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Work-Related Behavioral Intentions in Macedonia: Coping Strategies, Work Environment, Love of Money, Job Satisfaction, and Demographic Variables


Based on theory of planned behavior, we develop a theoretical model involving love of money (LOM), job satisfaction (attitude), coping strategies/responses (perceived behavioral control), work environment (subjective norm), and work-related behavioral intentions (behavioral intention). We tested this model using job satisfaction as a mediator and sector (public versus private), personal character (good apples versus bad apples), gender, and income as moderators in a sample of 515 employees and their managers in the Republic of Macedonia. For the whole sample, both coping strategies and helpful work environment were related to high job satisfaction. The relationship between work environment and job satisfaction was the strongest link in all subsequent analyses. High LOM is associated with unfavorable work environment for employees in the private sectors and people with low income and is positively associated with coping strategies for bad apples. A favorable work environment was related to less corrupt intent for people in the public sectors, good apples, and with low income, but not for their counterparts. Coping strategies were related to high job satisfaction for males, but not for females. Our counterintuitive results showed that bad apples’ high LOM was related to low corrupt intent. Our theoretical model sheds new light and provides novel theoretical, empirical, and practical implications to Macedonian managers’ corrupt intent.

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    The Matthew Effect: To anyone who has, more will be given and he will grow rich; from anyone who has not, even what he has will be taken away (Matthew 13: 12).


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The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Macedonia for the financial support of this research project, Prof. Rudolf Moos for his constructive comments and suggestions on an earlier draft of this article, and David Green and Stevie E. Bryan for their assistance.

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Correspondence to Thomas Li-Ping Tang.

Appendix 1

Appendix 1

See Table 4.

Table 4 Items, measures, factor loadings, and Cronbach’s alphas for the LOM Scale and Corrupt Intent Scale

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Sardžoska, E.G., Tang, T.L. Work-Related Behavioral Intentions in Macedonia: Coping Strategies, Work Environment, Love of Money, Job Satisfaction, and Demographic Variables. J Bus Ethics 108, 373–391 (2012).

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  • Money ethics
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic
  • Approach
  • Avoidance
  • Cognitive
  • Behavioral
  • Relationship
  • Personal growth
  • System maintenance-change
  • GDP
  • CPI
  • Counterproductive
  • Organizational deviance
  • Bad apples
  • Bad cases
  • Bad barrels
  • Spirituality and religion
  • Unethical