Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 102, Issue 2, pp 319–332 | Cite as

The Impact of Intrinsic Religiosity on Consumers’ Ethical Beliefs: Does It Depend on the Type of Religion? A Comparison of Christian and Moslem Consumers in Germany and Turkey

Article

Abstract

Intrinsic religiosity drives ethical consumer behavior; however, previous studies regarding this connection are limited solely to a Christian cultural context. This comparative study instead includes Christian Consumers from Germany and Moslem Consumers from Turkey to determine if a specific religious community moderates the connection between intrinsic religiosity and consumer ethics. The results show that Consumers in the Turkish, Moslem subsample, exhibit an even stronger connection between religiosity and ethical consumer behavior than Consumers from the German, Christian subsample.

Key words

religiosity consumer ethics Islam religion Christianity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ali, A.: 1986, A Comparative Study of Managerial Beliefs About Work in the Arab States. Working Paper No. 1, Fort Hays State University School of Business, Hays, KS.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Khatib, J. A., S. J. Vitell and M. Y.A. Rawwas: 1997, ‘Consumer Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Investigation’, European Journal of Marketing 31(11/12), 750-767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Khatib, J. A., S. J. Vitell, R. Rexeisen and M. Y. A. Rawwas: 2005, ‘Inter-country differences of consumer ethics in Arab countries’, International Business Review 14(4), 495-516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allport, G. W. :1950, The Individual and His Religion: A Psychological Interpretation (MacMillan, New York).Google Scholar
  5. Allport, G. W. and J. M. Ross (1967) ‘Personal Religious Orientation and Prejustice’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5(4): 432-443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, C. : 1970, White Protestant Americans (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ).Google Scholar
  7. Arslan, M.: 2001, ‘The work Ethic Values of Protestant British, Catholic Irish and Muslim Turkish Managers’, Journal of Business Ethics 31(4), 321-339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Babakus, E., T. B. Cornwell, V. Mitchell and B. Schlegelmilch: 2004, ‘Reactions to unethical consumer behavior across six countries’, Journal of Consumer Marketing 21(4), 254-263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bailey, J. M. and J. Sood: 1993, ‘The Effects of Religious Affiliation on Consumer Behavior: A Preliminary Investigation’, Journal of Managerial Issues 5(3), 328-352.Google Scholar
  10. Belk, R. W., T. Devinney and G. Eckhard: 2005. ‘Consumer Ethics Across Cultures’, Consumption, Markets and Culture 8(3), 275-289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berger, P. L.: 1961, The Noise of Solemn Assemblies, (Doubleday and Co. Inc., New York).Google Scholar
  12. Briggs, S. R., and J. M. Cheek, J.M.: 1986. ‘The role of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of personality scales’, Journal of Personality 54(1), 106-148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buehner, M, and M. Ziegler: 2009, Statistik für Psychologen und Sozialwissenschaftler, (Pearson, Munich).Google Scholar
  14. Chamberlain, K. and S. Zika: 1992, ‘Religiosity, Meaning in Life and Psychological Wellbeing’, in: Schumacher, G.F. (ed.), Religion and Mental Health, Oxford University Press, 138-148.Google Scholar
  15. Chan, A., S. Wong and P. Leung: 1998, ‘Ethical Belief of Chinese Consumers in Hong Kong’, Journal of Business Ethics 17(11), 1163-1170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chonko, L. B. and S. D. Hunt: 1985, ‘Ethics and Marketing Management: An empirical Examination’ Journal of Business Research 13(4), 339-359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen, J.: 1988, Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed. (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum).Google Scholar
  18. Cornwell, B., C. C. Cui, V. Mitchell, B. Schlegelmilch, A. Dzulkiflee and J. Chan,: 2005, ‘A Cross-cultural Study of the Role of Religion in Consumers’ Ethical positions’, International Marketing Review 22(5), 531-546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Delener, N.: 1990, ‘An Examination of the Religious Influences as Predictors of Consumer Innovativeness’, Journal of Mid West Marketing 5, 167-178.Google Scholar
  20. Delener, N.: 1994, ‘Religious Contrasts in Consumer Decision Behaviour Patterns: Their Dimensions and Marketing Implications’, European Journal of Marketing 28(5), 36-53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Delener, N. and L.G. Schiffman: 1988, ‘Family decision making: The impact of religious factors’, in: Gary Frasier et al. (Eds.), Efficiency and Effectiveness in Marketing, Chicago, IL, American Marketing Association, 80-83.Google Scholar
  22. Donahue, M.J.: 1985, ‘Intrinsic and Extrinsic Religiousness: Review and Meta-Analysis’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48(2), 400-419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. EKD (ed.): 2010, ‘Christians in Germany’, http://www.ekd.de/statistik/mitglieder.html.
  24. Ekin, M. G. S. and S. H. Tezölmez: 1999, ‘Business Ethics in Turkey: An Empirical Investigation with Special Emphasis on Gender’, Journal of Business Ethics 18(1), 17-34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ellis, P. D.: 2010, The essential guide to effect sizes: Statistical power, meta-analysis, and the interpretation of research results (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  26. Essoo, N. and S. Dibb: 2004, ‘Religious Influences on Shopping Behaviour: An Exploratory Study’, Journal of Marketing Management 20(7/8), 683-712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ferrell O.C., J. Fraedrich and L. Ferrell: 2008, Business Ethics (Houghton Mifflin, Boston).Google Scholar
  28. Forsyth, D. R.: 1980, ‘A Taxonomy of ethical ideologies’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39(1), 175-84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Greeley, A.M.: 1977, The American Catholic (Basic Books, New York).Google Scholar
  30. Green, R. T. and P. D. White: 1976, ‘Methodological considerations in cross-national consumer research’, Journal of International Business Studies 7(2), 81-87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hirschman, E.C.:1983, ‘Religious Affiliation and Consumption Processes’, Research in Marketing 6, 131-170.Google Scholar
  32. Hofstede, G.: 1997, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (McGraw-Hill, New York).Google Scholar
  33. Hunt, S. D. and S. J. Vitell: 1986, ‘A General Theory of Marketing Ethics’, Journal of Marcromarketing 6(1), 5-16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hunt, S. D. and S. J. Vitell: 2006, ‘A General Theory of Marketing Ethics: A Revision and Three Questions’, Journal of Marcromarketing 26(2), 143-153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kavak, B., E. Gürel, C. Eryigit and Ö.Ö. Tektas: 2009: ‘Examining the Effects of Moral Development Level, Self-Concept, and Self Monitoring on Consumers’ Ethical Attitudes’, Journal of Business Ethics 88(1), 115-135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Luhmann, N.: 2008, Soziale Systeme: Grundriss einer allgemeinen Theorie, 12th Edition (Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main).Google Scholar
  37. McDaniel, S. W. and J. J. Burnett: 1990,’Consumer Religiosity and Retail Store Evaluative Criteria’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 18(2), 101-112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Menguc, B.: 1998, ‘Organizational Consequences, Marketing Ethics and Salesforce Supervision: Further Empirical Evidence’, Journal of Business Ethics 17(4), 333-352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Miskawayh, A. I. M.: 1968, The Refinement of Character (C. K. Zurayk, Trans.). (The American University of Beirut, Beirut).Google Scholar
  40. Mokhlis, S.: 2009, Relevancy and Measurement of Religiosity in Consumer Behavior Research, International Business Research 2(3), 75-84.Google Scholar
  41. Muncy, J.A. and S. J. Vitell: 1992, ‘Consumer Ethics: A Investigation of the Ethical Beliefs of the Final Consumer’, Journal of Business Ethics 24(4), 297-311.Google Scholar
  42. Oumlil, A. B. and J. L. Balloun: 2009, ‘Ethical Decision-Making Differences between American and Moroccan Managers’, Journal of Business Ethics 84 (4), 457-478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Paşa, S.F., H. Kabasakal and M. Bodur: 2001, ‘Society, Organisations, and Leadership in Turkey’, Applied Psychology: An international Review 50(4), 559-589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Patai, R.: 1977, The Jewish Mind (Scribners and Sons, New York).Google Scholar
  45. Polonsky, M. J., P. Q. Brito and N. Higgs-Kleyn (2001)’Consumer Ethics in the European Union: A Comparison of Northern and Southern Views’. Journal of Business Ethics 31(2): 117-130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rawwas, M. Y.A: 1996, ‘Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Investigation of the Ethical Beliefs of Austrian Consumers’, Journal of Business Ethics 15(9), 1009-1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rawwas, M. Y.A.: 2001, ‘Culture, Personality and Morality a Typology of International Consumers’ Ethical Beliefs’, International Marketing Review 18(2), 188-211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rawwas, M. Y. A., Z. Swaidan and M. Oyman: 2005, ‘Consumer Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Ethical Beliefs of Turkish and American Consumers’, Journal of Business Ethics 57(2), 183-195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Saeed, M., Z. U. Ahmed and S.-M. Mukhtar: 2001, ‘International Marketing Ethics from an Islamic Perspective: A Value Maximization Approach’, Journal of Business Ethics 32(2), 127-142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Saroglou, V., V. Delpierre and R. Dernelle: 2004, ‘Values and religiosity: A meta-analysis of studies using Schwartz’s model’, Personality and Individual Differences 37, 721-734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schlegelmilch, B.: 1998, Marketing Ethics: An International Perspective (Thomson Business Press, London).Google Scholar
  52. Sims, R. L. and A. E. Gegez: 2004, ‘Attitudes Towards Business Ethics: A Five Nation Comparative Study’, Journal of Business Ethics 50(3), 253-265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Singh, M. F.: 2001, Honest Living, 4th Edition, (Radha Soami Satsang Beas, India)Google Scholar
  54. Singhapakdi, A., M. Y. A. Rawwas, J. K. Marta and M. I. Ahmed: 1999, ‘A cross-cultural study of consumer perceptions about marketing ethics’, Journal of Consumer Marketing 16(3), 257-272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Srnka, K. J., A. E. Gegez and S. B. Arzova: 2007,’Why is it (un-) ethical? Comparing potential European partners: A western Christian and eastern Islamic country – on arguments used in explaining ethical judgments’, Journal of Business Ethics 74(2), 101-118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Steenhaut, S. and P. van Kenhove: 2006, The Mediating Role of Anticipated Guilt in Consumers’ Ethical Decision-Making, Journal of Business Ethics, 69(3), 269-288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vasquez-Parraga, A. Z. and A. Kara: 1995,’Ethical Decision Making in Turkish Sales Management, Journal of Euro Marketing, 4(2), 61-87.Google Scholar
  58. Vitell, S. J.: 2003, ‘Consumer Ethics Research: Review, Synthesis and Suggestions for the Future’, Journal of Business Ethics 43(1/2), 33-47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vitell, S. J. and J. Muncy: 1992, ‘Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Investigation of Factors Influencing Ethical Judgements of the Final Consumer’, Journal of Business Ethics 11(8), 585-597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vitell, S. J. and J. Muncy: 2005, ‘The Muncy-Vitell Consumer Ethics Scale: A Modification and Application’, Journal of Business Ethics 62(3), 267-275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vitell, S. J., S.L. Nwachukwu and J.H. Barnes: 1993, ‘The Effects of Culture on Ethical Decision-Making: An Application of Hofstede’s Typology’, Journal of Business Ethics 12(10), 753-760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vitell, S. J. and J. G. P. Paolillo: 2003, ‘Consumer Ethics: The Role of Religiosity’, Journal of Business Ethics 46(2), 151-162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vitell, S. J., J. G. P. Paolillo and J. J. Singh: 2005, ‘Religiosity and Consumer Ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics 57(2), 175-181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vitell, S. J., J. G. P. Paolillo and J. J. Singh: 2006, ‘The Role of Money and Religiosity in Determining Consumers’ Ethical Beliefs’, Journal of Business Ethics 64(2), 117-124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Vitell, S. J., J. G. P. Paolillo and J. J. Singh: 2007, ‘Consumers’ Ethical Beliefs: The Roles of Money, Religiosity and Attitude toward Business, Journal of Business Ethics 73(4), 369-379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Weaver, G. R. and B. R. Agle: 2002, ‘Religiosity and Ethical Behavior in Organizations: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective’, Academy of Management Review 27(1), 77-98.Google Scholar
  67. Wilkes, R. E., J.J. Burnett and R. D. Howell: 1986, ‘On the meaning and measurement of religiosity in consumer research’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 14(1), 47-56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Younis, T.: 1997, ‘Turkey: The State Apparatus, and Islamisation’, Civil Service Systems in Comparative Perspective, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, April 5–8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Schneider
    • 1
  • John Krieger
    • 2
  • Azra Bayraktar
    • 3
  1. 1.Steinbeis-University BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.University of Duisburg-EssenDuisburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of Business AdministrationMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations