Does the Ethical Culture of Organisations Promote Managers’ Occupational Well-Being? Investigating Indirect Links via Ethical Strain
- 1.2k Downloads
The present study had two major aims: first, to examine the construct validity of the Finnish 58-item Corporate Ethical Virtues scale (CEV; Kaptein in J Org Behav 29:923–947, 2008) and second, to examine whether the associations between managers’ perceptions of ethical organisational culture and their occupational well-being (emotional exhaustion and work engagement) are indirectly linked by ethical strain, i.e. the tension which arises from the difference in the ethical values of the individual and the organisation he or she works for. The sample consisted of 902 managers from different organisations, in middle and upper management levels, aged 25–68 years. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided support to the hypothesised eight-factor structure of the CEV scale; i.e. the scale contained the factors of clarity, congruency of supervisors, congruency of senior management, feasibility, supportability, transparency, discussability and sanctionability. In addition, it emerged from the CFAs that the high intercorrelations of these factors can be explained by the second-order factor of ethical culture. The managers’ perceptions of the ethical culture prevailing in their organisations were associated with their occupational well-being both directly (high-work engagement) and indirectly via a low level of ethical strain (low-emotional exhaustion). Thus, the findings indicated that the ethical culture of organisations plays a major role in managers’ occupational well-being.
Key wordscorporate ethical virtues ethical culture ethical strain managerial work occupational well-being
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ahtiainen, L.: 2006, Palkansaajien järjestäytyminen Suomessa 2004 [Employee Unionisation in Finland in 2004]. Työpoliittinen tutkimus, No. 298, Finnish Ministry of Labour, Helsinki.Google Scholar
- Chatman, J. A.: 1989, ‘Improving Interactional Organisational Research: A Model of Person-Organisation Fit’, Academy of Management Review, 14, 333–349.Google Scholar
- CIPD: July 10, 2003, ‘Responsible Business Attracts the Best People – And Keeping them Improves the Bottom Line’, http://www.cipd.co.uk/pressoffice/_articles/10072003123700.htm?IsSrchRes=1.
- Cooper, C. L., P. J. Dewe and M. P. Driscoll: 2001, Organizational Stress: A Review and Critique of Theory, Research and Applications, (Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA).Google Scholar
- Cox T., G. Kuk and M. P. Leiter: 1993, ‘Burnout, Health, Work Stress and Organisational Healthiness’, in W.B. Schaufeli, C. Maslach, and T. Marek (eds.), Professional Burnout: Recent Developments in Theory and Research, (Taylor and Francis, Washington, DC), pp. 177–197.Google Scholar
- CPH-NEW: 2009, ‘Financial Costs of Job Stress’, http://www.uml.edu/centers/CPH-NEW/job-stress/financial-costs.html.
- Crane, A. and D. Matten: 2007, Business Ethics. (Oxford University Press, Oxford).Google Scholar
- Elo, A.-L., A. Leppänen and A. Jahkola: 2003, ‘Validity of a Single-item Measure of Stress Symptoms’, Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 29, 444–451.Google Scholar
- Ethics Resource Center: 2010, ‘Supplemental Research Brief 2009 National Business Ethics Survey. The Importance of Ethical Culture: Increasing Trust and Driving Down Risks’, http://www.ethics.org/page/nbes-supplemental-research-briefs.
- Hosmer, L. T.: 1995, ‘Trust: The Connecting Link Between Organizational Theory and Philosophical Ethics’, Academy of Management Review, 20, 379–403.Google Scholar
- Jameton, A.: 1984, Nursing Practice: The Ethical Issues, (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ).Google Scholar
- Kahn, R. L. and P. Byosiere: 1992, ‘Stress in Organizations’, in M.D. Dunnette, and L.M. Hough, (eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, vol. 3, (Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA), pp. 571–650.Google Scholar
- Kaptein, M.: 1998, Ethics Management: Auditing and Developing the Ethical Content of Organizations, (Springer, Dordrecht).Google Scholar
- Lazarus, R. S. and S. Folkman: 1984, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping, (Springer, New York).Google Scholar
- Leiter, M. P. and P. Harvie: 1997, ‘The Correspondence of Supervisor and Subordinate Perspectives on Major Organizational Change’, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 2, 1–10.Google Scholar
- Leiter, M. P. and C. Maslach: 2000, Preventing Burnout and Building Engagement, (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA).Google Scholar
- Lewicki, R. J., R. J. McAllister and R. J. Bies: 1998, ‘Trust and Distrust: New Relationships and Realities’, Academy of Management Review, 23, 438–458.Google Scholar
- Lockwood, C. M. and D. P. MacKinnon: 1998, ‘Bootstrapping the Standard Error of the Mediated Effect’, in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of SAS Users Group International (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC), pp. 997–1002.Google Scholar
- Maslach, C.: 1982, Burnout: The Cost of Caring, (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ).Google Scholar
- Maslach, C.: 1993, ‘Burnout: A Multidimensional Perspective’, in W. B. Schaufeli, C. Maslach and T. Marek (eds.), Professional Burnout: Recent Developments in Theory and Research (Taylor and Francis, Washington, DC), pp. 19–32.Google Scholar
- Maslach, C., S. E. Jackson and M. P. Leiter: 1996, Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual, 3rd edition, (Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA).Google Scholar
- Muthén LK, Muthén BO (1998) Mplus User’s Guide, 5th edn. Muthén and Muthén, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
- Näätänen, P., A. Aro, S. Matthiesen and K. Salmela-Aro: 2003, Bergen Burnout Indicator 15, (Edita, Helsinki).Google Scholar
- Nash, L. L.: 1993, Good Intentions Aside. A Manager’s Guide to Resolving Ethical Problems. (Harvard Business School Press, Boston).Google Scholar
- Paine, L. S.: 1997, Cases in Leadership, Ethics, and Organizational Integrity, (Irwin, Chigago).Google Scholar
- Peterson, M. and J. F. Wilson: 2002, ‘The Culture-Work-Health Model and Work Stress’, American Journal of Health Behaviour, 26, 16–24.Google Scholar
- Schein, E. H.: 2004, Organisational Culture and Leadership, (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA).Google Scholar
- Schein, E. H.: 2009, The Corporate Culture Survival Guide, (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA).Google Scholar
- Solomon, R. C.: 1999, A Better Way to Think about Business: How Personal Integrity Leads to Corporate Success, (Oxford University Press, New York).Google Scholar
- Treviño, L. K., G. R. Weaver, D. G. Gibson and B. L. Toffler: 1999, ‘Managing Ethics and Legal Compliance: What Works and What Hurts’, California Management Review, 41, 131–151.Google Scholar
- van der Hulst, M.: 2003, ‘Long Work Hours and Health’, Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 29, 171–188.Google Scholar