Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 117, Issue 3, pp 635–658 | Cite as

A Review of Sustainable Supply Chain Management Practices in Canada



There is a growing body of research on the theory and practice of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). However, relatively little research has been conducted on the extent to which corporations have integrated sustainability principles into the management of their supply chain and the evaluation of supplier performance. The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which corporate sustainability principles are integrated into supply chain management (SCM) in corporations. Canada is used as a case study in this article. The study included a content analysis of one hundred Canadian corporate sustainable development reports and in-depth interviews with 18 Canadian experts on SSCM. The article highlights the wide array of ways in which Canadian corporations address SSCM issues. Amongst other topics, issues associated with supply chain governance, standards for SSCM, collaboration with suppliers, performance measurement, and accountability within the supply chain are explored. The findings reveal that there are many challenges in integrating sustainability into SCM. These challenges shed light on possible future directions for research in SSCM. This article underlines the need for research that reflects the interconnected nature of the economic, environmental, and social dimensions of sustainability, particularly as it relates to measuring supplier performance on sustainability initiatives.


Canada Corporate social responsibility Integration Performance indicators Performance measurement Standards Supplier monitoring Supply chain management Sustainability 



Canadian corporate sustainable development reports


Corporate social responsibility


Global reporting initiative


Key performance indicator


Resource-based view


Resource dependence theory


Supply chain management


Ustainable supply chain management



Funding for this project was provided by the Canadian Purchasing Research Foundation (CPRF) and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). The authors would like to thank the funding agencies and all of the experts who participated in the interview process. Without their contributions, completion of this study would not have been possible. An earlier draft of the content analysis was presented at the Eight International Symposium on Supply Chain Management, September 26-28 in Toronto, Canada.


  1. Adams, J. S., Tschian, A., & Shore, T. (2001). Codes of ethics as signals for ethical behaviour. Journal of Business Ethics, 29(3), 199–211.Google Scholar
  2. Aguilera, R. V., & Jackson, T. (2003). The cross-national diversity of corporate governance: Dimensions and determinants. Academy of Management Review, 28(3), 447–466.Google Scholar
  3. Aguilera-Caracuel, J., Aragón-Correa, J. A., Hurtado-Torres, N. E., & Rugman, A. M. (2012). The effects of institutional distance and headquarters’ financial performance on the generation of environmental standards in multinational companies. Journal of Business Ethics, 29(3), 199–211.Google Scholar
  4. Akyuz, G. A., & Erkan, T. E. (2010). Supply chain performance measurement: A literature review. International Journal of Production Research, 48(17), 5137–5155.Google Scholar
  5. Alvarez, G., Pilbeam, C., & Wilding, R. (2010). Nestlé Nespresso AAA sustainable quality program: An investigation into the governance dynamics in a multi-stakeholder supply chain network. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 15(2), 165–182.Google Scholar
  6. Ardichvili, A., Kowske, B., Cornachione, E., Li, J., & Thakadipuram, T. (2012). Ethical cultures in large business organizations in Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Journal of Business Ethics, 105(4), 415–428.Google Scholar
  7. Attaran, M., & Attaran, S. (2007). Collaborative supply chain management: The most promising practice for building efficient and sustainable supply chains. Business Process Management Journal, 13(3), 390–404.Google Scholar
  8. Awaysheh, A., & Klassen, R. D. (2010). The impact of supply chain structure on the use of supplier socially responsible practices. International Journal of Operations & Production Management [Online], 30(12), 1246–1268.Google Scholar
  9. Baboulet, O., & Lenzen, M. (2010). Evaluating the environmental performance of a university. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(12), 1134–1141.Google Scholar
  10. Bai, C., & Sarkis, J. (2010). Integrating sustainability into supplier selection with grey system and rough set methodologies. International Journal of Production Economics, 124(1), 252–264.Google Scholar
  11. Balakrishan, A., & Geunes, J. (2004). Collaboration and coordination in supply chain management and e-commerce. Production and Operations Management, 13(1), 1–2.Google Scholar
  12. Ball, A., & Craig, R. (2010). Using neo-institutionalism to advance social and environmental accounting. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 21(4), 283–293.Google Scholar
  13. Bansal, P., & Roth, K. (2000). Why companies go green: A model of ecological responsiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 717–736.Google Scholar
  14. Barney, J. B. (1991). The resource based view of strategy: Origins, implications, and prospects. Editor of Special Theory Forum in Journal of Management, 17, 97–211.Google Scholar
  15. Bartley, T. (2003). Certifying forests and factories: States, social movements, and the rise of private regulation in the apparel and forest products fields. Politics and Society, 31(3), 433–464.Google Scholar
  16. Baur, D., & Schmitz, H. P. (2012). Corporations and NGOs: When accountability leads to co-optation. Journal of Business Ethics, 106(1), 9–21.Google Scholar
  17. Beske, P., Koplin, J., & Seuring, S. (2008). The use of environmental and social standards by German first-tier suppliers of the Volkswagen AG. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15(2), 63–75.Google Scholar
  18. Bhagwat, R., & Sharma, M. (2009). An application of the integrated AHP-PGP model for performance measurement of supply chain management. Production Planning and Control, 20(8), 678–690.Google Scholar
  19. Björklund, M. (2011). Influence from the business environment on environmental purchasing: Drivers and hinders of purchasing green transportation services. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 17, 11–22.Google Scholar
  20. Blowfield, M., & Dolan, C. (2010). Outsourcing governance: Fairtrade’s message for C21 global governance. Corporate Governance, 10(4), 484–499.Google Scholar
  21. Bondy, K., Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008). Multinational corporation codes of conduct: Governance tools for corporate social responsibility? Corporate Governance, 16(4), 294–311.Google Scholar
  22. Bowen, F. E., Cousins, P. D., Lamming, R. C., & Faruk, A. C. (2001). The role of supply management capabilities in green supply. Production and Operations Management, 10(2), 174–189.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, H. S., de Jong, M., & Levy, D. L. (2009). Building institutions based on information disclosure: Lessons from GRI’s sustainability reporting. Journal of Cleaner Production, 17(6), 571–580.Google Scholar
  24. Campbell, J. L. (2007). Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 946–967.Google Scholar
  25. Cao, M., & Zhang, Q. (2010). Supply chain collaborative advantage: A firm’s perspective. International Journal of Production Economics, 128(1), 358–367.Google Scholar
  26. Carr, A. S., & Pearson, J. N. (1999). Strategically managed buyer–supplier relationships and performance outcomes. Journal of Operations Management, 17(5), 497–519.Google Scholar
  27. Carter, C. R. (2000). Ethical issues in international buyer–supplier relationships: A dyadic examination. Journal of Operations Management, 18(2), 191–208.Google Scholar
  28. Carter, C. R., & Easton, P. L. (2011). Sustainable supply chain management: Evolution and future directions. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 41(1), 46–62.Google Scholar
  29. Carter, C. R., & Jennings, M. M. (2002). Social responsibility and supply chain relationships. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 38(1), 37–52.Google Scholar
  30. Carter, C. R., & Rogers, D. S. (2008). A framework of sustainable supply chain management: Moving toward new theory. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 38(5), 360–387.Google Scholar
  31. Castka, P., & Balzarova, M. A. (2007). ISO 26000 and supply chains: On the diffusion of the social responsibility standard. International Journal of Production Economics, 111(2), 274–286.Google Scholar
  32. Chae, B. (2009). Developing key performance indicators for supply chain: an industry perspective. Supply Chain Management, 14(6), 422–428.Google Scholar
  33. Chen, C. C. (2005). Incorporating green purchasing into the frame of ISO 14000. Journal of Cleaner Production, 13(9), 927–933.Google Scholar
  34. Cheung, M., & Myers, M. B. (2008). Managing knowledge sharing networks in global supply chains. International Journal of Management and Decision Making, 9(6), 581–599.Google Scholar
  35. Chia, A., Goh, M., & Hum, S. (2009). Performance measurement in supply chain entities: balanced scorecard perspective. Benchmarking, 16(5), 605–620.Google Scholar
  36. Chien, M. K., & Shih, L. H. (2007). An empirical study of the implementation of green supply chain management practices in the electrical and electronic industry and their relation to organizational performances. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4(3), 383–394.Google Scholar
  37. Ciliberti, F., Groot, G.d, Haan, J.d, & Pontrandolfo, P. (2009). Codes to coordinate supply chains: SMEs’ experiences with SA8000. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 14(2), 117–127.Google Scholar
  38. Ciliberti, F., Pontrandolfo, P., & Scozzi, B. (2008). Logistics social responsibility: Standard adoption and practices in Italian companies. International Journal of Production Economics, 113(1), 88–106.Google Scholar
  39. Cousins, P. D., Lamming, R. C., & Bowen, F. (2004). The role of risk in environment-related supplier initiatives. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 24(5/6), 554–565.Google Scholar
  40. Cousins, P. D., & Menguc, B. (2005). The implications of socialization and integration in supply chain management. Journal of Operations Management, 24(5), 604–620.Google Scholar
  41. Cowper-Smith, A., & de Grosbois, D. (2011). The adoption of corporate social responsibility practices in the airline industry. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(1), 59–77.Google Scholar
  42. Dahan, N. M., Doh, J. P., & Teegen, H. (2010). Role of nongovernmental organizations in the business–government–society interface, introductory essay by guest editors. Business & Society, 49(1), 20–34.Google Scholar
  43. Darnall, N., Jolley, G. J., & Handfield, R. (2008). Environmental management systems and green supply chain management: Complements for sustainability? Business Strategy and the Environment, 17(1), 30–45.Google Scholar
  44. Daugherty, P. J., Chen, H., Roath, A. S., Richey, R. G., Min, S., Arndt, A. D., et al. (2005). Supply chain collaboration: What’s happening? The International Journal of Logistics Management, 16(2), 237–256.Google Scholar
  45. Daugherty, P. J., Myers, M. B., & Richey, R. G. (2002). Information support for reverse logistics: The influence of relationship commitment. Journal of Business Logistics, 23(1), 85–106.Google Scholar
  46. Deakin, E. (2002). Sustainable transportation U.S. dilemmas and European experiences. Transportation Research Record, 1792(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  47. Deegan, C., & Gordon, B. (1996). A study of the environmental disclosure practices of Australian corporations. Accounting and Business Research, 26(3), 187–199.Google Scholar
  48. Delmas, M. A. (2002). The diffusion of environmental management standards in Europe and the United States: An institutional perspective. Policy Sciences, 35(1), 91–119.Google Scholar
  49. Delmas, M., & Blass, V. D. (2010). Measuring corporate environmental performance: The trade-offs of sustainability ratings. Business Strategy and the Environment, 19(4), 245–260.Google Scholar
  50. DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147–160.Google Scholar
  51. Donaldson, L. (2001). The contingency theory of organizations. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  52. Donaldson, T., & Preston, L. (1995). The stakeholder theory of the modern corporation: Concepts, evidence and implications. Academy of Management Review, 20, 65–91.Google Scholar
  53. Drumwright, M. E. (1994). Socially responsible organizational buying: Environmental concern as a noneconomic buying criterion. Journal of Marketing, 58(1), 1–19.Google Scholar
  54. Dunham, L., Freeman, R. E., & Leidtka, J. (2006). Enhancing stakeholder practice: A particularized exploration of community. Business Ethics Quarterly, 16(1), 23–42.Google Scholar
  55. Dyllick, T., & Hockerts, K. (2002). Beyond the business case for corporate sustainability. Business Strategy and the Environment, 11(2), 130–141.Google Scholar
  56. Elkington, J. (1998). Cannibals with forks: The triple bottom line of the 21st century. Stoney Creek: New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
  57. Emberson, C., & Storey, J. (2006). Buyer–supplier collaborative relationships: Beyond the normative accounts. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 12(5), 236–245.Google Scholar
  58. Esrock, S. L., & Leichty, G. B. (1998). Social responsibility and corporate web pages: Self-presentations or agenda-setting? Public Relations Review, 24(3), 305–319.Google Scholar
  59. Facanha, C., & Horvath, A. (2005). Environmental assessment of logistics outsourcing. Journal of Management in Engineering, 21(1), 27–37.Google Scholar
  60. Fasterling, B. (2012). Development of norms through compliance disclosure. Journal of Business Ethics, 106(1), 73–87.Google Scholar
  61. Fawcett, S. E., Magnan, G. M., & Fawcett, A. M. (2010). Mitigating resisting forces to achieve the collaboration-enabled supply chain. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 17(2), 269–293.Google Scholar
  62. Feitelson, E. (2002). Introducing environmental equity dimensions into the sustainable transport discourse: Issues and pitfalls. Transportation Research Part D, 7(2), 99–118.Google Scholar
  63. Fiedler, F. E. (1971). Validation and extension of the contingency model of leadership effectiveness: A review of empirical findings. Psychological Bulletin, 76(2), 128–148.Google Scholar
  64. Fink, A. (2005). Conducting research literature reviews. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  65. Flick, U. (2007). Managing quality in qualitative research. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  66. Fligstein, N., & Freeland, R. (1995). Theoretical and comparative perspectives on corporate organization. Annual Review of Sociology, 21(1), 21–43.Google Scholar
  67. Foerstl, K., Reuter, C., Hartmann, E., & Blome, C. (2010). Managing supplier sustainability risks in a dynamically changing environment—sustainable supplier management in the chemical industry. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 16(2), 118–130.Google Scholar
  68. Font, X., Tapper, R., Schwartz, K., & Kornilaki, M. (2008). Sustainable supply chain management in tourism. Business Strategy and the Environment, 17(4), 260–271.Google Scholar
  69. Foran, B., Lenzen, M., Dey, C., & Bilek, M. (2005). Integrating sustainable chain management with triple bottom line accounting. Ecological Economics, 52(2), 143–157.Google Scholar
  70. Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman.Google Scholar
  71. Freeman, R. E., Harrison, J. S., Wicks, A. C., Parmar, B. L., & De Colle, S. (2010). Stakeholder theory: The state of the art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Garriga, E., & Mele, D. (2004). Corporate social responsibility theories: Mapping the territory. Journal of Business Ethics, 53(1), 51–71.Google Scholar
  73. Gereffi, G. (2001). Shifting governance structures in global commodity chains, with special reference to the internet. American Behavioral Scientist, 44(10), 1616–1637.Google Scholar
  74. Ghosh, A., & Fedorowicz, J. (2008). The role of trust in supply chain governance. Business Process Management Journal, 14(4), 453–470.Google Scholar
  75. Gildia, R. L. (1995). Consumer survey confirms corporate social responsibility affects buying decisions. Public Relations Quarterly, 39(4), 20–21.Google Scholar
  76. Gold, S., Seuring, S., & Beske, P. (2010). Sustainable supply chain management and inter-organizational resources: A literature review. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 17(4), 230–245.Google Scholar
  77. Government of Canada. (2012). Sustainable development (SD). Retrieved Accessed March 29, 2012 from
  78. Gray, R. (2010). Is accounting for sustainability actually accounting for sustainability and how would we know? An exploration of narratives of organizations and the planet. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 35(1), 47–62.Google Scholar
  79. Gray, R., Kouhy, R., & Lavers, S. (1995). Corporate social and environmental reporting: A review of the literature and a longitudinal study of UK disclosure. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 8(2), 47–77.Google Scholar
  80. Green, K., Morton, B., & New, S. (1996). Purchasing and environmental management: Interaction, policies and opportunities. Business Strategy and the Environment, 5(3), 188–197.Google Scholar
  81. Guler, I., Guillén, M., & MacPherson, J. M. (2002). Global competition, institutions and the diffusion of organizational practices: The international spread of the ISO 9000 quality certificates. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47(2), 207–232.Google Scholar
  82. Handfield, R. B., Walton, S. V., Seegers, L. K., & Melnyk, S. A. (1997). Green value chain practices in the furniture industry. Journal of Operations Management, 15(4), 293–315.Google Scholar
  83. Hervani, A. A., Helms, M. M., & Sarkis, J. (2005). Performance measurement for green supply chain management. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 12(4), 330–353.Google Scholar
  84. Hillenbrand, C., Money, K., & Pavelin, S. (2012). Stakeholder-defined corporate responsibility for a pre-credit-crunch financial service company: Lessons for how good reputations are won and lost. Journal of Business Ethics, 105(3), 337–356.Google Scholar
  85. Hoyt, J., & Huq, F. (2000). From arms-length to collaborative relationships in the supply chain. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 30(9), 750–764.Google Scholar
  86. Huang, C. (2010). Corporate governance, corporate social responsibility and corporate performance. Journal of Management & Organization, 16(5), 641–655.Google Scholar
  87. Hutchins, M. J., & Sutherland, J. W. (2008). An exploration of measures of social sustainability and their application to supply chain decisions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(15), 1688–1698.Google Scholar
  88. Isaksson, R., & Steimle, U. (2009). What does GRI-reporting tell us about corporate sustainability? The TQM Journal, 21(2), 168–181.Google Scholar
  89. Jiang, B. (2009). Implementing supplier codes of conduct in global supply chains: Process explanations from theoretic and empirical perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(1), 77–92.Google Scholar
  90. Jo, H., & Harjoto, M. A. (2012). The causal effect of corporate governance on corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 106(1), 53–72.Google Scholar
  91. Kaptein, M. (2004). Business codes of multinational firms: What do they say? Journal of Business Ethics, 50(1), 13–31.Google Scholar
  92. Karen, P. (2008). Corporate sustainability, citizenship and social responsibility reporting: A website study of 100 model corporations. The Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 32, 63–78.Google Scholar
  93. Kast, F., & Rosenzweig, J. (1973). Contingency views of organization and management. Chicago: Science Research Associates.Google Scholar
  94. Kimerling, J. (2001). Corporate ethics in the era of globalization: The promise and peril of international environmental standards. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 14(4), 425–455.Google Scholar
  95. Kolk, A. (2003). Trends in sustainability reporting by the fortune global 250. Business Strategy and the Environment, 12(5), 279–291.Google Scholar
  96. Konefal, J., Mascarenhas, M., & Hatanaka, M. (2005). Governance in the global agro-food system: Backlighting the role of transnational supermarket chains. Agriculture and Human Values, 22(3), 291–302.Google Scholar
  97. Koplin, J., Seuring, S., & Mesterharm, M. (2007). Incorporating sustainability into supply management in the automotive industry—the case of the Volkswagen AG. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15(11–12), 1053–1062.Google Scholar
  98. Krause, D., Handfield, R., & Tyler, B. (2007). The relationship between supplier development, commitment, social capital accumulation and performance improvement. Journal of Operations Management, 25(2), 528–545.Google Scholar
  99. Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  100. Kvale, S. (2007). Doing Interviews. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  101. Large, R. O., & Gimenez Thomsen, C. (2011). Drivers of green supply management performance: Evidence from Germany. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 17(3), 176.Google Scholar
  102. Lawrence, P. R., & Lorsch, J. W. (1967). Organization and environment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Line, M., Hawley, H., & Krut, R. (2002). The development of global environmental and social reporting. Corporate Environmental Strategy, 9, 69–78.Google Scholar
  104. Linton, J. D., Klassen, R., & Jayaraman, V. (2007). Sustainable supply chains: An introduction. Journal of Operations Management, 25(6), 1075–1082.Google Scholar
  105. Lu, H., Cushing, K. K., & McGray, H. (2005). Understanding ISO 14001 adoption and implementation in China. International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 4(3), 246–268.Google Scholar
  106. Maignan, I. (2001). Consumers perceptions of corporate social responsibilities: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Business Ethics, 30(1), 57–72.Google Scholar
  107. Maignan, I., Hillebrand, B., & McAlister, D. (2002). Managing socially-responsible buying: How to integrate non-economic criteria into the purchasing process. European Management Journal, 20(6), 641–648.Google Scholar
  108. Maignan, I., & Ralston, D. A. (2002). Corporate social responsibility in Europe and the U.S.: Insights from businesses self-presentations. Journal of International Business Studies, 33(3), 497–514.Google Scholar
  109. Maloni, M. J., & Brown, M. E. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in the supply chain: An application in the food industry. Journal of Business Ethics, 68(1), 35–52.Google Scholar
  110. Martinelli, A., & Midttun, A. (2010). Globalization and governance for sustainability. Corporate Governance, 10(1), 6–17.Google Scholar
  111. Matos, S., & Hall, J. (2007). Integrating sustainable development in the supply chain: The case of life cycle assessment in oil and gas and agricultural biotechnology. Journal of Operations Management, 25(6), 1083–1102.Google Scholar
  112. Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008). “Implicit” and “explicit” CSR: A conceptual framework for a comparative understanding of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 404–424.Google Scholar
  113. Matthews, D. H. (2003). Environmental management systems for internal corporate environmental benchmarking. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 10(2), 95–106.Google Scholar
  114. McIntosh, M. (2004). Raising a ladder to the moon. The complexities of corporate social and environmental responsibilities. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  115. Meixell, M. J., & Gargeya, V. B. (2005). Global supply chain design: A literature review and critique. Transportation Research. Part E, Logistics & Transportation Review, 41E(6), 531–550.Google Scholar
  116. Melnyk, S. A., Sroufe, R. P., & Calantone, R. (2003). Assessing the impact of environmental management systems on corporate and environmental performance. Journal of Operations Management, 21(3), 329–351.Google Scholar
  117. Meyer, J. W. (2000). Globalization: Sources and effects on national states and societies. International Sociology, 15, 233–248.Google Scholar
  118. Meyer, J. W., & Rowan, B. (1977). Institutionalized organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 83, 340–363.Google Scholar
  119. Michelsen, O., Fet, A. M., & Dahlsrud, A. (2006). Eco-efficiency in extended supply chains: A case study of furniture production. Journal of Environmental Management, 79(3), 290–297.Google Scholar
  120. Miles, M. P., & Munilla, L. S. (2004). The potential impact of social accountability certification on marketing: A short note. Journal of Business Ethics, 50(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  121. Mintcheva, V. (2005). Indicators for environmental policy integration in the food supply chain (the case of the tomato ketchup supply chain and the integrated product policy). Journal of Cleaner Production, 13(7), 717–731.Google Scholar
  122. Morali, O., & Searcy, C. (2010a). Sustainable supply chain management in canadian corporations: A pilot content analysis. In Proceedings of the eight annual symposium on supply chain management, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, September 2010.Google Scholar
  123. Morali, O., & Searcy, C. (2010b). Building sustainability into supply chain management: A research agenda. In Proceedings of the 1st annual international symposium on green supply chains, Akron-Canton, OH, USA.Google Scholar
  124. Morrow, D., & Rondinelli, D. (2002). Adopting corporate environmental management systems: Motivations and results of ISO 14001 and EMAS certification. European Management Journal, 20(2), 159–171.Google Scholar
  125. Mueller, M., Dos Santos, V. G., & Seuring, S. (2009). The contribution of environmental and social standards towards ensuring legitimacy in supply chain governance. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(4), 509–523.Google Scholar
  126. Murphy, P. R., & Poist, R. F. (2002). Socially responsible logistics: An exploratory study. Transportation Journal, 41(4), 23–35.Google Scholar
  127. Nadvi, K. (2008). Global standards, global governance and the organization of global value chains. Journal of Economic Geography, 8(3), 323–343.Google Scholar
  128. Nawrocka, D., & Parker, T. (2009). Finding the connection: Environmental management systems and environmental performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 17(6), 601–607.Google Scholar
  129. Noci, G. (1997). Designing “Green” vendor rating systems for the assessment of the supplier’s environmental performance. European Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 3, 103–114.Google Scholar
  130. Nyaga, G. N., Whipple, J. M., & Lynch, D. F. (2010). Examining supply chain relationships: Do buyer and supplier perspectives on collaborative relationships differ? Journal of Operations Management, 28(2), 101–114.Google Scholar
  131. Okhmatovskiy, I., & David, R. J. (2012). Setting your own standards: Internal corporate governance codes as a response to institutional pressure. Organization Science, 23(1), 155–176.Google Scholar
  132. Oliver, C. (1991). Strategic responses to institutional processes. Academy of Management Review, 16(191), 145–179.Google Scholar
  133. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2011). Canada and the OECD, 50 years of progress—OECD Observer special focus. Retrieved November 18, 2011 from,3746,en_33873108_33873277_48226216_1_1_1_1,00.html.
  134. Pagell, M., & Wu, Z. (2009). Building a more complete theory of sustainable supply chain management using case studies of 10 exemplars. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 45(2), 37–56.Google Scholar
  135. Pagell, M., Yang, C., Krumwiede, D. K., & Sheu, C. (2004). Does the competitive environment influence the efficacy of investments in environmental management? Journal of Supply Chain Management, 40(3), 30–39.Google Scholar
  136. Paloviita, A., & Luoma-aho, V. (2010). Recognizing definitive stakeholders in corporate environmental management. Management Research Review, 33(4), 306–316.Google Scholar
  137. Parliament of Canada. (2012). Retrieved March 29, 2012 from
  138. Pearson, R., & Seyfang, G. (2001). New hope or false dawn? Voluntary codes of conduct, labour regulation and social policy in a globalizing world. Global Social Policy, 1(1), 49–78.Google Scholar
  139. Perrini, F. (2005). Building a European portrait of corporate social responsibility reporting. European Management Journal, 23(6), 611–627.Google Scholar
  140. Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. (1978). The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  141. Pinske, J., & Kolk, A. (2012). Addressing the climate change—sustainable development nexus: The role of multistakeholder partnerships. Business & Society, 51(1), 176–210.Google Scholar
  142. Pollach, I. (2003). Communicating corporate ethics on the world wide web. A discourse analysis of selected company web sites. Business & Society, 42(2), 277–287.Google Scholar
  143. Preuss, L. (2000). Should you buy your customer’s values? On the transfer of moral values in industrial purchasing. International Journal of Value-Based Management, 13(2), 141–158.Google Scholar
  144. Preuss, L. (2005). Rhetoric and reality of corporate greening: A view from the supply chain management function. Business Strategy and the Environment, 14(2), 123–139.Google Scholar
  145. Pullman, M. E., & Dillard, J. (2010). Values based supply chain management and emergent organizational structures. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 30(7), 744–771.Google Scholar
  146. Rasheed, H. S., & Geiger, S. W. (2001). Determinants of governance structure for the electronic value chain: Resource dependency and transaction costs perspectives. Journal of Business Strategies, 18(2), 159.Google Scholar
  147. Reuter, C., Foerstl, K., Hartmann, E., & Blome, C. (2010). Sustainable global supplier management: The role of dynamic capabilities in achieving competitive advantage. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 46(2), 45–63.Google Scholar
  148. Roberts, S. (2003). Supply chain specific? Understanding the patchy success of ethical sourcing initiatives. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2), 159–170.Google Scholar
  149. Roca, L. C., & Searcy, C. (2012). An analysis of indicators disclosed in corporate sustainability reports. Journal of Cleaner Production, 20(1), 103–118.Google Scholar
  150. Rodríguez-Díaz, M., & Espino-Rodríguez, T. M. (2006). Redesigning the supply chain: Reengineering, outsourcing, and relational capabilities. Business Process Management Journal, 12(4), 483–502.Google Scholar
  151. Rosen, C. M., Beckman, S. L., & Bercovitz, J. (2002). The role of voluntary industry standards in environmental supply-chain management: An institutional economics perspective. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 6(3), 103.Google Scholar
  152. Rowlinson, M. (2004). Challenging the foundations of organization theory. Work Employment Society, 18(3), 607–620.Google Scholar
  153. Salam, M. A. (2009). Corporate social responsibility in purchasing and supply chain. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(2), 355–370.Google Scholar
  154. Sarkar, A., & Mohapatra, P. K. J. (2006). Evaluation of supplier capability and performance: A method for supply base reduction. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 12(3), 148–163.Google Scholar
  155. Sarkis, J. (1995a). Manufacturing strategy and environmental consciousness. Technovation, 15(2), 79–97.Google Scholar
  156. Sarkis, J. (1995b). Supply chain management and environmentally conscious design and manufacturing. International Journal of Environmentally Conscious Design and Manufacturing, 4, 43–52.Google Scholar
  157. Sarkis, J. (2001). Manufacturing’s role in corporate environmental sustainability: Concerns for the new millennium. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21(5/6), 666–686.Google Scholar
  158. Sarkis, J. (2009). Convincing industry that there is value in environmentally supply chains. Problems of Sustainable Development, 4(1), 61–64.Google Scholar
  159. Sarkis, J., Gonzalez-Torre, P., & Adenso-Diaz, B. (2010). Stakeholder pressure and the adoption of environmental practices: The mediating effect of training. Journal of Operations Management, 28(2), 163–176.Google Scholar
  160. Sarkis, J., Zhu, Q., & Lai, K. (2011). An organizational theoretic review of green supply chain management literature. International Journal of Production Economics, 130(1), 1–15.Google Scholar
  161. Schneider, J. L., Wilson, A., & Rosenbeck, J. M. (2010). Pharmaceutical companies and sustainability: An analysis of corporate reporting. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 17(3), 421–434.Google Scholar
  162. Scott, W. R. (1987). The adolescence of institutional theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 32(4), 493.Google Scholar
  163. Searcy, C., Karapetrovic, S., & McCartney, D. (2008). Identifying priorities for action in corporate sustainable development indicator programs. Business Strategy and the Environment, 17(2), 137–148.Google Scholar
  164. Seuring, S., & Muller, M. (2008). From a literature review to a conceptual framework for sustainable supply chain management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(15), 1699–1710.Google Scholar
  165. Seuring, S., & Müller, M. (2008). Core issues in sustainable supply chain management—a Delphi study. Business Strategy and the Environment, 17(8), 455–466.Google Scholar
  166. Seyfang, G. (2006). Ecological citizenship and sustainable consumption: Examining local organic food networks. Journal of Rural Studies, 22(4), 383–395.Google Scholar
  167. Shang, K. C., Lu, C.-S., & Li, S. (2010). A taxonomy of green supply chain management capability among electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(5), 1218–1226.Google Scholar
  168. Sharfman, M. P., Shaft, T. M., & Anex, R. P, Jr. (2009). The road to cooperative supply-chain environmental management: Trust and uncertainty among pro-active firms. Business Strategy and the Environment, 18(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  169. Shaw, S., Grant, D. B., & Mangan, J. (2010). Developing environmental supply chain performance measures. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 17(3), 320–339.Google Scholar
  170. Sloan, T. W. (2010). Measuring the sustainability of global supply chains: Current practices and future directions. Journal of Global Business Management, 6(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  171. Sodhi, M., & Son, B. G. (2009). Supply chain partnership performance. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 45(6), 937–945.Google Scholar
  172. Spekman, R. E., Kamauff, J. W, Jr, & Myhr, N. (1998). An empirical investigation into supply chain management: A perspective on partnerships. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 3(2), 53–67.Google Scholar
  173. Steurer, R., & Konrad, A. (2008). Business–society relations in Central-Eastern and Western Europe: How those who lead in sustainability reporting bridge the gap in corporate (social) responsibility. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 25(1), 23–36.Google Scholar
  174. Steurer, R., Langer, M. E., Konrad, A., & Martunizzi, A. (2005). Corporations, stakeholders, and sustainable development 1: A theoretical explanation of business–society relations. Journal of Business Ethics, 61(3), 263–281.Google Scholar
  175. Storey, J., Emberson, C., Godsell, J., & Harrison, A. (2006). Supply chain management: Theory, practice and future challenges. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 26(7), 754–774.Google Scholar
  176. Svensson, G. (2007). Aspects of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM): Conceptual framework and empirical example. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 12(4), 262–266.Google Scholar
  177. Tallontire, A., Opondo, M., Nelson, V., & Martin, A. (2011). Beyond the vertical? Using value chains and governance as a framework to analyse private standards initiatives in agri-food chains. Agriculture and Human Values, 28(3), 427–441.Google Scholar
  178. Tate, W. L., Ellram, L. M., & Kirchoff, J. F. (2010). Corporate social responsibility reports: A thematic analysis related to supply chain management. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 46(1), 19–44.Google Scholar
  179. Teuscher, P., Gruninger, B., & Ferdinand, N. (2006). Risk management in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM): Lessons learnt from the case of GMO-free soybeans. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 13(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
  180. Trowbridge, P. (2001). A case study of green supply-chain management at advanced micro devices. Greener Management International, 35, 121.Google Scholar
  181. Tsoulfas, G. T., & Pappis, C. P. (2006). Environmental principles applicable to supply chains design and operation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 14(18), 1593–1602.Google Scholar
  182. Ulrich, D., & Barney, J. B. (1984). Perspectives in organizations: Resource dependence, efficiency, and population. Academy of Management Review, 9(3), 471–481.Google Scholar
  183. United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD). (2012). Canada’s national submission to Rio + 20. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from
  184. Vachon, S., & Klassen, R. (2006a). Green project partnership in the supply chain: The case of the package printing industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 14(6–7), 661–671. (special issue).Google Scholar
  185. Vachon, S., & Klassen, R. D. (2006b). Extending green practices across the supply chain. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 26(7), 795–821.Google Scholar
  186. van Marrewijk, M. (2003). Concepts and definitions of CSR and corporate sustainability: Between agency and communion. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2), 95–105.Google Scholar
  187. van Tulder, R (2010). The collaborative paradigm: Dealing with the increasing role of partnerships in sustainable development. Working Paper Series, 001 (The Partnerships Resource Centre, Rotterdam) 1–14. Retrieved November 26, 2011 from
  188. van Tulder, R., van Wijk, J., & Kolk, A. (2009). From chain liability to chain responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(2), 399–412.Google Scholar
  189. Veleva, V., Hart, M., Greiner, T., & Crumbley, C. (2003). Indicators for measuring environmental sustainability: A case study of the pharmaceutical industry. Benchmarking, 10(2), 107–119.Google Scholar
  190. Vermeulen, W. J. V. (2010). Sustainable supply chain governance systems: Conditions for effective market based governance in global trade. Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, 7(2), 138.Google Scholar
  191. Vermeulen, W. J. V., & Seuring, S. (2009). Sustainability through the market—the impacts of sustainable supply chain management: Introduction. Sustainable Development, 17(5), 269–273.Google Scholar
  192. Vurro, C., Russo, A., & Perrini, F. (2009). Shaping sustainable value chains: Network determinants of supply chain governance models. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(4), 607–621.Google Scholar
  193. Walker, H., Di Sisto, L., & McBain, D. (2008). Drivers and barriers to environmental supply chain management practices: Lessons from the public and private sectors. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 14(1), 69–85.Google Scholar
  194. Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5, 171–180.Google Scholar
  195. Whitehouse, L. (2003). Corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship and the global compact. A new approach to regulating corporate social power? Global Social Policy, 3(3), 299–318.Google Scholar
  196. World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our common future. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  197. World Economic Forum (WEF). (2010). The global enabling trade report 2010. Retrieved December 1, 2011 from
  198. Yakoleva, N. (2007). Measuring the sustainability of the food supply chain: A case study of the UK. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 9(1), 75–100.Google Scholar
  199. Yin, R. K. (2010). Case study research: Design and method (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  200. Zhu, Q., Geng, Y., Fujita, T., & Hashimoto, S. (2010a). Green supply chain management in leading manufacturers. Management Research Review, 33(4), 380–392.Google Scholar
  201. Zhu, Q., Geng, Y., & Lai, K. H. (2010b). Circular economy practices among Chinese manufacturers varying in environmental-oriented supply chain cooperation and the performance implications. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(6), 1324–1331.Google Scholar
  202. Zhu, Q., & Sarkis, J. (2004). Relationships between operational practices and performance among early adopters of green supply chain management practices in chinese manufacturing enterprises. Journal of Operations Management, 22(3), 265–289.Google Scholar
  203. Zhu, Q., Sarkis, J., & Lai, K. H. (2008). Green supply chain management implications for ‘‘closing the loop’’. Transportation Research Part E, 44(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  204. Zutshi, A., & Sohal, A. S. (2003). Stakeholder involvement in the EMS adoption process. Business Process Management Journal, 9(2), 133–148.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.YSGS, Environmental Applied Science and Management (ENSCIMAN) ProgramRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations