Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 120, Issue 1, pp 95–108 | Cite as

Ethical Culture, Ethical Intent, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Moderating and Mediating Role of Person–Organization Fit

Article

Abstract

A multidimensional measure of ethical culture (EC) was examined for its relationship to person–organization (P–O) fit, ethical intent and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), using a sample of 525 employees from the financial industry in Spain. As hypothesized, relative to studies using unidimensional assessments, our measure of EC was more strongly related to ethical intent and organizational citizenship. Also, significant differences were found in the degree to which each the EC dimensions related to both ethical intent and OCB. Finally, in a first for the literature, we demonstrated the important role of overall P–O fit in connection with EC, ethical intent, and organizational citizenship. Specifically, as hypothesized, P–O fit moderated positively the association between EC and ethical intent, but mediated the EC–OCB relationship.

Keywords

Ethical culture OCB Person–organization fit Social exchange theory Social learning theory Ethical intent 

References

  1. Akaah, I. P. (1992). Social inclusion as a marketing ethics correlate. Journal of Business Ethics, 11(8), 599–608.Google Scholar
  2. Ambrose, M. L., Arnaud, A. & Schminke, M. (2008). Individual moral development and ethical climate: the influence of person–organization fit on job attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 77(3), 323–333.Google Scholar
  3. Ardichvili, A., Mitchell, J. A., & Jondle, D. (2009). Characteristics of ethical business cultures. Journal of Business Ethics, 85, 445–451.Google Scholar
  4. Argandoña, A. (2011). Beyond contracts: Love in firms. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(1), 77–85.Google Scholar
  5. Armstrong, J. S. & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating non response bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(3), 396–403.Google Scholar
  6. Azjen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Inc.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, T. L., Hunt, T. G., & Andrews, M. C. (2006). Promoting ethical behavior and organizational citizenship behaviors: The influence of corporate ethical values. Journal of Business Research, 59, 849–857.Google Scholar
  8. Bande-Vilela, B., Varela-Gonzalez J.A. & Fernandez Ferrín, P. (2008). Person–Organization Fit, OCB and performance appraisal: Evidence from matched supervisor-salesperson data set in a Spanish context. Industrial Marketing Management 37, 1005–1019.Google Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Barnett, T. & Schubert, E. (2002). Perceptions of the ethical work climate and covenantal relationships. Journal of Business Ethics, 36(3), 279–290.Google Scholar
  11. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.Google Scholar
  12. Beekun, R., Stedham, Y., Westerman, J. & Yamamura, J. (2010). Effects of justice and utilitarianism on ethical decision making: A cross-cultural examination of gender similarities and differences. Business Ethics: A European Review, 19(4), 309–325.Google Scholar
  13. Berson, Y., Oreg, S. & Dvir, T. (2007). CEO values, organizational culture and firm outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(5), 615–633.Google Scholar
  14. Blau, P.M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K. & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 117–134.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, M. E. & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 595–616.Google Scholar
  17. Cable, D. M. & DeRue, D. S. (2002). The convergent and discriminant validity of subjective fit perceptions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(5), 875–884.Google Scholar
  18. Cable, D. M. & Judge, T. A. (1996). Person–Organization Fit, job choice decisions and organizational entry. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67(3), 294–311.Google Scholar
  19. Caldwell, C. & Dixon, R. D. (2009). Love forgiveness and trust: Critical values of the modern leader. Journal of Business Ethics, 93(1), 91–101.Google Scholar
  20. Cameron, K., Bright, D. & Caza, A. (2004). Exploring the relationships between organizational virtuousness and performance. American Behavioural Scientist, 47(6), 1–24.Google Scholar
  21. Cardona, P., Lawrence, B. S., & Bentler, P. M. (2004). The influence of social and work exchange relationships on organizational citizenship behaviour. Group & Organization Management, 29(2), 219–247.Google Scholar
  22. Casey D. P., Davidson, R. A., & Schwartz, B. N. (2001). The effect of organizational culture and ethical orientation on accountants’ ethical judgments. Journal of Business Ethics, 34(2), 101–121.Google Scholar
  23. Chatman, J. (1989). Improving interactional organizational research: A model of person–organization fit. Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 333–349.Google Scholar
  24. Chatman, J. (1991). Matching people and organizations: selection and socialization in public accounting firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, (36):3, 459-484.Google Scholar
  25. Chatman, J. A., & Eunyoung Cha, S. (2003). Leading by leveraging culture. California Management Review, 45, 19–34.Google Scholar
  26. Chiaburu, D.S. & Lim, A.S. (2008). Manager trustworthiness or interactional justice? Predicting organizational citizenship behaviours. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(3), 453–467.Google Scholar
  27. Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modelling. In. G.A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern methods for business research (pp. 295–336). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  28. Chin, W. W. (2003). PLS-Graph Software, Version 3.00 (Build 1130). Texas: University of Houston.Google Scholar
  29. Chin, W. W., Marcolin, B. L. & Newsted, P. R. (2003). A partial least squares latent variable modelling approach for measuring interaction effects: Results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic mail emotion/adoption study. Information Systems Research, 14(2), 189–217.Google Scholar
  30. Coldwell, D., Billsberry, J., Meurs, N. & Marsh, P. (2008). The effects of person–organization ethical fit on employee attraction and retention: Towards a testable explanatory model. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 611–622.Google Scholar
  31. Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31, 874–900.Google Scholar
  32. Deshpande, S. P., Joseph, J. & Prasad, R. (2006). Factors impacting ethical behavior in hospitals. Journal of Business Ethics, 69(2), 207–216.Google Scholar
  33. Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behaviour. Personnel Psychology, 57(1), 61–95.Google Scholar
  34. Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P. D., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 42–51.Google Scholar
  35. Elango, B., Paul, K., Kundu, S. K. & Paudel, S. K. (2010). Organizational ethics, individual ethics, and ethical intentions in international decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(4), 543–561.Google Scholar
  36. Falk, R. F., & Miller, N. B. (1992). A primer for soft modelling. Akron, OH: The University of Akron Press.Google Scholar
  37. Falkenberg, L., & Herremans, I. (1995). Ethical behaviours in organizations: Directed by the formal or informal systems?. Journal of Business Ethics, 14(2), 133–143.Google Scholar
  38. Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Standford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Finegan, J. E. (2000). The impact of person and organizational values on organizational commitment. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(2), 149–169.Google Scholar
  40. Fontrodona, J., & De los Santos, J. (2004). Clima Ético de la Empresa Española: Grado de Implantación de Prácticas Éticas. Working Paper 538, IESE Business School, University of Navarra, Pamplona.Google Scholar
  41. Fornell, C. (1982). A second generation of multivariate analysis: An overview. In C. Fornell (Ed.), A second generation of multivariate analysis (pp. 1–21). New York, NY: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  42. Fritzsche, D. & Oz, E. (2007). Personal values’ influence on the ethical dimension of decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 75(4), 335–343.Google Scholar
  43. Froymovich, R. & Trindle, J. (2012). CFTC chief: Libor needs overhaul. The Wall Sreet Journal, C3.Google Scholar
  44. Guillén, M., Melé, D. & Murphy, P. (2002). European vs. American approaches to institutionalisation of business ethics: The Spanish case. Business Ethics: A European Review, 11(2), 167–178.Google Scholar
  45. Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M. & Sinkovics, R.R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modelling in international marketing. In R.R. Sinkovics & P.N. Ghauri (Eds.), New challenges to international marketing: Advances in international marketing, Vol. 20 (pp. 277–319). Bingley: Emerald JAI Press.Google Scholar
  46. Herrbach, O. & Mignonac, K. (2007). Is ethical P–O fit really related to individual outcomes?. A study of management-level employees. Business & Society, 46(3), 304–330.Google Scholar
  47. Hoffman, B. & Woehr, D. (2006). A quantitative review of the relationship between person–organization fit and behavioral outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68(3), 389–399.Google Scholar
  48. Hunt, S. D., Wood, V. R. & Chonko, L. B. (1989). Corporate ethical values and organizational commitment. Journal of Marketing, 53(3), 79–90.Google Scholar
  49. Ilies, R., Nahrgang, J.D., & Morgeson, F.P. (2007). Leader-member exchange and citizenship citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92 (1), 269-277.Google Scholar
  50. Jaramillo, F., Mulki J. P., & Solomon, P. (2006). The role of ethical climate on salesperson’s role stress, job attitudes, turnover intention, and job performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 26, 271–282.Google Scholar
  51. Jose, A. & Thibodeaux, M.S. (1999). Institutionalization of ethics: The perspective of managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 22(2), 133–143.Google Scholar
  52. Kacmar KM, Bachrach DG, Harris KJ & Zivnuska S. (2011). Fostering good citizenship through ethical leadership: Exploring the moderating role of gender and organizational politics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(3), 633–642.Google Scholar
  53. Kapner, S. (2012). Citi to settle suit for $590 milllion. The Wall Street Journal, August 30, 2012, c 1.Google Scholar
  54. Kaptein, M. (2008). Developing and testing a measure for the ethical culture of organizations: The corporate ethical virtues model. Journal of Organizational Behavior 29, 923–947.Google Scholar
  55. Kaptein, M. (2011). Understanding unethical behaviour by unravelling ethical culture. Human Relations, 64(6), 843–869.Google Scholar
  56. Keith, N. K., Pettijohn, Ch. E. & Burnett, M. S. (2003). An empirical evaluation of the effect of peer and managerial ethical behaviours and the ethical predispositions of prospective advertising employees. Journal of Business Ethics, 48, 251-265.Google Scholar
  57. Kish-Gephart J.J., Harrison D.A. & Treviño L.K. (2010). Bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels. Journal of Applied Psychology 95(1), 1–31.Google Scholar
  58. Kleinbaum, D. G., Kupper, L. L., & Muller, K. E. (1988). Applied regression analysis and other multivariate analysis methods. Boston, MA: PWS-Kent Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  59. Koh, H.Ch & Boo, E. H. Y. (2001). The link between organizational ethics and job satisfaction: A study of managers in Singapore. Journal of Business Ethics, 29(4), 309–324.Google Scholar
  60. Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person–organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49(1), 1–49.Google Scholar
  61. Kristof-Brown, A. L., Zimmerman, R. D. & Johnson, E. C. (2005). Consequences of individuals’ fit at work: A meta-analysis of person-job, person–organization, person–group, and person–supervisor Fit. Personnel Psychology, 58(2), 281–342.Google Scholar
  62. LePine, J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: A critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 52–65.Google Scholar
  63. Liedtka, J. M. (1989). Value congruence: The interplay of individual and organizational value systems. Journal of Business Ethics, 8(10), 805–815.Google Scholar
  64. MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M. & Jarvis, C. B. (2005). The problem of measurement model misspecification in behavioural and organizational research and some recommended solutions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 710–730.Google Scholar
  65. Martin, K. & Cullen, J. (2006). Continuities and extensions of ethical climate theory: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Business Ethics, 69, 175–194.Google Scholar
  66. Mayer, D., Kuenzi, M., Greenbaum, R., Bardes, M. & Salvador, R. (2009). How low does ethical leadership flow? Test of a trickle-down model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  67. Merton, R. K. (1957). The role set: PROBLEMS in sociological theory. British Journal of Sociology, 8(2), 106–120.Google Scholar
  68. Neubert, M. J., Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., Roberts J. A., & Chonko L. B. (2009). The virtuous influence of ethical leadership behavior: Evidence from the field, Journal of Business Ethics 90, 157–170.Google Scholar
  69. Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  70. O’Fallon, M. J. & Butterfield, K. D. (2005). A review of the empirical ethical decision-making literature: 1996–2003, Journal of Business Ethics, 59(4), 375–413.Google Scholar
  71. Palazzolo, J. (2012). The business if bribery. The Wall Street Journal, B1.Google Scholar
  72. Padilla, A., Hogan, R. & Kaiser, R.B. (2007). The toxic triangle: Destructive leaders, susceptible followers and conducive environments. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(3), 176–194.Google Scholar
  73. Peterson, D. K. (2004). Perceived leader integrity and ethical intentions of subordinates. The Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 25(2), 7–23.Google Scholar
  74. Podsakoff, P. M & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.Google Scholar
  75. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviours: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26(3), 513–563.Google Scholar
  76. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y. & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.Google Scholar
  77. Podsakoff, N. P., Shen, W. & Podsakoff, P. M. (2006). The role of formative measurement models in strategic management research: Review, critique and implications for future research. In D. Ketchen & D. Bergh (Eds.), Research Methodology in Strategy and Management, Vol. 3 (pp. 201–256). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  78. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(4), 717–731.Google Scholar
  79. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891.Google Scholar
  80. Randall, D. M. & Fernandes, M. (1991). The social desirability response bias in ethics research. Journal of Business Ethics, 10(11), 805–817.Google Scholar
  81. Rego, A., Ribeiro, N. & Cunha, M. P. (2010). Perceptions of organizational virtuousness and happiness as predictors of organizational citizenship behaviours. Journal of Business Ethics, 93(2), 215–235.Google Scholar
  82. Rhoades, L. & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698–714.Google Scholar
  83. Rousseau, D. M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  84. Ruiz-Palomino P., Ruiz-Amaya, C. & Knörr, H. (2011). Employee organizational citizenship behaviour: The direct and indirect impact of ethical leadership. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 28(3), 244–258.Google Scholar
  85. Ruiz-Palomino P., Fontrodona J. & Martinez-Cañas, R. (2012). Ethical culture and employee outcomes: The mediating role of person–organization fit. Journal of Business Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-1453-9.
  86. Schein E. H. (1996). Culture: The missing concept in organization studies. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(2), 229–240.Google Scholar
  87. Schminke, M., Ambrose, M. L. & Neubaum, D. O. (2005). The effect of leader moral development on ethical climate and employee attitudes. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 135–151.Google Scholar
  88. Schnebel, E. & Bienert, M. A. (2004). Implementing ethics in business organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 53(1–2), 203–211.Google Scholar
  89. Schwepker, C. H. Jr. (2001). Ethical climate’s relationship to job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention in the salesforce. Journal of Business Research, 54(1), 39–52.Google Scholar
  90. Sharma, D., Borna S., & Stearns, J. M. (2009). An investigation of the effects of corporate ethical values on employee commitment and performance: Examining the moderating role of perceived fairness. Journal of Business Ethics, 89, 251–260.Google Scholar
  91. Sims, R. L. & Keon, T. L. (1997). Ethical work climate as a factor in the development of person–organization fit. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(11), 1095–1105.Google Scholar
  92. Sims, R. L. & Keon T.L. (2000). The influence of organizational expectations on ethical decision making conflict. Journal of Business Ethics, 23, 219–228.Google Scholar
  93. Sims, R. L. & Kroeck, K. G. (1994). The influence of ethical fit on employee satisfaction, commitment and turnover. Journal of Business Ethics, 13(12), 939-947.Google Scholar
  94. Stone, E. F. & Hollenbeck, J. R. (1989). Clarifying some controversial issues surrounding statistical procedures for detecting moderator variables: Empirical evidence and related matters. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(1), 3–10.Google Scholar
  95. Sutherland, E., & Cressey, D. R. (1970). Principles of criminology (8th ed.). Chicago, IL: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  96. Tekleab, A. G., Takeuchi, R. & Taylor, M. S. (2005). Extending the chain of relationships among organizational justice, social exchange and employee reactions: The role of contract violations. Academy of Management Journal, 48(1), 146–157.Google Scholar
  97. Thorne, L. 2010. The association between ethical conflict and adverse outcomes. Journal of Business Ethics, 92(2), 269–276.Google Scholar
  98. Tippins, M. J. & Sohi, R. S. (2003). IT competency and firm performance: Is organizational learning a missing link?. Strategic Management Journal, 24(8), 745–761.Google Scholar
  99. Treviño, L. K., Butterfield, K. D. & McCabe, D. L. (1998). The ethical context in organizations: Influences on employee attitudes and behaviours. Business Ethics Quarterly, 8(3), 447–476.Google Scholar
  100. Treviño, L. K. & Weaver, G. (2001). Organizational justice and ethics program ‘follow through’: Influences on employees harmful and helpful behaviour. Business Ethics Quarterly, 11(4), 651–671.Google Scholar
  101. Treviño, L. K. & Nelson, K. A. (2004). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  102. Turnipseed, D. L. (2002). Are good soldiers good? Exploring the link between organization citizenship behavior and personal ethics. Journal of Business Research, 55, 1–15.Google Scholar
  103. Valentine, S., Godkin, L., & Lucero, M. (2002). Ethical context, organizational commitment and person–organization fit. Journal of Business Ethics, 41(4), 349–360.Google Scholar
  104. Valentine, S., Greller, M. M., & Richtermeyer, S. (2006). Employee job response as a function of ethical context and perceived organization support. Journal of Business Research, 59(5), 582–588.Google Scholar
  105. Valentine, S., Varca, P., Godkin, L. & Barnett, T. (2010). Positive job response and ethical job performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(2), 195–206.Google Scholar
  106. Valentine, S., Godkin, L., Fleischman, G. M. & Kidwell, R. (2011). Corporate ethical values, group creativity, job satisfaction and turnover intention: the impact of work context on work response. Journal of Business Ethics, 98(3), 353–372.Google Scholar
  107. Verquer, M. L., Beehr, T. A. & Wagner, S. H. (2003). A meta-analysis of relations between person–organization fit and work attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), 473–489.Google Scholar
  108. Victor, B. & Cullen, J. B. (1988). The organizational bases of ethical work climates. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33(1), 101–125.Google Scholar
  109. Vitell, S. J., Bakir, A., Paolillo, J. G .P., Ramos, E., Al-Khatib, J., & Rawwas, M. Y. A. (2003). Ethical judgements and intentions: A multinational study of marketing professionals. Business Ethics: A European Review, 12(2), 151–171.Google Scholar
  110. Werts, C. E., Linn, R. L., & Joreskog, K. G. (1974). Interclass reliability estimates: Testing structural assumptions. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 34(1), 25–33.Google Scholar
  111. Zoghbi-Manrique de Lara, P. (2008). Should faith and hope be included in the employees’ agenda? Linking P–O Fit and citizenship behavior. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(1), 73–88.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of Castilla-La ManchaCuencaSpain

Personalised recommendations