 Accounting Association of Australia and New Zealand Annual Conference, Hobart.Google Scholar
  120. Patten, D. M. (1991). Exposure, legitimacy, and social disclosure. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 10(4), 297–308.Google Scholar
  121. Patten, D. M. (1992). Intra-industry environmental disclosures in response to the Alaskan oil spill: A note on legitimacy theory. Accounting, Organisations, and Society, 17(5), 471–475.Google Scholar
  122. Perrini, F. (2005). Building a European portrait of corporate social responsibility reporting. European Management Journal, 23(6), 611–627.Google Scholar
  123. Phillips, M. E. (1994). Industry mindsets: Exploring the cultures of two macro-organizational settings. Organizational Science, 5(3), 384–402.Google Scholar
  124. Piva, E., Rossi-Lamastra, C., & De Massis, A. (2013). Family firms and internationalization: an exploratory study on high-tech entrepreneurial ventures. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 11(2), 108–129.Google Scholar
  125. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78–92.Google Scholar
  126. Potter, W. J., & Levine-Donnerstein, D. (1999). Rethinking validity and reliability in content analysis. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 27(3), 258–284.Google Scholar
  127. Prado-Lorenzo, J. M., Gallego-Alvarez, I., & Garcia-Sanchez, I. M. (2009). Stakeholder engagement and corporate social responsibility reporting: the ownership structure effect. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 16(2), 94–107.Google Scholar
  128. Pratt, M. G., Rockmann, K. W., & Kauffman, J. B. (2006). Constructing professional identity: The role of work and identity learning cycles in the customization of identity among medical residents. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2), 235–262.Google Scholar
  129. Randøy, T., & Goel, S. (2003). Ownership structure, founder leadership, and performance in Norwegian SMEs: Implications for financing entrepreneurial opportunities. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(5), 619–637.Google Scholar
  130. Reay, T. (2009). Family-business meta-identity, institutional pressures, and ability to respond to entrepreneurial opportunities. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(6), 1265–1270.Google Scholar
  131. Reid, R. S., & Adams, J. S. (2001). Human resource management: A survey of practices within family and non-family firms. Journal of European Industrial Training, 25(6), 310–320.Google Scholar
  132. Reverte, C. (2009). Determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure ratings by Spanish listed firms. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(2), 351–366.Google Scholar
  133. Reynolds, M., & Yuthas, K. (2008). Moral discourse and corporate social responsibility reporting. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(1–2), 47–64.Google Scholar
  134. Romano, C. A., Tanewski, G. A., & Smyrnios, K. X. (2001). Capital structure decision making: A model for family business. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(3), 285–310.Google Scholar
  135. Schultz, F., & Wehmeier, S. (2010). Institutionalization of corporate social responsibility within corporate communications: Combining institutional, sense making and communication perspectives. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 15(1), 9–29.Google Scholar
  136. Schulze, W. S., & Gedajlovic, E. R. (2010). Whither family business? Journal of Management Studies, 47(2), 191–204.Google Scholar
  137. Schulze, W. S., Lubatkin, M. H., & Dino, R. N. (2003). Exploring the agency consequences of ownership dispersion among the directors of private family firms. Academy of Management Journal, 46(2), 179–194.Google Scholar
  138. Scott, W. R. (1995). Institutions and organizations. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  139. Scott, W. R. (2001). Institutions and organizations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  140. Scott, W. R. (2008). Institutions and organizations: Ideas and interests (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  141. Sharma, P., & Sharma, S. (2011). Drivers of proactive environmental strategy in family firms. Business Ethics Quarterly, 21(2), 309–334.Google Scholar
  142. Short, J. C., & Palmer, T. B. (2003). Organizational performance referents: An empirical examination of their content and influences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90(2), 209–224.Google Scholar
  143. Singh, J. B. (2006). A comparison of the contents of the codes of ethics of Canada’s largest corporations in 1992 and 2003. Journal of Business Ethics, 64(1), 17–29.Google Scholar
  144. Singh, J. B., Svensson, G., Wood, G., & Callaghan, M. (2011). A longitudinal and cross-cultural study of the contents of codes of ethics of Australian, Canadian and Swedish corporations. Business Ethics, 20(1), 103–199.Google Scholar
  145. Singhvi, S. S., & Desai, H. B. (1971). An empirical analysis of the quality of corporate financial disclosure. The Accounting Review, 46(1), 129–138.Google Scholar
  146. Snider, J., Hill, R. P., & Martin, D. (2003). Corporate social responsibility in the 21st century: A view from the world’s most successful firms. Journal of Business Ethics, 48(2), 175–187.Google Scholar
  147. Stavrou, E., Kassinis, G., & Filotheou, A. (2007). Downsizing and stakeholder orientation among the fortune 500: Does Family ownership matter? Journal of Business Ethics, 72(2), 149–162.Google Scholar
  148. Steier, L. (2001). Family firms, plural forms of governance, and the evolving role of trust. Family Business Review, 14(4), 353–368.Google Scholar
  149. Steier, L. P., Chua, J. H., & Chrisman, J. J. (2009). Embeddedness perspectives of economic action within family firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(6), 1157–1167.Google Scholar
  150. Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 571–610.Google Scholar
  151. Tagesson, T., Blank, V., Broberg, P., & Collin, S.-O. (2009). What explains the extent and content of social and environmental disclosures on corporate websites: A study of social and environmental reporting in Swedish listed corporations. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 16(6), 352–364.Google Scholar
  152. Tagiuri, R., & Davis, J. A. (1996). Bivalent attributes of the family firm. Family Business Review, 9(2), 199–208.Google Scholar
  153. Tapies, J., & Toninato, F. (2005). Agnellis and the Fiat Group: The story of a family empire (A). IESE case, IES-111.Google Scholar
  154. Tsai, W., Hung, J., Kuo, Y., & Kuo, L. (2006). CEO tenure in Taiwanese family and nonfamily firms: An agency theory perspective. Family Business Review, 19(1), 11–28.Google Scholar
  155. Tsui-Auch, L. S. (2004). The professionally managed family-ruled enterprise: Ethnic Chinese business in Singapore. Journal of Management Studies, 41(4), 693–723.Google Scholar
  156. Uhlaner, L., Van Goor-Balk, A., & Masurel, E. (2004). Family business and corporate social responsibility in a sample of Dutch firms. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 11(2), 186–194.Google Scholar
  157. Ullman, A. A. (1985). Data in search of a theory: A critical examination of the relationships among social performance, Social disclosure, and economic performance of U.S. firms. Academy of Management Review, 10(3), 540–557.Google Scholar
  158. Unerman, J. (2000). Methodological issues. Reflections on quantification in corporate social reporting content analysis. Accounting Auditing & Accountability Journal 13(5), 667–680.Google Scholar
  159. Veliyath, R., & Ramaswamy, K. (2000). Social embeddedness, overt and covert power, and their effects on CEO pay: An empirical examination among family businesses in India. Family Business Review, 13(4), 293–311.Google Scholar
  160. Verganti, R. (2009). Design-driven innovation: Changing the rules of competition by radically innovating what things mean. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.Google Scholar
  161. Villalonga, B., & Amit, R. (2006). How do family ownership, Control and management affect firm value? Journal of Financial Economics, 80(2), 385–417.Google Scholar
  162. Ward, J. L. (1988). The special role of strategic planning for family businesses. Family Business Review, 1(2), 105–117.Google Scholar
  163. Ward, J. L., & Lief, C. (2005). Prudence and audacity: The house of Beretta. IMD case, IMD-3-1495.Google Scholar
  164. Weber, R. P. (1985). Basic content analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  165. Westhead, P., Cowling, M., & Howorth, C. (2001). The development of family companies: Management and ownership imperatives. Family Business Review, 14(4), 369–385.Google Scholar
  166. Whetten, D. A., & Mackey, A. (2005). An Identity-congruence explanation of why firms would consistently engage in corporate social performance, working paper, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.Google Scholar
  167. Wiklund, J. (2006). Commentary: Family firms and social responsibility. Preliminary evidence from the S&P 500. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 30(6), 803–808.Google Scholar
  168. Wood, G. (2000). A cross cultural comparison of the contents of codes of ethics: USA, Canada and Australia. Journal of Business Ethics, 25(4), 287–298.Google Scholar
  169. Young, S., & Marais, M. (2011). CSR reporting: An Institutional perspective. Finance and Corporate Governance Conference, La Trobe University. Available at SSRN:
  170. Yuthas, K., Rodney, R., & Dillard, J. (2004). Communicative action and corporate annual reports. Journal of Business Ethics, 41(1–2), 141–157.Google Scholar
  171. Zellweger, T. (2007). Time horizon, costs of equity capital, and generic investment strategies of firms. Family Business Review, 20(1), 1–15.Google Scholar
  172. Zellweger, T. M., Kellermanns, F. W., Chrisman, J. J., & Chua, J. H. (2012a). Family control and family firm valuation by family CEOs: The importance of intentions for transgenerational control. Organization Science, 23(3), 851–868.Google Scholar
  173. Zellweger, T. M., & Nason, R. S. (2008). A stakeholder perspective on family firm performance. Family Business Review, 21(3), 203–216.Google Scholar
  174. Zellweger, T. M., Nason, R. S., & Nordqvist, M. (2012b). From longevity of firms to transgenerational entrepreneurship of families introducing family entrepreneurial orientation. Family Business Review, 25(2), 136–155.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Witten Institute for Family BusinessWitten/Herdecke UniversityWittenGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development (IEED)Lancaster University Management SchoolLancasterUK
  3. 3.Center for Young and Family EnterpriseUniversity of BergamoBergamoItaly

Personalised recommendations