Harmonizing IPRs on Software Piracy: Empirics of Trajectories in Africa
- First Online:
- 275 Downloads
In the current efforts of harmonizing the standards and enforcement of IPRs protection worldwide, this paper explores software piracy trajectories and dynamics in Africa. Using a battery of estimation techniques that ignore as well as integrate short-run disturbances in time-dynamic fashion, we answer the big questions policy makers are most likely to ask before harmonizing IPRs regimes in the battle against software piracy. Three main findings are established. (1) African countries with low software piracy rates are catching-up their counterparts with higher rates; implying despite existing divergent IPRs systems, convergence in piracy rate could be a genuine standard-setting platform. (2) Legal origins do not play a very significant role in the convergence process. (3) A genuine timeframe for standardizing IPRs laws in the fight against piracy is most likely between a horizon of 4–8 years. In other words, full (100 %) convergence within the specified horizon will mean the enforcements of IPRs regimes without distinction of nationality and locality. Policy implications and caveats are discussed.
KeywordsSoftware piracy Intellectual property rights Panel data Convergence
- Apergis, N., Christou, C., & Miller, S. M. (2010). Country and industry convergence in equity markets: International evidence from club convergence and clustering. Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Greece.Google Scholar
- Asongu, S. A. (2012a). African stock market performance dynamics: a multidimensional convergence assessment. Journal of African Business. http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/pramprapa/36055.htm. Accessed 24 Oct 2012.
- Asongu, S. A. (2012b). African financial development dynamics: big time convergence. African Journal of Economics and Management Studies. http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/pramprapa/36053.htm. Accessed 24 Oct 2012.
- Barro, R. J., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1995). Economic growth. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Baumol, W. J. (1986). Productivity, growth, convergence and welfare: What the long run data show. American Economic Review, 76, 1072–1085.Google Scholar
- Bezmen, T. L., & Depken, C. A. (2004). The impact of software piracy on economic development, Working Paper. Florence, SC: Francis Marion University.Google Scholar
- Bond, S., Hoeffler, A., & Tample, J. (2001). GMM estimation of empirical growth models. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Bruno, G., De Bonis, R., & Silvestrini, A. (2012). Do financial systems converge? New evidence from financial assets in OECD countries. Journal of Comparative Economics, 40, 141–155.Google Scholar
- Business Software Alliance. (2007). 2006 Piracy study. New York: BSA.Google Scholar
- Business Software Alliance. (2009). What is software piracy? Retrieved May 19 2012 from http://www.bsa.org/Piracy%20Portal.aspx.
- Caporale, G. M., Erdogan, B., & Kuzin, V. (2009). Testing for convergence in stock markets: a non-linear factor approach. Discussion paper no. 932. Berlin: Deutsches Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung.Google Scholar
- Costantini, M., & Lupi, C. (2005). Stochastic convergence among european economies. Economics Bulletin, 3(38), 1–17.Google Scholar
- Fredriksson, M. (2012). Piracy, globalization and the colonization of the Commons. Global Media Journal, 6(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
- Grossman, G. M., & Helpman, E. (1991). Innovation and growth in the global economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Kranenburg, H. L., & Hogenbirk, A.E. (2003). Determinants of multimedia, entertainment, and business software copyright piracy: A cross-national study. Mimeo: Department of Organization and Strategy, University of Maastricht.Google Scholar
- Mansfield, E. (1994). Intellectual property protection, foreign direct investment, and technology transfer. Washington, D.C.: International Finance Corporation.Google Scholar
- Marron, D. B., & Steel, D. G. (2000). Which countries protect intellectual property? The case of software piracy. Economic Inquiry, 38(2), 147–174.Google Scholar
- Maskus, E. K. (2000). Intellectual property rights and economic development. Boulder: University of Colorado.Google Scholar
- Moores, T. T., & Esichaikul, V. (2011). Socialization and software piracy: A study. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 1–9. Retrieved 25 October, 2012 from http://iacis.org/jcis/articles/Moores_Esichaikul_51_3.pdf.
- North, D. C. (1994). Economic performance through time. American Economic Review, 84, 359–368.Google Scholar
- Png, I. (2008). On the reliability of software piracy statistics. Mimeo: National University of Singapore.Google Scholar
- Rushing, F. W., & Thompson, M. A. (1996). An empirical analysis of the impact of patent protection on economic growth. Journal of Economic Development, 21(2), 61–79.Google Scholar
- Rushing, F. W., & Thompson, M. A. (1999). An empirical analysis of the impact of patent protection on economic growth: An extension. Journal of Economic Development, 24(1), 67–76.Google Scholar
- SIIA. (2000). SIIA report on global software piracy 2000. Washington, DC: Software and Information Industry Association.Google Scholar
- Todaro, M. P., & Smith, S. C. (2003). Economic development (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar