Fighting Software Piracy: Which Governance Tools Matter in Africa?
- 575 Downloads
This article integrates previously missing components of government quality into the governance-piracy nexus in exploring governance mechanisms by which global obligations for the treatment of IPRs are effectively transmitted from international to the national level in the battle against piracy. It assesses the best governance tools in the fight against piracy and upholding of intellectual property rights (IPRs). The instrumentality of IPR laws (treaties) in tackling piracy through good governance mechanisms is also examined. Findings demonstrate that: (1) while all governance tools under consideration significantly decrease the incidence of piracy, corruption-control is the most effective weapon; (2) but for voice and accountability, political stability and democracy, IPR laws (treaties) are instrumental in tackling piracy through government quality dynamics of rule of law, regulation quality, government effectiveness, corruption-control, and press freedom. Hence, the need for a policy approach most conducive to expanding development is to implement an integrated system of both IPRs and corollary good governance policies. Moreover, our findings support the relevance of good governance measures in developing countries wishing to complement their emerging IPR regimes.
KeywordsSoftware piracy Governance tools Intellectual property rights Instrumental variables
The authors are highly indebted to the editor and referees for their very useful comments.
- AFROL. (2009). Egypt’s software piracy rating drops. afrol News. Accessed September 24, 2012, from http://www.afrol.com/articles/33242.
- Agabi, C. (2012). Nigeria: Firm fights software piracy in Nigeria. Accessed September 24, 2012, from http://allafrica.com/stories/201207030367.html.
- Agbor, J. A. (2011). How does colonial origin matter for economic performance in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Institute for Development Economics Research Working Paper No. 2011/27.Google Scholar
- Andrés, A. R., & Goel, R. K. (2011). Corruption and software piracy: A comparative perspective. Policy and Internet, 3, Article 2. Accessed June 27, 2012, from http://www.psocommons.org/policyandinternet/vol3/iss3/art2.
- Asche, H., & Schüller, M. (2008). China’s engagement in Africa: Opportunities and risks for development. Eschborn: Africa Department, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH.Google Scholar
- Asongu, S. A. (2011). Law, democracy and the quality of government in Africa. MPRA Paper No. 35502. Accessed December 19, 2012, from http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/pramprapa/35502.htm.
- Asongu, S. A. (2012a). Harmonizing IPRs on software piracy: Empirics of trajectories in Africa. Journal of Business Ethics. Accessed December 19, 2012, from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10551-012-1552-7?LI=true#page-1.
- Asongu, S. A. (2012b). Fighting software piracy in Africa: How do legal origins and IPRs protection channels matter? Journal of the Knowledge Economy. Accessed December 19, 2012, from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13132-012-0137-0.
- Asongu, S. A. (2012c). On the effect of foreign aid on corruption. Economics Bulletin, 32(2), 2174–2180.Google Scholar
- Banerjee, D. S. (2006). Enforcement sharing and commercial piracy. Review of Economic Research on Copyright Issues, 3, 83–97.Google Scholar
- Beck, T., Demirgüç-Kunt, A., & Levine, R. (2003). Law and finance: Why does legal origin matter? Journal of Comparative Economics, 31, 653–675.Google Scholar
- Besen, S. M., & Raskind, L. J. (1991). An introduction to the law and economics of intellectual property. Journal of Economics Perspectives, 5, 3–27.Google Scholar
- Bessen, J., & Maskin. E. (2000). Sequential innovation, patents, and imitation. Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Working Paper No. 00-01.Google Scholar
- Bezmen, T. L. and Depken, C. A. (2004). The impact of software piracy on economic development, Working Paper. Francis Marion University.Google Scholar
- Business Software Alliance (BSA). (2007). Piracy study, Fifth Annual BSA and IDC Global Software. Accessed October 3, 2012, from http://global.bsa.org/idcglobalstudy2007/studies/2007_global_piracy_study.pdf).
- Business Software Alliance (BSA). (2009). What is software piracy? Accessed June 27, 2012, from http://www.bsa.org/Piracy%20Portal.aspx.
- Business Software Alliance (BSA). (2010). Eighth Annual BSA Global Software 2010 Piracy Study.Google Scholar
- Chen, C., Chen, C., & Yeh, C. (2010). Determinants of software piracy: Evidence from Far East countries. Journal of International and Global Economic Studies, 3(2), 53–62.Google Scholar
- El-Bialy, N. (2010). The role of institutions within the IPR enforcement context: The case of de facto software protection in Egypt. Discussion Papers on Strategy and Innovation 10-02, Philipps-University Marburg.Google Scholar
- Falvey, R., Foster, N., & Greenway, D. (2006). Intellectual property rights and economic growth. Review of Development Economics, 10, 700–719.Google Scholar
- Fripp, C. (2011). Kenya fighting software piracy. IT News Africa. Accessed September 24, 2012, from http://www.itnewsafrica.com/2011/04/kenya-fighting-software-piracy.
- Hamade, S. N. (2006). The legal and political aspects of software piracy in the Arab World. In ITNG ‘06 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations, pp. 137–142.Google Scholar
- Holm, H. J. (2003). Can economic theory explain piracy behavior? Topics in Economic Analysis & Policy, 3, article 5.Google Scholar
- IMF. (2005, June). The IMF approach to promoting good governance and combating corruption—a guide, International Monetary Fund. Google Scholar
- International Development Corporation (IDC). (2009). How to reduce software piracy in the Middle East and Africa: The case of South Africa. Google Scholar
- Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Mastruzzi, M. (2006). Governance Matters V: Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators for 1996-2005. Washington, D.C: World Bank.Google Scholar
- Lessig, L. (2001). The future of ideas: The fate of the commons in a connected world. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Marron, D. B., & Steel, D. G. (2000). Which countries protect intellectual property? The case of software piracy. Economic Inquiry, 38, 159–174.Google Scholar
- Maskus, E. K. (2000). Intellectual property rights and economic development. Boulder: University of Colorado.Google Scholar
- North, D. (1995). Five propositions about institutional change. In J. Knight & I. Sened (Eds.), Explaining social institutions (pp. 15–26). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- North, D. (1996). Where have we been and where are we going?. St. Louis: Washington University.Google Scholar
- Png, I. (2008). On the reliability of software piracy statistics. Mimeo: National University of Singapore.Google Scholar
- SIIA. (2000). SIIA report on global software piracy 2000. Washington, DC: Software and Information Industry Association.Google Scholar
- UNDP. (2002). Giving voice to the voiceless: Good governance.New York: UNDP.Google Scholar
- Varian, H. R. (1998). Markets for information goods. Mimeo: University of California Berkeley.Google Scholar
- Watt, R. (2001). Prices in cultural markets: A theoretical introduction for beginners. http://www.serci.org/documents/pricing.pdf.