Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 112, Issue 1, pp 167–176 | Cite as

I’m Number One! Does Narcissism Impair Ethical Judgment Even for the Highly Religious?

Article

Abstract

Can an assessment of individuals’ narcissism help explain the quality of a respondent’s ethical judgment? How is the relationship between religiosity and ethical judgment moderated by the effects of narcissism? With a sample of 385 undergraduate business majors, this study uses a taxonomic approach to examine the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity as well as orthodox Christian beliefs on ethical judgment. Three distinct clusters were identified: Skeptics, Nominals, and Devouts. Surprisingly, of the three clusters, Nominals and Devouts were the only groups impacted by narcissism, although Skeptics overall demonstrate the worst ethical judgment.

Keywords

Narcissism Ethical judgment Orthodox beliefs Religiosity Cluster analysis 

References

  1. Allport, G. W., & Ross, J. M. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5(4), 432–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2000). DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2011). Proposed Revisions. Accessed October 7, 2011, from http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevisions/Pages/proposedrevision.aspx?rid=19.
  4. Ames, D. R., Rose, P., & Anderson, C. P. (2006). The NPI-16 as a short measure of narcissism. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 440–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andaya, B. (2010). Between empires and emporia: The economics of christianization in early modern southeast Asia. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 53, 357–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blickle, G., Schlegel, A., Fassbender, P., & Klein, U. (2006). Some personality correlates of business white-collar crime. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(2), 220–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bloodgood, J., Turnley, W. H., & Mudrack, P. (2008). The influence of ethics instruction, religiosity, and intelligence on cheating behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 82, 557–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Broughton, W. (1975). Theistic conceptions in American Protestantism. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 14(4), 331–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calder, B. J., Phillips, L. W., & Tybout, A. M. (1981). Designing research for application. Journal of Consumer Research, 8(2), 197–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell, W. K., Bush, C. P., Brunell, A. B., & Shelton, J. (2005). Understanding the social costs of narcissism: The case of the tragedy of the commons. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(10), 1358–1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Campbell, W. K., Goodie, A. S., & Foster, J. D. (2004). Narcissism, confidence, and risk attitude. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 17, 297–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Conroy, S. J., & Emerson, T. (2004). Business ethics and religion: Religiosity as a predictor of ethical awareness among students. Journal of Business Ethics, 50, 383–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Currim, I. S., & Schneider, L. G. (1991). A taxonomy of consumer purchase strategies in a promotion intensive environment. Marketing Science, 10(2), 91–110.Google Scholar
  14. Donahue, M. J. (1989). Disregarding theology in the psychology of religion: Some examples. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 17(4), 329–335.Google Scholar
  15. Downs, A. (1997). Beyond the looking glass. New York: American Management Association.Google Scholar
  16. Drane, J. F. (1976). Religion and ethics. New York: Paulist Press.Google Scholar
  17. Fehring, R. J., Cheever, K. H., German, K., & Philpot, C. (1998). Religiosity and sexual activity among older adolescents. Journal of Religion and Health, 37(3), 229–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fife, J. E., Sayles, H. R., Adegoke, A. A., McCoy, J., Stovall, M., & Verdant, C. (2011). Religious typologies and health risk behaviors of African American college students. North, American Journal of Psychology, 13(2), 313–330.Google Scholar
  19. Fullerton, J. T., & Hunsberger, B. (1982). unidimensional measure of christian orthodoxy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 21, 317–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Glad, B. (2002). Why tyrants go too far: Malignant narcissism and absolute power. Political Psychology, 23(1), 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goldman, A. (2009). Destructive leaders and dysfunctional organizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gorsuch, R. L., & McPherson, S. E. (1989). Intrinsic/extrinsic measurement: I/E-revised and single-item scales. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28(3), 348–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Groome, D. (2011). The church abuse scandal: Were crimes against humanity committed? Chicago Journal of International Law, 11(2), 439–503.Google Scholar
  24. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  25. Hegarty, W. H., & Sims, H. P., Jr. (1979). Organizational philosophy, policies, and objectives related to unethical decision behavior: A laboratory experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(3), 331–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hunsberger, B. (1989). A short version of the Christian orthodoxy scale. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 360–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hunyady, O., Josephs, L., & Jost, J. T. (2008). Priming the primal scene: Betrayal trauma, narcissism, and attitudes toward sexual infidelity. Self & Identity, 7(3), 278–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ji, C. (2004). Religious orientations in moral development. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 23(1), 22–30.Google Scholar
  29. Ji, C., Perry, T., & Clarke-Pine, D. (2011). Considering personal religiosity in adolescent delinquency: The role of depression, suicidal ideation, and church guideline. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 30(1), 3–15.Google Scholar
  30. Keller, A. C., Smith, K. T., & Smith, L. M. (2007). Do gender, educational level, religiosity, and work experience affect the ethical decision-making of U.S. accountants? Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 18, 299–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kennedy, E., & Lawton, L. (1998). Religiousness and Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 17, 163–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kidwell, J. M., Stevens, R. E., & Bethke, A. L. (1987). Differences in the ethical perceptions between male and female managers: Myth or reality. Journal of Business Ethics, 6, 489–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kirkpatrick, L. A. (1988). A Psychometric Analysis of the Allport-Ross and Feagin Measures of Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religious Orientation. In D. O. Moberg & M. L. Lynn (Eds.), Research in the social scientific study of religion (Vol. 1). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  34. Klemmack, D. L., Roff, L. L., Parker, M. W., Koenig, H. G., Sawyer, P., & Allman, R. M. (2007). A cluster analysis typology of religiousness/spirituality among older adults. Research on Aging, 29(2), 163–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Koenig, H., McCullough, M., & Larson, D. (2001). Handbook of religion and health. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Koenig, H., Parkerson, G., Jr., & Meador, K. (1997). Religion index for psychiatric research: A 5-item measure for use in health outcome studies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 885–886.Google Scholar
  37. Kohlberg, L. (1984). Essays on moral development: Volume 1. The philosophy of moral development. San Francisco: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  38. Kramer, R. M. (2003). The Harder they Fall. Harvard Business Review, 81(10), 58–66.Google Scholar
  39. Kurpis, L. V., Beqiri, M. S., & Helgeson, J. G. (2008). The effects of commitment to moral self-improvement and religiosity on ethics of business students. Journal of Business Ethics, 80, 447–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maccoby, M. (2004). Narcissistic leaders: The incredible pros, the inevitable cons. Harvard Business Review, 82(1), 92–101.Google Scholar
  41. McDaniel, S., & Burnett, J. J. (1990). Consumer religiosity and Retail Store Evaluative Criteria. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 18(2), 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Miller, R. B. (1999). On identity, rights, and multicultural justice. Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics, 19, 261–283.Google Scholar
  43. Miller, W. R., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American Psychologist, 58(1), 24–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Interpersonal and intrapsychic adaptiveness of trait self-enhancement: A mixed blessing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), 1197–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Penney, L. M., & Spector, P. E. (2002). Narcissism and counterproductive work behavior: Do bigger egos mean bigger problems? International Journal of selection and Assessment, 10(1/2), 126–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Peterson, R., Albaum, G., Merunka, D., Munuera, J., & Smith, S. (2010). Effects of nationality, gender, and religiosity on business-related ethicality. Journal of Business Ethics, 96, 573–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Punj, G., & Stewart, D. W. (1983). Cluster analysis in marketing research: Review and suggestions for application. Journal of Marketing Research, 20(2), 134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rashid, Z., & Ibrahim, S. (2008). The effect of culture and religiosity on business ethics: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Business Ethics, 82, 907–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the narcissistic personality inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 890–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Razu, I. (2006). “Let them come”—“let them work”: Receiving/using children in a globalized world. Studies in World Christianity, 12(3), 249–265.Google Scholar
  51. Reidy, D. E., Foster, J. D., & Zeichner, A. (2010). Narcissism and unprovoked aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 36(6), 414–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rinaman, W. C., Loveland, M. T., Kelly, R. F., & Barnett, W. R. (2009). Dimensions of religiosity among American Catholics: Measurement and validation. Review of Religious Research, 50(4), 413–440.Google Scholar
  53. Rosenthal, S. A., & Pittinsky, T. L. (2006). Narcissistic leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 617–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rothschild, B., Dimson, C., Storaasli, R., & Clapp, L. (1997). Personality profiles of veterans entering treatment for domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence, 12(3), 259–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Singhapakdi, A., Marta, J., Rallapalli, K., & Rao, C. P. (2000). Toward an understanding of religiousness and marketing ethics: An empirical study. Journal of Business Ethics, 27, 305–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Smyntek, J. (2006). Turner asks help toward evangelism. Tribune Business News, March 14, p. 1.Google Scholar
  57. Soyer, R. B., Rovenpor, J. L., & Kopelman, R. E. (1999). Narcissism and achievement motivation as related to three facets of the sales role: Attraction, satisfaction and performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 14(2), 258–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Traiser, S., & Eighmy, M. A. (2011). Moral development and narcissism of private and public university business students. Journal of Business Ethics, 99, 325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vitell, S. J. (2009). The role of religiosity in business and consumer ethics: A review of the literature. Journal of Business Ethics, 90, 155–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vitell, S. J., & Paolillo, J. (2003). Consumer ethics: The role of religiosity. Journal of Business Ethics, 46, 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vitell, S. J., Paolillo, J., & Singh, J. (2005). Religiosity and consumer ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 57, 175–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vitell, S. J., Paolillo, J., & Singh, J. (2006). The role of money and religiosity in determining consumers’ ethical beliefs. Journal of Business Ethics, 64, 117–124.Google Scholar
  63. Vitell, S., Singh, J., & Paolillo, J. (2007). ‘Consumers’ ethical beliefs: The roles of money, religiosity and attitude toward business’. Journal of Business Ethics, 73, 369–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Watson, P. J., Hood, R. W., Jr., Foster, S. G., & Morris, R. J. (1988). Sin, depression, and narcissism. Review of Religious Research, 29(3), 295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Weaver, G. R., & Agle, B. R. (2002). Religiosity and ethical behavior in organizations: A symbolic interactionist perspective. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 77–97.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marketing DepartmentBaylor UniversityWacoUSA

Personalised recommendations