Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 111, Issue 3, pp 353–373 | Cite as

Organizing for Society: A Typology of Social Entrepreneuring Models

  • Johanna MairEmail author
  • Julie Battilana
  • Julian Cardenas


In this article, we use content and cluster analysis on a global sample of 200 social entrepreneurial organizations to develop a typology of social entrepreneuring models. This typology is based on four possible forms of capital that can be leveraged: social, economic, human, and political. Furthermore, our findings reveal that these four social entrepreneuring models are associated with distinct logics of justification that may explain different ways of organizing across organizations. This study contributes to understanding social entrepreneurship as a field of practice and it describes avenues for theorizing about the different organizational approaches adopted by social entrepreneurs.


Entrepreneuring Organizational field Social change Social entrepreneurship 



We thank Lisa Hehenberger, Woody Powell, Tomislav Rimac, Marc Schneiberg, Christian Seelos and Funda Sezgi for comments on earlier versions of this paper and Stefan Dimitriados, David Delgado and Julie Mirocha for research and editorial support. We are grateful to the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for financial support (ECO2011-23220 and ECO2011-13361-E).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johanna Mair
    • 1
    Email author
  • Julie Battilana
    • 2
  • Julian Cardenas
    • 3
  1. 1.Hertie School of GovernanceBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Harvard Business SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.University of AntioquiaMedellínColombia

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