The Contribution of the Energy industry to the Millennium Development Goals: A Benchmark Study
- First Online:
- 488 Downloads
This paper evaluates the contribution of the energy industry (oil, gas and electricity) to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in three countries (Argentina, Colombia and Mexico). To build this international benchmark, a tool was built (the MDG-Scorecard), by drawing on theoretical frameworks and guides on how businesses can contribute to the MDGs. Results show that companies are making efforts to contribute to the environment, human rights, employment creation and labour rights. However, their effort is close to nil for the Goals with the weakest links with their core business. Findings also suggest that there is no coordinated and consistent strategy to achieve the MDGs either intra-company or inter-companies.
KeywordsCorporate social responsibility Millennium Development Goals Energy industry Latin America Empirical paper
Business International Non-profit Organisation
International Business Leaders Forum
Millennium Development Goals
World Business Council on Sustainable Development
- BSR, Accountability, & Brody Weiser Burns. (2003). Business and Economic Development. The impact of Corporate Responsibility Standards and Practices. http://www.economicfootprint.org/files/business-economic-dev_2004.pdf. Accessed 10th February 2009.
- Christian Aid. (2004). Behind the mask: Revealing the true mask of corporate social responsibility. London: Author.Google Scholar
- Commission on the Private Sector and Development. (2004). Unleashing entrepreneurship: Making business work for the poor. http://www.undp.org/cpsd/documents/report/english/fullreport.pdf. Accessed 2 Aug 2006.
- Connor, T., & Dent, K. (2006). Offside! Labour rights and sportswear production in Asia. Oxford: Oxfam International.Google Scholar
- Corral, A., Isasi, I., Pérez, T., & San Miguel, U. (2007). Contribución de las empresas al desarrollo en Latinoamérica. Washington: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.Google Scholar
- DFID. (2002). Energy for the poor. Underpinning the Millennium Development Goals. http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/energyforthepoor.pdf. Accessed 31st July 2006.
- Dutch Sustainability Research. (2005). Measuring the contribution of civil society and the private sector to achieving the Millennium Development Goals’. http://www.dsresearch.nl/dsr/static/pdf/dsnl_mdgrap1205i.pdf. Accessed 30th July 2006.
- European Commission. 2005. EU Report on Millennium Development Goals 2000-2004; EU contribution to the review of the MDGs. Working paper presented at the United Nations High Level Event. http://ec.europa.eu/comm/development/body/communications/communications_en.htm. Accessed 11th August 2006.
- European Commission. (2006). Implementing the partnership for growth and jobs: Making Europe a pole of excellence on corporate social responsibility. COM(2006) 136 final. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2006:0136:FIN:en:PDF. Accessed 20th October 2010.
- Forstater, M., MacDonald, J., & Raynard, R. (2002). Business and poverty: Bridging the gap. http://www.iblf.org/docs/DevelopmentActors.pdf. Accessed 3rd August 2006.
- IBLF. (2005). Business action for development. Report from the symposium. http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/7.3/7.3.1/mdg_london.pdf. Accessed 3rd August 2006.
- IBLF & WBCSD. (2004) A business guide to development actors. www.iblf.org/iblf/csrwebassist.nsf/content/f1d2b3naa4.html. Accessed 3rd August 2006.
- Lodge, C., & Wilson, G. (2006). Multinational corporation and global poverty reduction. Challenge May–June, 17–25.Google Scholar
- Marques, J. (2007). The influence of the global business environment in realizing the Millennium Development Goals. The Journal of Global Business Issues, 1(1), 17–23.Google Scholar
- Nelson, J. (2006). Leveraging the development impact of business in the fight against global poverty. Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative Working Paper, 22. http://sparky.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/CSRI/publications/workingpaper_22_nelson.pdf. Accessed 19th December 2008.
- Nelson, J., & Prescott, D. (2003). Business and the Millennium Development Goals: A framework for action, Prince of Wales International Business Leaders Forum and United Nations Development Programme. http://www.PNUD.org/business/docs/mdg_business.pdf. Accessed 31st July 2006.
- Nelson, J., & Prescott, D. (2008). Business and the Millennium Development Goals: A framework for action (2nd ed.), Prince of Wales International Business Leaders Forum and United Nations Development Programme. http://www.iblf.org/docs/BMDG_final_w.pdf. Accessed 11th January 2009.
- Perrini, F. (2006). The practitioner’s perspective on non-financial reporting. California Management Review, 48, 73–103.Google Scholar
- Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2002). The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy. Harvard Business Review, 12(84), 42–56.Google Scholar
- Prahalad, C. K. (2006). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid. Eradicating poverty through profits. Wharton: Wharton School Publishing.Google Scholar
- Reisen, H. (2004). Innovative approaches to funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre, Policy Brief No. 24. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/2/30880682.pdf. Accessed 20th February 2007.
- Sachs, J. (2005). A practical plan to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, UN Millennium Project. http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/MainReportComplete-lowres.pdf. Accessed 20th October 2010.
- Shell Foundation. (2005). Enterprise solutions to poverty. www.shellfoundation.org/download/pdfs/Shell_Foundation_Enterprise_Solutions_to_Poverty.pdf. Accessed 1st August 2006.
- UNCTAD. (2008). World investment report 2008. Transnational corporations, and the infrastructure challenge. New York: UNCTAD.Google Scholar
- UNDP. (2008). Creating value for all: Strategies for doing business with the poor. http://www.undp.org/gimlaunch/. Accessed 30th January 2009.
- United Nations. (2001). Road map toward the implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration, A/56/326. New York: UN.Google Scholar
- United Nations. (2002). Report of the international conference on financing for development, Monterrey, Mexico, 18–22 March 2002, A/CONF.198/11. New York: UN.Google Scholar
- United Nations. (2003). UN norms on the responsibilities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises with regard to human rights. U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/38/Rev.2.Google Scholar
- United Nations. (2005). The Millennium Development Goals report. http://www.unfpa.org/icpd/docs/mdgrept2005.pdf. Accessed 1st August 2006).
- Useem, M. (1988). Market and institutional factors in corporate contributions. California Management Review, 30(2), 77–88.Google Scholar
- Valor, C., & Hurtado, I. (Coord.) (2009), Las empresas españolas y la responsabilidad social corporativa. La contribución a los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio. Catarata, Madrid.Google Scholar
- Vissner, W. (2010). A new vision for corporate social responsibility. Market Leader, 3, 34–38.Google Scholar
- Waddock, S., & Boldwell, C. (2007). Total responsibility management. The manual. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
- WBCSD. (2005). Business for development. Business solutions in support of the Millennium Development Goals. http://www.wbcsd.org/web/publications/biz4dev.pdf. Accessed 30th July 2006.
- World Bank and International Monetary Fund. (2005). Global monitoring report. Millennium Development Goal, from consensus to momentum. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/GLOBALMONITORINGEXT/Resources/complete.pdf. Accessed 1st July 2006.
- World Economic Forum, & BCG (2009). The next billions. Unleashing business potential in untapped markets. http://www.weforum.org/en/initiatives/BusinessSolutionsforSustainableFoodProduction/TheNextBillions/index.htm. Accessed 12th February 2009.