Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 102, Issue 3, pp 379–399 | Cite as

Moral Differentiation: Exploring Boundaries of the “Monkey See, Monkey Do” Perspective



Research in ethical decision making has consistently demonstrated a positive relationship between others’ unethical behavior and observers’ unethical behavior, providing support for the “Monkey See, Monkey Do” perspective (e.g., Robinson and O’Leary-Kelly, Acad Manage J 41:658–672, 1998). However, the boundaries of this relationship have received little research attention. Guided by theory and research in interpersonal distancing, we explore these boundaries by proposing and examining “moral differentiation,” the set of individual and situational characteristics that affect the degree to which one is willing to be influenced by others’ unethical behavior. Using data from 655 undergraduate business students in two U.S. universities, we test moderating hypotheses regarding the influence of moral differentiation characteristics on the relationship between others’ unethical behavior and observers’ unethical behavior. Results suggest that strong moral identity, low need for affiliation, and extraversion weaken the relationship between others’ unethical behavior and observers’ unethical behavior. Implications for managers and future research are discussed.


ethical decision making extraversion interpersonal distancing moral differentiation moral identity need for affiliation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anand, V., Ashforth, B.E. & Joshi, M. 2004. Business as usual: The acceptance and perpetuation of corruption in organizations. Academy of Management Executive, 19(4): 9-23.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J.G. & Gerbing, D.W. 1988. Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103: 411-423.Google Scholar
  3. Aquino, K., Freeman, D., Reed, A. II, Lim, V.K.G., & Felps, W. 2009. Testing a social cognitive model of moral behavior: The interactive influence of situations and moral identity centrality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 97(1): 123-141.Google Scholar
  4. Aquino, K. & Reed, A., II. 2002. The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(6): 1423-1440.Google Scholar
  5. Aquino, K., Tripp, T.M. & Bies, R.J. 2001. How employees respond to personal offense: the effects of blame attribution, victim status, and offender status on revenge and reconciliation in the workplace. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1): 52-59.Google Scholar
  6. Arnold, D.G., & Hartman, L.P. 2005, Beyond sweatshops: Positive deviancy and global labour practices. Business Ethics: A European Review, 14(3) 206-222.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. 1971. Social Learning Theory. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. 1976. Social Learning theory. In: J.T. Spence, R.C. Carson, & J.W. Thibaut (Eds.), Behavioral Approaches to Therapy: 1-46. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. 1977. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  10. Bandura, A. 1986. Social Foundations for Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. 1999. Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3(3): 193-209.Google Scholar
  12. Beams, J.D., Brown, L.N., & Killough, L.N. 2003. An experiment testing the determinants of non-compliance with insider trading laws. Journal of Business Ethics, 45(4): 309-323.Google Scholar
  13. Bennett, R. J. & Robinson, S. L. 2000. Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 349-360.Google Scholar
  14. Bradfield, M. & Aquino, K. 1999. The effects of blame attributions and offender likableness on forgiveness and revenge in the workplace. Journal of Management, 25(5): 607-631.Google Scholar
  15. Brass, D.J., Butterfield, K.D. & Skaggs, B.C. 1998. Relationships and unethical behavior: A social network perspective. Academy of Management Review, 23(1): 14-31.Google Scholar
  16. Brief, A. P., Buttram, R.T., & Dukerich, J.M. 2001. Collective corruption in the corporate world: Toward a process model. In M. E. Turner (Ed.), Groups at Work: Theory and Research: 471–499. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, M.E., Treviño, L.K., & Harrison, D.A. 2005. Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97, 117-134.Google Scholar
  18. Butterfield, K.D., Treviño, L.K., & Weaver, G.R. 2000. Moral awareness in business organizations: Influences of issue-related and social context factors. Human Relations, 53(7), 981-1018.Google Scholar
  19. Carlson, D.S., Kacmar, K.M., & Wadsworth, L.L. 2002. The impact of moral intensity dimensions on ethical decision making: Assessing the relevance of orientation. Journal of Managerial Issues, 14(1): 15-30.Google Scholar
  20. Cizek, G.J. 1999. Cheating on tests: How to do it, detect it, and prevent it. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S.G., & Aiken, L.S. 2003. Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd Edition). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  22. Cohen, J.R., Pant, L.W. & Sharp, D.J. 2001. An examination of differences in ethical-decision making between Canadian business students and accounting professionals. Journal of Business Ethics, 30(4): 319-336.Google Scholar
  23. Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.R. 1985. The NEO Personality Inventory Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  24. Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.R. 1988. Personality in adulthood: A six year longitudinal study of self-reports and spouse ratings on the NEO personality inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54: 853-863.Google Scholar
  25. Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.R. 1992. Revised NEO personality inventory and NEO five-factor inventory professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  26. Covey, M.K., Saladin, S., & Killen, P.J. 1989. Self-monitoring, surveillance, and incentive effects on cheating. Journal of Social Psychology, 129(5): 673-679.Google Scholar
  27. Crampton, S.M. & Wagner, III, J.A. 1994. Percept-percept inflation in microorganizational research: An investigation of prevalence and effect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(1): 67-76.Google Scholar
  28. Crowne, D. & Marlowe, D. 1964. The Approval Motive: Studies of Evaluative Dependence. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Darley, J. M. 1995. Constructive and destructive obedience: A taxonomy of principal-agent relationships. Journal of Social Issues, 51(3): 125–153.Google Scholar
  30. Davis, T.R.V. & Luthans, F. 1980. A social learning approach to organizational behavior. Academy of Management Review, 5(2): 281-290.Google Scholar
  31. Digman, J.M. 1990. Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41: 417-440.Google Scholar
  32. Donaldson, T. & Dunfee, T. 1994. Toward a unified conception of business ethics: Integrative social contracts theory. Academy of Management Review, 19: 252–284.Google Scholar
  33. Donaldson, T. & Dunfee, T. 1999. The Ties that Bind. Boston: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Dubinsky, A.J. & Loken, B. 1989. Analyzing ethical decision making in marketing. Journal of Business Research, 19(2): 83-107.Google Scholar
  35. Dworkin, T.M. & Baucus, M.S. 1998. Internal vs external whistle-blowers: A comparison of whistleblowering processes. Journal of Business Ethics, 17: 1281-1298.Google Scholar
  36. Erikson, E.H. 1964. Insight and responsibility. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  37. Ferrell, O. C. and K. M. Weaver: 1978, ‘Ethical Beliefs of Marketing Managers’, Journal of Marketing July, 69–72.Google Scholar
  38. Festinger, L. 1954. A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7: 117-140.Google Scholar
  39. Finch, J.F., Okun, M.A., Barrera, M., Jr., Zautra, A.J., & Reich, J.W. 1989. Positive and negative social ties among older adults: Measurement models and the prediction of psychological distress and well-being. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17: 585-605.Google Scholar
  40. Folger, R. and Skarlicki, D.P. 1998. When tough times make tough bosses: Managerial distancing as a function of layoff blame. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1): 79-87.Google Scholar
  41. Galperin, B.L. 2003. Can workplace deviance be constructive? A. Sagie, S. Stashevsky, and M. Koslowsky (Eds.), Misbehavior and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Organizations, 154-170, NY, NY: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  42. Galperin, B.L. & Burke, R.J. 2006. Uncovering the relationship between workaholism and workplace destructive and constructive deviance: An exploratory study. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(2): 331-347.Google Scholar
  43. Goldberg, L.R. 1993. The structure of phenotypic personality traits. American Psychologist, 48: 26-34.Google Scholar
  44. Graham, J. 1986. Principled organizational dissent: A theoretical essay. Research in Organizational Behavior: 8: 1–51.Google Scholar
  45. Green, S. & Weber, J. 1997. Influencing ethical development: Exposing students to the AICPA code of conduct. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(8): 777-790.Google Scholar
  46. Gundlach, M., Douglas, S.C., and Martinko, M.J. 2003. The decision to blow the whistle: A social information processing framework. Academy of Management Review, 28(1): 107-123.Google Scholar
  47. Hart, D. Atkins, R. & Ford, D. 1998. Moral development and politics: Urban America as a context for the development of moral identity in adolescence. Journal of Social Issues, 54(3): 513-530.Google Scholar
  48. Heckert, T.M., Cuneio, G., Hannah, A.P., Adams, P.J., Droste, H.E., Mueller, M.A., Wallis, H.A., Griffin, C.M., & Roberts, L.L. 2000. Creation of a new needs assessment questionnaire. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(1): 121-136.Google Scholar
  49. Izraeli, D. 1988. Ethical beliefs and behavior among managers: A cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 7: 263-271.Google Scholar
  50. Jones, T.M. 1991. Ethical decision making by individuals in organizations: An issue-contingent model. Academy of Management Review, 16(2): 366-395.Google Scholar
  51. Jones, G.E. & Kavanagh, M.J. 1996. An experimental examination of the effects of individual and situational factors on unethical behavioral intentions in the workplace. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(5): 511-523.Google Scholar
  52. Jones, T.M. & Ryan, L.V. 1997. The link between ethical judgment and action in organizations: A moral approbation approach. Organization Science, 8(6): 663-680.Google Scholar
  53. Jones, T.M. & Ryan, L.V. 1998. The effect of organizational forces on individual morality: Judgment, moral approbation, and behavior. Business Ethics Quarterly, 8(3): 431-445.Google Scholar
  54. Karp, D. and Conrad, S. 2006. Restorative justice and college student misconduct. Public Organization Review: A Global Journal, 5: 315-333.Google Scholar
  55. Keith, N.K., Pettijohn, C.E., & Burnett, M.S. 2003. An empirical evaluation of the effect of peer and managerial ethical behaviors and the ethical predispositions of prospective advertising employees. Journal of Business Ethics, 48(3): 251-265.Google Scholar
  56. Kerlinger, F.N & Lee, H.B. 1999. Foundations of Behavioral Research, Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers.Google Scholar
  57. Kohlberg, L. 1969. Stage and sequence: The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research: 347-480. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  58. Labianca, G. & Brass, D. J. 2006. Exploring the social ledger: Negative relationships and negative asymmetry in social networks in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 31: 596-614.Google Scholar
  59. Labianca, G., Brass, D.J., & Gray, B. 1998. Social networks and perceptions of intergroup conflict: The role of negative relationships and third parties. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1): 55-67.Google Scholar
  60. Larkin, J.M. 2000. The ability of internal auditors to identify ethical dilemmas. Journal of Business Ethics, 23(4): 401-409.Google Scholar
  61. Martin, H.J. 1984. A revised measure of approval motivation and its relationship to social desirability. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48: 508-519.Google Scholar
  62. McCabe, D.L. 1997. Classroom cheating among natural science & engineering majors. Science & Engineering Ethics, 3, 433-445.Google Scholar
  63. McCabe, D.L., Butterfield, K.D. & Treviño, L.K. 2006. Academic dishonesty in graduate business programs: Prevalence, causes, and proposed action. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 5(3): 294-305.Google Scholar
  64. McCabe, D.L. & Treviño, L.K. 1993. Academic dishonesty: Honor codes and other contextual influences. Journal of Higher Education, 64: 520-538.Google Scholar
  65. McCabe, D.L., Treviño, L.K., & Butterfield, K.D. 2002. Honor codes and other contextual influences on academic integrity: A replication and extension to modified code settings. Research in Higher Education, 43(3): 357-378.Google Scholar
  66. McClelland, D.C. 1961. The achieving society. New York: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  67. McClelland, D.C. 1970. The two faces of power. Journal of International Affairs, 24: 29-47.Google Scholar
  68. McClelland, D.C. 1975. Power: The inner experience. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  69. McClelland, D.C., Atkinson, J., Clark, R., & Lowell, E. 1976. The achievement motive. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  70. McDonald, G.M. & Zepp, R.A. 1988. Ethical perceptions of Hong Kong Chinese business managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 7(11): 835-845.Google Scholar
  71. Mehra, A., Kilduff, M., & Brass, D.J. 2001. The social networks of high and low self-monitors: Implications for workplace performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46: 121-146.Google Scholar
  72. Mellama, G. 2004. Responsibility, taint, and ethical distance in business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 47(2): 125-132.Google Scholar
  73. Milgram, S. 1974. Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View. New York: Harper & Rowe.Google Scholar
  74. Murray, H.A. 1983. Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Near, J. P. & Miceli, M. P. 1985. Organizational dissidence: The case of whistle-blowing. Journal of Business Ethics, 4(1), 1-16.Google Scholar
  76. Near, J.P. and Miceli, M.P. 1995. Effective Whistle-Blowing. Academy of Management Review, 20(3): 697-708.Google Scholar
  77. Nelson, R.E. 1989. The strength of social ties: Social networks and intergroup conflict in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 32: 377-401.Google Scholar
  78. O’Clock, P. & Okleshen, M. 1993. A comparison of ethical perceptions of business and engineering majors. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(9): 677-687.Google Scholar
  79. O’Reilly, C. A. III & Chatman, J. 1986. Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: The effects of compliance, identification and internalization on prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71: 492–499.Google Scholar
  80. Oh, H., Chung, M-H., & Labianca, G. 2004. Group social capital and group effectiveness: The role of informal socializing ties. Academy of Management Journal, 47(6): 860-875.Google Scholar
  81. Parks, J.M., Ma, L., & Gallagher, D.G. 2010. Elasticity in the ‘rules’ of the game: Exploring organizational expedience. Human Relations, 63, 701-730.Google Scholar
  82. Pfeffer, J. & Fong, C.T. 2005. Building organization theory from first principles: The self-enhancement motive and understanding power and influence. Organization Science, 16(4): 372-388.Google Scholar
  83. Phillips, A.S. & Bedeian, A.G. 1994. Leader-follower exchange quality: The role of personal and interpersonal attributes. Academy of Management Journal, 37(4): 990-1001.Google Scholar
  84. Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B. & Bommer, W.H. 1996. Transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership as determinants of employee satisfaction, commitment, trust, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Management, 22(2): 259-298.Google Scholar
  85. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S.B., Lee, J-Y., & Podsakoff, N.P. 2003. Common method bias in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5): 879-903.Google Scholar
  86. Posner, B.Z. & Schmidt, W.H. 1984. Values and the American manager: An update. California Management Review, 26: 202-216.Google Scholar
  87. Reed, A, II & Aquino, K.F. 2003. Moral identity and the expanding circle of moral regard toward out-groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(6): 1270-1286.Google Scholar
  88. Reed, A. Aquino, C. & Levy, E. 2007. Moral identity and judgments of charitable behaviors. Journal of Marketing, 71(1): 178-193.Google Scholar
  89. Rest, J.R. 1986. Moral development: Advances in research and theory. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  90. Robinson, S. L. & Bennett, R. J. 1995. A typology of deviant workplace behaviors: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), 555-572.Google Scholar
  91. Robinson, S.L. & O’Leary-Kelly, A.M. 1998. Monkey see, monkey do: The influence of work groups on the antisocial behavior of employees. Academy of Management Journal, 41(6): 658-672.Google Scholar
  92. Rook, K.S. 1984. The negative side of social interaction: Impact on psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(5): 1097-1108.Google Scholar
  93. Rosenhan, D.L., Moore, B.S., & Underwood, B. 1976. The social psychology of moral behavior. In: T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral Development and Behavior: 241-252. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  94. Ross, Jr., W.T. & Robertson, D.C. 2000. Lying: The impact of decision context. Business Ethics Quarterly, 10(2): 409-440.Google Scholar
  95. Rotter, J.B. 1966, ‘Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement’, Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80, 1-28.Google Scholar
  96. Ruehlman, L.S. & Wolchik, S.A. 1988. Personal goals and interpersonal support and hinderance as factors in psychological distress and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(2): 293-301.Google Scholar
  97. Salancik, G.R. & Pfeffer, J. 1978. A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23: 224-253.Google Scholar
  98. Schuster, T.L., Kessler, R.C., & Aseltine, R.H., Jr. 1990. Supportive interactions, negative interactions, and depressed mood. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18(3): 423-438.Google Scholar
  99. Schwab, D. P. 1980. Construct validity in organizational behavior. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (pp. 3–43). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  100. Shao, R., Aquino, K. & Freeman, D. 2008. Beyond moral reasoning: A review of moral identity research and its implications for business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly, 18(4): 513-540.Google Scholar
  101. Spreitzer, G. M., & Sonenshein, S. 2003. Positive deviance and extraordinary organizing. In K. Cameron, J. Dutton, & R. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 207-224). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  102. Spreitzer, G.M. & Sonenshein, S. 2004. Toward the construct definition of positive deviance. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(6): 828-847.Google Scholar
  103. Steers, R.M. & Braunstein, D.N. 1976. A behaviorally based measure of manifest needs in work settings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 9: 251-266.Google Scholar
  104. Tajfel, H. 1978. Differentiation between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  105. Tajfel, H. & Turner, J.C. 1986. The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In: S. Worchel & W.G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations (2nd Edition): 7-24. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  106. Taylor, S.E. 1991. Asymmetrical effects of positive and negative events: The mobilization-minimization hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 110: 67-85.Google Scholar
  107. Terpstra, D.E., Reyes, M.G.C., & Boker, D.W. 1991. Predictors of ethical decisions regarding insider trading. Journal of Business Ethics, 10(9): 699-710.Google Scholar
  108. Treviño, L.K. 1986. Ethical decision making in organizations: A person-situation interactionist model. Academy of Management Review, 11(3): 601-617.Google Scholar
  109. Treviño, L.K. 1990. A cultural perspective on changing and developing organizational ethics. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 4: 195-230.Google Scholar
  110. Treviño, L.K. & Ball, G.A. 1992. The social implications of punishing unethical behavior: Observers’ cognitive and affective reactions. Journal of Management, 18(4): 751-768.Google Scholar
  111. Treviño, L.K., Butterfield, K.D. & McCabe, D.L. 1998. The ethical context in organizations: Influences on employee attitudes and behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly, 8(3): 447-476.Google Scholar
  112. Trope, Y., Liberman, N., & Wakslak, C. 2007. Construal levels and psychological distance: Effects on representation, prediction, evaluation, and behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17(2): 83-95.Google Scholar
  113. Tyson, T. 1990. Believing that everyone is less ethical: Implications for work behavior and ethics instruction. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(9): 715-721.Google Scholar
  114. Tyson, T. 1992. Does believing that everyone is less ethical have an impact on work behavior? Journal of Business Ethics, 11(9): 707-717.Google Scholar
  115. Umphress, E.E., Labianca, G., Brass, D.J., Kass, E., & Scholten, L. 2003. The role of instrumental and expressive social ties in employees’ perceptions of organizational justice. Organization Science, 14(6): 738-753.Google Scholar
  116. Vadera, A.K., Aguilera, R.V., & Caza, B.B. 2009. Making sense of whistle-blowing’s antecedents: Learning from research on identity and ethics programs. Business Ethics Quarterly, 19 (4), 553-586.Google Scholar
  117. Van Dyne, L., Graham, J. W., & Dienesch, R. M. 1994. Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 37: 765–802.Google Scholar
  118. Vardi, Y. & Weitz, E. 2004. Misbehaviors in organizations: Theory, research, and management. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  119. Veroff, J. & Veroff, J.B. 1980. Social incentives: A life span developmental approach. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  120. Vroom, V.H. 1964. Work and Motivation. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  121. Wanberg, C.R. & Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D. 2000. Predictors and outcomes of proactivity in the socialization process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3): 373-385.Google Scholar
  122. Warren, D. 2003. Constructive and destructive deviance in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 28, 622-632.Google Scholar
  123. Watson, J.G. & Barone, S. 1976. The self-concept, personal values, and motivation orientations of black and white managers. Academy of Management Journal, 19(1): 36-48.Google Scholar
  124. Watson, D. & Hubbard, B. 1996. Adaptational style and dispositional structure: Coping in the context of the 5-factor model. Journal of Personality, 64: 737-774.Google Scholar
  125. Weaver, G. 2006. Virtue in organizations: Moral identity as a foundation for moral agency. Organization Studies, 27(3): 341-368.Google Scholar
  126. Weaver, G.R. & Treviño, L.K. 1999. Compliance and values oriented ethics programs: Influences on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly, 9(2): 315-335.Google Scholar
  127. Weaver, G.R., Treviño, L.K., & Agle, B. 2005. Somebody I look up to: Ethical role models in organizations. Organizational Dynamics, 34(4): 313-330.Google Scholar
  128. Weber, J. 1990. Managers’ moral reasoning: Assessing their responses to three moral dilemmas. Human Relations, 43(7): 687-702.Google Scholar
  129. Werner, H., & Kaplan, B. 1964. Symbol formation: An organismic-developmental approach to language and expression of thought. London: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  130. Wiesenfeld, B.M., Raghuram, S., & Garud, R. 2001. Organizational identification among virtual workers: The role of need for affiliation and perceived work-based social support. Journal of Management, 27: 213-229.Google Scholar
  131. Wood, J.A., Longnecker, J.G., McKinney, J.A., & Moore, C.W. 1988. Ethical attitudes of students and business professionals: A study of moral reasoning. Journal of Business Ethics, 7(4): 249-257.Google Scholar
  132. Wowra, S.A. 2007. Moral identities, social anxiety, and academic dishonesty among American college students. Ethics & Behavior, 17(3): 303-321.Google Scholar
  133. Yamaguchi, I. 2003. The relationships among individual differences, needs and equity sensitivity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(4): 324-344.Google Scholar
  134. Zey-Ferrell, M.K. & Ferrell, O.C. 1982. Role-set configuration and opportunity as predictors of unethical behavior in organizations. Human Relations, 35(7): 587-604.Google Scholar
  135. Zey-Ferrell, M.K., Weaver, M., & Ferrell, O.C. 1979. Predicting unethical behavior among marketing practitioners. Human Relations, 32(7): 557-569.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. O’Fallon
    • 1
  • Kenneth D. Butterfield
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Hospitality, Sport and Recreation ManagementJames Madison UniversityHarrisonburgU.S.A.
  2. 2.Department of ManagementWashington State UniversityPullmanU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations