Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 102, Issue 4, pp 653–668 | Cite as

Supervisor Role Modeling, Ethics-Related Organizational Policies, and Employee Ethical Intention: The Moderating Impact of Moral Ideology

Article

Abstract

The moral ideology of banking and insurance employees in Spain was examined along with supervisor role modeling and ethics-related policies and procedures for their association with ethical behavioral intent. In addition to main effects, we found evidence supporting that the person–situation interactionist perspective in supervisor role modeling had a stronger positive relationship with ethical intention among employees with relativist moral ideology. Also as hypothesized, formal ethical polices and procedures were positively related to ethical intention among those with universal beliefs, but the relationship was much weaker among relativists. Thus, firms wishing to optimally promote ethical attitudes and behavior must tailor their organization-based initiatives to the individual characteristics of their employees.

Keywords

ethical behavior relativism/universalism ethics-related policies and procedures supervisor’s role modeling Person–situation interactionist approach 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, J.S., A. Tashchian and T.H. Shore: 2001, ‘Codes of Ethics as Signals for Ethical Behaviour’, Journal of Business Ethics 29, 199-211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akaah, I.: 1997, ‘Influence of Deontological and Teleological Factors on Research Ethics Evaluations’, Journal of Business Research 39, 71-80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambrose M.L., A. Arnaud and M. Schminke: 2007, ‘Individual Moral Development and Ethical Climate: The Influence of Person–Organization Fit on Job Attitudes’, Journal of Business Ethics 77, 323-333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armstrong, J.S. and T.S. Overton: 1977, ‘Estimating non Response Bias in Mail Surveys’, Journal of Marketing Research 14 (3), 396-403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azjen, I. and M. Fishbein: 1980, Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behaviour (Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ).Google Scholar
  6. Baker, T.L., G.H. Hunt and M.C. Andrews: 2006, ‘Promoting Ethical Behaviour and Organizational Citizenship Behaviours: The Influence of Corporate Ethical Values’, Journal of Business Research 59, 849-857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura, A.: 1986, Social Foundations of Thought and Action (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ).Google Scholar
  8. Banerjee, D., T.W. Jones and T.P. Cronan: 1996, ‘The Association of Demographic Variables and Ethical Behaviour of Information Systems Personnel’, Industrial Management and Data Systems 96 (3), 3-10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barclay, D., C. Higgins and R. Thompson: 1995, ‘The Partial Least Squares (PLS) Approach to Causal Modeling: Personal Computer Adoption and Use as an Illustration’, Technology Studies, Special Issue on Research Methodology 2(2), 285–309.Google Scholar
  10. Barnett, J.H. and M.J. Karson: 1987, ‘Personal Values and Business Decisions: An Exploratory Investigation’, Journal of Business Ethics 6, 371-382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bass, K., T. Barnett and G. Brown: 1999, ‘Individual Difference Variables, Ethical Judgements and Ethical Behavioural Intentions’, Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (2), 183-205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baumhart, R.C.: 1961, ‘How Ethical are Businessmen?’, Harvard Business Review 39, 6-176.Google Scholar
  13. Brass, D.J., K.D. Butterfield and B.C. Skaggs: 1998, ‘Relationships and Unethical Behaviour: a Social Network Perspective’, Academy of Management Review 23, 14-31.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, M. E. and L.K. Trevino: 2006, ‘Ethical Leadership: A Review and Future Directions’, The Leadership Quarterly 17 (6), 595–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, M.E., L.K. Trevino and D.A. Harrison: 2005, ‘Ethical Leadership: A Social Learning Perspective for Construct Development and Testing’, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision processes 97, 117-134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buchholz, R.A. and S.B. Rosenthal: 2005, ‘The Spirit of Entrepeneurship and the Qualities of Moral Decision Making: Toward a Unifying Framework’, Journal of Business Ethics 60, 307-315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bycio, P., K.M. Alvares and J. Hahn: 1987, ‘Situational specificity in assessment center ratings: A confirmatory factor analysis’, Journal of Applied Psychology 72, 463-474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carmines, E. G. and R. A. Zéller: 1979, ‘Reliability and Validity Assessment’, in Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences (Sage Publications, Beverly Hills), pp. 7–17.Google Scholar
  19. Carson, P. P., K.D. Carson and C.W. Roe: 1993, ‘Social Power Bases: A Meta-Analytic Examination of Interrelationships and Outcomes’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 14, 1150-1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chin, W. W.: 1998, The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern Methods for Business Research. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New York, pp. 295–336.Google Scholar
  21. Chin, W.W: 2003, PLS-Graph, Version 3.00 (Build 1130), (University of Houston, Texas).Google Scholar
  22. Chin, W.W., B.L. Marcolin and P.R. Newsted: 2003, ‘A Partial Least Squares Latent Variable Modeling Approach for Measuring Interaction Effects: Results from a Monte Carlo Simulation Study and an Electronic Mail Emotion/Adoption Study’, Information Systems Research 14 (2), 189-217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cleek, M.A. and S.L. Leonard: 1998, ‘Can Corporate codes of Ethics Influence Behaviour?’, Journal of Business Ethics 17 (6), 619-630.Google Scholar
  24. Collins, D.: 2000, ‘The Quest to Improve the Human Condition’, Journal of Business Ethics 26, 1-73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Delaney, J.T. and D. Sockell: 1992, ‘Do Company Ethics Training Programs Make a Difference?: An Empirical Analysis’, Journal of Business Ethics 11, 719-727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Detert, J. R., L. K. Trevino, E. R. Burris and M. Andiappen: 2007, ‘Managerial Models of Influence and Counterproductivity in Organizations: A Longitudinal Business Unit-Level Investigation’, Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (4), 993–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Douglas, P.C., R. A. Davidson and B.N. Schwartz: 2001, ‘The Effect of Organizational Culture and Ethical Orientation on Accountants’ Ethical Judgments’, Journal of Business Ethics 34 (2), 101-121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. E.R.C. (Ethics Resource Center): 2005, The 2005 National Business Ethics Survey, http://www.ethics.org/nbes/nbes2005/release.html. Accessed 2 Aug 2006.
  29. E.R.C. (Ethics Resource Center): 2009, The 2009 National Business Ethics Survey, http://www.ethics.org/nbes/files/nbes-final.pdf. Accessed 1 Nov 2006.
  30. Eynon, G., N.Y. Hill and K.T. Stevens: 1997, ‘Factors that Influence the Moral Reasoning Abilities of Accountants: Implications for Universities and the Profession’, Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12/13), 1297-1309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Falk, R.F. and N.B. Miller: 1992, A Primer for Soft Modeling (The University of Akron Press, Akron, Ohio).Google Scholar
  32. Falkenberg, L. and I. Herremans: 1995, ‘Ethical Behaviours in Organizations: Directed by the Formal and Informal Systems?’, Journal of Business Ethics 14, 133-143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferrell, O.C. and L.G. Gresham: 1985, ‘A Contingency Framework for Understanding Ethical Decision Making in Marketing’, Journal of Marketing 49 (2), 87-96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Foote, D.A., S.J. Seipel, N.B. Johnson and M.K. Duffy: 2005, ‘Employee commitment and organizational policies’, Management Decision 43 (2), 203-219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ford, R.C. and W.D. Richardson: 1994, ‘Ethical Decision Making: A Review of the Empirical Literature’, Journal of Business Ethics 13, 205-221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fornell, C.: 1982, ‘A Second Generation of Multivariate Analysis: An Overview’, in C. Fornell (ed.), A Second Generation of Multivariate Analysis, Volume 1 (Praeger Publishers, New York), pp. 1-21.Google Scholar
  37. Fornell, C. and D.F. Larcker: 1981, ‘Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error’, Journal of Marketing Research 18, 39-50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Forsyth, D.R.: 1980, ‘A Taxonomy of Ethical Ideologies’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39, 175-184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fritzsche D.J. (2000) ‘Ethical Climates and the Ethical Dimension of Decision Making’. Journal of Business Ethics 24: 125-140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fritzsche, D. and E. Oz: 2007, ‘Personal Values’ Influence on the Ethical Dimension of Decision Making’, Journal of Business Ethics 75 (4), 335-343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Glenn, J.R. Jr. and M.F. Van Loo: 1993, ‘Business Students’ and Practitioners’ Ethical Decisions Over Time’, Journal of Business Ethics 12, 835-847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Greenberg, J.: 2002, ‘Who Stole the Money and When?: Individual and Situational Determinants of Employee Theft’, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes 89, 985-1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guillén, M., D. Melé, and P. Murphy: 2002, ‘European vs. American Approaches to Institutionalisation of Business Ethics: the Spanish Case’, Business Ethics: A European Review 11 (2), 167-178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Haenlein, M. and A.M. Kaplan: 2004, ‘A Beginner’s Guide to Partial Least Squares Analysis’, Understanding Statistics 3 (4), 283–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harrington, S. J.: 1997: ‘A Test of a Person-Issue Contingent Model of Ethical Decision Making in Organizations’, Journal of Business Ethics 16, 363-375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hegarty, W.H. and H.P. Jr. Sims: 1979, ‘Organizational Philosophy, Policies and Objectives Related to Unethical Decision Behaviour: A Laboratory Experiment’, Journal of Applied Psychology 64, 331-338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Huang, Ch-L. and B-G. Chang: 2010, ‘The Effects of Managers’ Moral Philosophy on Project Decision Under Agency Problem Conditions’, Journal of Business Ethics 94, 595-611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hulland, J.: 1999, ‘Use of Partial Least Squares (PLS) in Strategic Management Research: A Review of Four Recent Studies’, Strategic Management Journal 20, 195-204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hunt, S.D., P.L. Kiecker and L.B. Chonko: 1990, ‘Social Responsibility and Personal Success: a Research Note’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 18 (3), 239-244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hunt, S.D., V.R. Wood and L.B. Chonko: 1989, ‘Corporate Ethical Values and Organizational Commitment in Marketing’, Journal of Marketing 53, 79-90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ilies, R., J.D. Nahrgang and F.P. Morgeson: 2007, ‘Leader-member exchange and citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis’, Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (1), 269-277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jones, T.M.: 1991, ‘Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue-Contingent Model’, Academy of Management Review 16 (2), 366-395.Google Scholar
  53. Kavathatzopoulos, I.: 1994, ‘Training professional managers in decision making about real life business ethics problems: The acquisition of the autonomous problem-solving skill’, Journal of Business Ethics 13 (5), 379-386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaye, B.N.: 1992, ‘Codes of Ethics in Australian Business Corporations’, Journal of Business Ethics 11, 857-862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kennedy, E.J. and L. Lawton: 1996, ‘The Effects of Social and Moral Integration on Ethical Standards: A Comparison of American and Ukranian Students’. Journal of Business Ethics 15 (8), 901-911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kleinbaum, D.G., L.L. Kupper and K.E. Muller: 1988, Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariate Analysis Methods (PWS-Kent Publishing Company, Boston).Google Scholar
  57. Kohlberg, L.: 1969, ‘Stage and Sequence: The Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Socialization’, in D.A. Goslin (ed.), Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research (Rand Mcnally, New York), pp. 347-380.Google Scholar
  58. Kohut, G.F. and S.E. Corriher: 1994, ‘The Relationship of Age, Gender, Experience and Awareness of Written Ethics Policies to Business Decision Making’, SAM Advanced Management Journal 59 (1), 32-40.Google Scholar
  59. Konradt, U., T. Christophersen and U. Schaeffer-Kuelz: 2006, ‘Predicting User Satisfaction, Strain and System Usage of Employee Self Services’, International Journal of Human Computer Studies 64, 1141-1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Limayen, M., M. Khalifa and W.W. Chin: 2004, ‘Factors Motivating Software Piracy: a Longitudinal Study’, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 51 (4), 414-425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Loe, T.W., L. Ferrell and P. Mansfield: 2000, ‘A Relationship of Empirical Studies Assessing Ethical Decision Making in Business’, Journal of Business Ethics 25, 185-204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. MacKenzie, S.B., P.M. Podsakoff and C.B. Jarvis: 2005, ‘The Problem of Measurement Model Misspecification in Behavioural and Organizational Research and Some Recommended Solutions’, Journal of Applied Psychology 90, 710-730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Marta, J.K., A. Singhapakdi and N. Higgs-Kleyn: 2001, ‘Corporate Ethical Values in South Africa’, Thunderbird International Business Review 43, 755-772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McKendall, M., B. DeMarr and C. Jones-Rikkers: 2002, ‘Ethical Compliance Programs and Corporate Illegality: Testing the Assumptions of the Corporate Sentencing Guidelines’, Journal of Business Ethics 37 (4), 367-383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Melé, D.: 2003, ‘Organizational Humanizing Cultures: Do they Generate Social Capital?’, Journal of Business Ethics 45, 3-14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Melé, D.: 2009, Business Ethics in Action, Seeking Human Excellence in organizations (Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke).Google Scholar
  67. Merton, R.K.: 1957, ‘The Role Set’, British Journal of Sociology 8, 106-120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Murphy, P.R., J.E. Smith and J.M. Daley: 1992, ‘Executive Attitudes, Organizational Size and Ethical Issues: Perspectives on a Service Industry’, Journal of Business Ethics 11, 11-19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nocera, J.: 2009, ‘Lehman Had to Die So Global Finance Could Live’. New York Times, September 11, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/12/business/12nocera.html.
  70. Nunnally, J.: 1978, Psychometric Theory, 2nd Edition (McGraw-Hill, New York).Google Scholar
  71. O’Fallon, M.J. and K.D. Butterfield: 2005, ‘A Review of the Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 1996-2003’, Journal of Business Ethics 59, 375-413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Paolillo, J.G.P. and S.J. Vitell: 2002, ‘An Empirical Investigation of the Influence of Selected Personal Organizational and Moral Intensity Factors on Ethical Decision Making’, Journal of Business Ethics 35 (1), 65-74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peterson, D.K.: 2002, ‘The Relationship between Unethical Behavior and the Dimensions of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire’, Journal of Business Ethics 41 (4), 313-326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Peterson, D.K.: 2004, ‘Perceived Leader Integrity and Ethical Intentions of Subordinates’, The Leadership & Organization Development Journal 25, 7-23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Peterson, D.K., A. Rhoads and B.C. Vaught: 2001, ‘Belief in Universal Ethics: Gender Differences, Influence of Referent Others and Ethical Beliefs of Business Professionals’, Business & Professional Ethics Journal 20, 47-62.Google Scholar
  76. Podsakoff, P.M., S.B. MacKenzie, J.Y. Lee and N.P. Podsakoff: 2003, ‘Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies’, Journal of Applied Psychology 88 (5), 879-903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Podsakoff, N.P., W. Shen and P.M. Podsakoff: 2006, ‘The Role of Formative Measurement Models in Strategic Management Research: Review, Critique and Implications for Future Research’, in D. Ketchen and D. Bergh, (eds.), Research Methodology in Strategy and Management, Volume 3, (JAI, Greenwich), pp. 201-256.Google Scholar
  78. Rothfield, M. and B. Kendall: 2010, ‘U.S. Judge Scoffs at Barclays Legal Pact’, The Wall Street Journal, August 18, pp. C1–C3.Google Scholar
  79. Schminke, M., M.L. Ambrose and D.O. Neubaum: 2005, ‘The Effect of Leader Moral Development on Ethical Climate and Employee Attitudes’, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes 97, 135-151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schwartz, M.: 2001, ‘The Nature of the Relationship Between Corporate Codes of Ethics and Behaviour’, Journal of Business Ethics 32 (3), 247-262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shaub, M. K.: 1989, An Empirical Examination of the Determinants of Auditors’ Ethical Sensitivity. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Accounting, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX.Google Scholar
  82. Sims, R.L. and T.L. Keon: 1999, ‘Determinants of Ethical Decision Making: The Relationship of the Perceived Organizational Environment’, Journal of Business Ethics 19, 393-401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sivadas, E., S.B. Kleiser, J. Kellaris and R. Dahlstrom: 2003, ‘Moral Philosophy, Ethical Evaluations and Sales Manager Hiring Intentions’, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 23 (1), 7-21.Google Scholar
  84. Somers, M.J.: 2001, ‘Ethical Codes of Conduct and Organizational Context: A study of the Relationship Between Codes of Conduct, Employee Behaviour and Organizational Values’, Journal of Business Ethics 30 (2), 185-195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Soutar, G., M.M. McNeil and C. Molster: 1994, ‘The Impact of the Work Environment on Ethical Decision Making: Some Australian Evidence’, Journal of Business Ethics 13, 327-339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sparks, J.R. and S.D. Hunt: 1998, ‘Marketing Researcher Ethical Sensitivity: Conceptualization, Measurement and Exploratory Investigation’, Journal of Marketing 62 (2), 92-109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Spector, P.E.: 2006, ‘Method Variance in Organizational Research: Truth or Urban Legend’, Organizational Research Methods 9 (2), 221-231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Staw, B. M. and J. Ross: 1985, ‘Stability in the midst of change: A dispositional approach to job attitudes’, Journal of Applied Psychology 70, 469-480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stone, E.F. and J. R. Hollenbeck: 1989, ‘Clarifying Some Controversial Issues Surrounding Statistical Procedures for Detecting Moderator Variables: Empirical Evidence and Related Matters’, Journal of Applied Psychology 74 (1), 3-10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sutherland, E. and D.R. Cressey: 1970, Principles of Criminology, 8th Edition (Lippincott, Chicago).Google Scholar
  91. Tenenhaus M., V.E. Vinzi, Y-M. Chatelin and C. Lauro: 2005, ‘PLS Path Modeling’, Computational Statistics & Data Analysis 48 (1), 159–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Trevino, L.K.: 1986, ‘Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: A Person–situation Interactionist Model’, Academy of Management Review 11, 601-617.Google Scholar
  93. Trevino L.K., Brown M., Pincus L. (2003) ‘A Qualitative Investigation of Perceived Executive Ethical Leadership: Perceptions from Inside and Outside the Executive Suite’. Human Relations 56(1): 5-37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Trevino, L.K., K.D. Butterfield and D.L. McCabe: 1998, ‘The Ethical Context in Organizations: Influences on Employee Attitudes and Behaviours’, Business Ethics Quarterly 8, 447-476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Trevino, L. K., L.P. Hartman and M. Brown: 2000, ‘Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership’, California Management Review 42 (4), 128-142.Google Scholar
  96. Trevino, L.K., G.R. Weaver, D.G. Gibson and B.L. Toffler: 1999, ‘Managing Ethics and Legal Compliance: What Works and What Hurts’, California Management Review 41 (2), 131-151.Google Scholar
  97. Trevino, L.K. and S.A. Youngblood: 1990, ‘Bad Apples in Bad Barrels: A Causal Analysis of Ethical Decision-Making Behaviour’, Journal of Applied Psychology 75, 378-385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Valentine, S., M.M. Greller and S. Richtermeyer: 2006, ‘Employee Job Response as a Function of Ethical Context and Perceived Organization Support’, Journal of Business Research 59, 582-588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Van Zyl, E. and K. Lazenby: 2002, ‘The Relation Between Ethical Behaviour and Work stress among a Group of Managers Working in Affirmative Action Positions’, Journal of Business Ethics 40, 111-119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vardi, Y.: 2001, ‘The Effects of Organizational and Ethical Climates’, Journal of Business Ethics 29 (4), 325-337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vitell, S.J., E. Ramos and C.M. Nishihara: 2010, ‘The Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility in Organizational Success: A Spanish Perspective’, Journal of Business Ethics 91, 467-483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Weaver, G. R., L.K. Trevino and P.L. Cochran: 1999, ‘Integrated and Decoupled Corporate Social Performance: Management Commitments, External Pressures, and Corporate Ethics Practices’, Academy of Management Journal 42, 539-552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Weber, J.: 1992, ‘Scenarios in Business Ethics Research: Review, Critical Assessment and Recommendations’, Business Ethics Quarterly 2 (2), 137-160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Werts, C.E., R.L. Linn, and K.G. Joreskog: 1974, ‘Interclass Reliability Estimates: Testing Structural Assumptions’, Educational and Psychological Measurement 34, 25-33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wold, H.: 1982, ‘Soft Modeling: The Basic Design and Some Extensions’, in K.G. Jöreskog and H. Wold (eds.), Systems under Indirect Observation: Causality, Structure, Prediction. Part II (North Holland, Amsterdam), pp. 1-54.Google Scholar
  106. Worthen, B. and J. S. Lublin: 2010, ‘Mark Hurd Neglected to Follow H-P code’, The Wall Street Journal, August 9, pp. B1–B5.Google Scholar
  107. Wynd, W.R. and J. Mager: 1989, ‘The Business and Society Course: Does it Change Student Attitudes?’, Journal of Business Ethics 8, 487–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of Castilla-La ManchaCuencaSpain

Personalised recommendations