Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 100, Issue 3, pp 515–534 | Cite as

Fostering Responsible Communities: A Community Social Marketing Approach to Sustainable Living

  • Marylyn CarriganEmail author
  • Caroline Moraes
  • Sheena Leek
Article

Abstract

Just as socially irresponsible organizational behavior leaves a punitive legacy on society, socially responsible organizations can foster curative change. This article examines whether small organizations can foster societal change toward more sustainable modes of living. We contend that consumption is deeply intertwined with social relations and norms, thus making individual behavioral change toward sustainability a matter of facilitating change in individual behavior, as well as in social norms and relations between organizations and consumers. We argue that it is in this facilitation process that small firms can play a major role, by adopting upstream and downstream approaches to diffuse behavioral change. By synthesizing four key strands of literature – small businesses and corporate social responsibility, ethical consumption, community social marketing, and the diffusion of innovation – and using the exemplar case of Modbury, the iconic “plastic bag-free” town, we demonstrate how responsible small firms can influence communities, and the individuals therein, to encourage environmentally sustainable practice to diffuse and support change in society.

Key words

community CSR small business social marketing sustainability 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ajzen, I.: 1991, ‘The Theory of Planned Behavior’, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50 (2), 179-211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anon: 2007, ‘Hebden Bridge Goes PlasticBagFree’, http://www.hebdenbridge.co.uk/news/news07/59.html. Accessed 11 Nov 2010.
  3. Bagozzi, R. P.: 1993, ‘On the Neglect of Volition in Consumer Research: A Critique and Proposal’, Psychology & Marketing 10 (3), 215-237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagozzi, R. P. and P. R. Warshaw: 1990, ‘Trying to Consume’, Journal of Consumer Research 17 (2), 127-140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker, M.: 2003, ‘Doing It Small’, Ethical Corporation Magazine, 20th August 2003.Google Scholar
  6. Barkham, P.: 2007, ‘World Asks Town that Banned the Plastic Bag: How can we do It too?’, The Guardian, 12th May, 11.Google Scholar
  7. Barnett, C., Clarke, N., Cloke, P. and A. Malpass: 2005, ‘The Political Ethics of Consumerism’, Consumer Policy Review 15 (2), 45-51.Google Scholar
  8. BBC: 2007 ‘Town Dumps Plastic Bags’, BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/devon/content/articles/2007/05/01/modbury_plastic-bags. Accessed 28 June 2010.
  9. Bendell, J. and A. Kleanthous: 2007, ‘Deeper Luxury’, http://www.wwf.org.uk/deeperluxury. Accessed 8 July 2009
  10. Bennett, A. (2001) ‘Case Study: Methods and Analysis’, In: N.Smelser, P. Baltes (eds), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. The Netherlands: Elsevier. 1513-1519.Google Scholar
  11. BERR: 2008, ‘BERR, Statistical Press Release’, July 2008. http://stats.berr.gov.uk/ed/sme/smestats2007-ukspr.pdf.
  12. BERR: 2009 SMEs in a Low Carbon Economy: Final Report for BERR Enterprise Directorate, January, URN 09/574 (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research, Middlesex University, London).Google Scholar
  13. Blackburn, R. and D. Smallbone: 2008, ‘Researching Small Firms and Entrepreneurship in the UK: Developments and Distinctiveness’, Entrepreneurship Theory: Theory and Practice 32 (2), 267-288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boulstridge, E. and M. Carrigan: 2000, ‘Do Consumers Really Care about Corporate Responsibility? Highlighting the Consumer Attitude-Behaviour Gap’, Journal of Communication Management 4 (4), 355-368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bourdieu, P.: 1986 ‘The Forms of Capital’, in J.E.E. Richardson (ed.) Handbook of Theory of Research for the Sociology of Education, 1st edition (Greenwood, New York), pp.241-258.Google Scholar
  16. Bryman, A.: 2001 ‘Social Research Methods’, (Oxford University Press, Oxford).Google Scholar
  17. Carr, P.: 2003, ‘Revisiting the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism: Understanding the Relationship between Ethics and Enterprise’, Journal of Business Ethics 47(1), 7-16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carrigan, M. and A. Attalla: 2001, ‘The Myth of the Ethical Consumer: Do Ethics Matter in Purchase Behaviour?’, Journal of Consumer Marketing 18 (7), 560-578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carrigan, M. and P. de Pelsmacker: 2009, ‘Will ethical consumers sustain their values in the global credit crunch?’, International Marketing Review 26(6), 674-687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Caruana, R.: 2007, ‘Morality and Consumption: Towards a Multidisciplinary Perspective’, Journal of Marketing Management, 23 (3/4), 207-225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cavusgil, E.: 2007, ‘An Integrated Model of Consumer Innovation Adoption,’ American Marketing Association, Winter, 83–84.Google Scholar
  22. Chalmers, S.: 2007, ‘Could you live without a carrier? Daily Mail, 25th May. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-457273/Could-live-carrier.html. Accessed 15 Jan 2009.
  23. Chatzidakis, A., Hibbert, S., Mittusis, D. and A. Smith: 2004, ‘Virtue in Consumption?’, Journal of Marketing Management 20 (5-6), 526-543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chatzidakis, A., Hibbert, S. and A. Smith: 2007, ‘Why People Don’t Take their Concerns about Fair Trade to the Supermarket: The Role of Neutralisation’, Journal of Business Ethics 74 (1), 89-100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Connolly, J. and A. Prothero: 2008, ‘Green Consumption: Life-Politics, Risk and Contradictions’, Journal of Consumer Culture 8 (1), 117-145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cordano, M., R. Scott Marshall and M. Silverman: 2010, ‘How Do Small and Medium Enterprise Go “Green”? A Study of Environmental Management Programs in the U.S. Wine Industry’, Journal of Business Ethics 92(3), 463-478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Craig-Lees, M.: 2008, ‘Assessing Resistance to Social Marketing Programs’, European Advances in Consumer Research, 8, 487-490.Google Scholar
  28. Cresswell, J.W.: 1998 ‘Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions’ (Sage, Thousand Oaks, C.A).Google Scholar
  29. Dearing, J.W., Maibach, E.W., and Buller, D.B.: 2006, ‘A Convergent Diffusion and Social Marketing Approach for Disseminating Proven Approaches to Physical Activity Promotion’, American Journal of Preventative Medicine 31, S11-S23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. DTI: 2002, Engaging SMEs in Community and Social Issues (DTI, London).Google Scholar
  31. European Commission: 2010, ‘Enterprise and Industry, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)’, http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/promoting-entrepreneurship/crafts-micro-enterprises/. Accessed 5 Nov 2010.
  32. Fairtrade Foundation: 2009a, ‘Facts and Figures on Fair-Trade’, The Fairtrade Foundation, www.fairtrade.org.uk/what_is_fairtrade/facts_and_figures.aspx?printversion=true. Accessed 21 Sept 2009.
  33. Fairtrade Foundation: 2009b, ‘Two Royal Honours for Fairtrade Pioneers’, The Fairtrade Foundation, www.fairtrade.org.uk/press_office/press_releases_and_statements/january_2008. Accessed 5 July 2010.
  34. Feddersen, T. J. and T. W. Gilligan: 2001, ‘Saints and Markets: Activists and the Supply of Credence Goods’, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 10(1), 149–171Google Scholar
  35. Fell, D., A. Austin, E. Kivinen, and C. Wilkins: 2009, The Diffusion of Environmental Behaviours; the Role of Influential Individuals in Social Networks, Report 2: The evidence, A report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Brook Lyndhurst, Defra, London).Google Scholar
  36. Friedman, M. A.: 1996, ‘Positive Approach to Organized Consumer Action: The ‘Buycott’ as an Alternative to Boycott’, Journal of Consumer Policy 19 (4), 439-451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Friedman, A.L. and S. Miles: 2002, ‘SMEs and the Environment: Evaluating Dissemination Routes and Handholding Levels’, Business Strategy and the Environment 11(5), 324-341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Friends of the Earth: 2009, ‘Gone to Waste: The Valuable Resources That European Countries Bury and Burn’, www.foe.co.uk/resource/reports/gone_to_waste.pdf. Accessed 30 November 2010.
  39. Fuller, T. and J. Lewis: 2003, ‘Relationships Mean Everything’, British Journal of Management 13(4), 317-336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fuller, T. and Y. Tian: 2006, ‘Social and Symbolic Capital and Responsible Entrepreneurship: An Empirical Investigation of SME Narratives’, Journal of Business Ethics 67(3), 287-304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goodyear, C.: 2007, ‘San Francisco First City to Ban Plastic Shopping Bags’, San Francisco Chronicle, 28th March, A-1.Google Scholar
  42. Graafland, J., B. van de Ven and N Stoffele: 2003 ‘Strategies and Instruments for Organising CSR by Small and Large Businesses in the Netherlands, Journal of Business Ethics 47(1), 45-60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grayson, D. and A. Hodges: 2004, Corporate Social Opportunity! Seven Steps to Make Corporate Social Responsibility Work For Your Business (Greenleaf, Sheffield).Google Scholar
  44. Greenhalgh, T., Robert, G., Macfarlane, F., Bate, P., Kyriakidou, O., and R. Peacock.: 2005, ‘Storylines of Research in Diffusion of Innovation: A Meta-Narrative Approach to Systematic Review’, Social Science and Medicine, 61, 415-430.Google Scholar
  45. Greenlee, T. and C. Surprenant: 1999, ‘The Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change: An Empirical Investigation’, Social Marketing Quarterly 5 (3), 76-81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Habisch A: 2004, ‘Social Responsibility, Social Capital and SMEs’ in: L.J. Spence, A. Habisch, R. Schmidpeter. (eds). Responsibility and Social Capital: The World of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises. Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstok. 25-34.Google Scholar
  47. Hastings, G.: 2007, ‘The Diaspora Has Already Begun’, Marketing Intelligence and Planning 25 (2), 117-122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hastings, G. and M. Saren: 2003, ‘The critical contribution of social marketing: Theory and application’, Marketing Theory 3 (3), 305-322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hillary, R.: 2004, ‘Environmental Management Systems and the Smaller Enterprise’, Journal of Cleaner Production 12(6), 561-569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Holt D. A. Stewart and H. Viney: 2000, ‘Supporting Environmental Improvements in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in the U.K.’, Greener Management International 30, 29–49.Google Scholar
  51. Hosking, R.: 2007, ‘Carrying Conviction’, The Guardian May 16th, http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2007/may/16/business.waste/print. Accessed 24 Sept 2009.
  52. Hosking, R.: 2009, ‘Modbury Plastic Free’, www.plasticbagfree.com. Accessed 21st June 2009.
  53. Jackson, T.: 2005, Motivating Sustainable Consumption: A Review of Evidence on Consumer Behaviour and Behaviour Change. A Report to the Sustainable Development Research Network (Policy Studies Institute, London), http://admin.sd-research.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2007/04/motivatingscfinal_000.pdf. Accessed 25 June 2007 (online).
  54. Jamali, D., Zanhour, M. and T. Keshishian: 2009, ‘Peculiar Strengths and Relational Attributes of SMEs in the Context of CSR’, Journal of Business Ethics 87, 355-377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jenkins, H. A.: 2004, ‘Critique of Conventional CSR Theory: An SME Perspective’, Journal of General Management 29 (4), 55-75.Google Scholar
  56. Jenkins, H.: 2009, ‘A Business Opportunity Model of Corporate Social Responsibility for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises’, Business Ethics: A European Review 18(1), 21-36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. King, N (1998) ‘Template analysis’, In: G. Symon, C.M. Cassell (eds.), Qualitative methods and analysis in organizational research: a practical guide Sage: London. 118-134.Google Scholar
  58. King, N. and C. Horrocks.: 2010 Interviews in Qualitative Research, (Sage, London).Google Scholar
  59. Lagos, M.: 2010, State Plastic Bag Ban Gaining Support, San Francisco Chronice, June 2nd, http://articles.sfgate.com/2010-06-02/news/21653568. Accessed 11 Nov 2010.
  60. Lawrence, S.R., E. Collins, K. Pavlovich and M. Arunachalam: 2006, ‘Sustainability Practices of SMEs: the Case of New Zealand, Business Strategy and the Environment 15, 242-257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lomas J.: 1993, Diffusion, Dissemination, and Implementation: Who Should Do What? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 703, 226-237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Maignan I. and O. C. Ferrell: 2004, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility and Marketing: An Integrative Framework’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 32 (1), 3-19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Maignan, I., Ferrell, O. C. and L. A. Ferrell: 2005, ‘Stakeholder Model for Implementing Social Responsibility in Marketing’, European Journal of Marketing 39 (9/10), 956-77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mayo, E. and A. Fielder: 2006, ‘I will if you will’, Consumer Policy Review 16 (4), 148-155.Google Scholar
  65. McDonald, S., Oates, C. J., Young, C.W. and K. Hwang: 2006, ‘Toward Sustainable Consumption: Researching Voluntary Simplifiers’, Psychology & Marketing 23 (6), 515-534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McEachern, M., M. Carrigan, and I. Szmigin: 2007, Flexible Ethics and the Conscious Consumer: Trading-off Consumption, Choice and Conscience. 36th European Marketing Academy Conference (EMAC), Reykjavik, Iceland, 22nd–25th May.Google Scholar
  67. McEachern, M., Warnaby, G., Carrigan, M. and I. Szmigin: (2010) ‘Thinking Locally, Acting Locally? Conscious Consumers and Farmers Markets’, Journal of Marketing Management, 26(5), 395-412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McKenzie-Mohr, D.: 1999, ‘Fostering Sustainable Behavior’, http://www.cbsm.com/public/images/FosteringSustainableBehavior.pdf. Accessed 2 Sept 2009 (online).
  69. McKinlay, J.B. (1975) ‘A Case for Re-Focusing Upstream: The Political Economy of Illness’. In A.J. Enelow and J.B. Henderson (eds) Applying Behavioral Science to Cardiovascular Risk. American Heart Association: Seattle. 7-18.Google Scholar
  70. McKinlay, J.B.: 1993 ‘The Promotion of Health Through Planned Sociopolitical Change: Challenges for Research and Policy’, Social Science and Medicine, 36(2), 109-117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McManus, T. 2008 ‘The Business Strategy/Corporate Social Responsibility “Mash up”. Journal of Management Development 27(10):1066-1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mintel: 2005, OrganicsUK, (Mintel Reports, London).Google Scholar
  73. Mintel: 2007, The Impact of the EnvironmentUK, (Mintel Reports, London).Google Scholar
  74. Moraes, C., I. Szmigin and M.Carrigan.: 2010 ‘Living Production-Engaged Alternatives: An Examination of New Consumption Communities’ Consumption, Markets and Culture, 13, 273 - 298. doi:  10.1080/10253861003787015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Newholm, T.: 2005, ‘Case Studying Ethical Consumers’ Projects and Strategies’, in R. Harrison, T. Newholm and D. Shaw (eds), The Ethical Consumer, (Sage, London), pp. 107-124.Google Scholar
  76. Niehm, L. S., Swinney, J. and N. J. Miller: 2008, ‘Community Social Responsibility and Its Consequences for Family Business Performance’, Journal of Small Business Management 46 (3), 331-350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nielsen: 2008, Corporate ethics and fair trading: a Nielsen Global Consumer Report, (Nielsen and the University of Oxford Environmental Change Institute, Oxford).Google Scholar
  78. Patton, M. Q. (ed.): 2002, Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods (Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA)Google Scholar
  79. Peattie, K. and A. Collins: 2009, ‘Guest editorial: Perspectives on Sustainable Consumption’, International Journal of Consumer Studies 33, 107-112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Peattie, K. and S. Peattie: 2009, ‘Social Marketing: A Pathway to Consumption Reduction?’, Journal of Business Research 62 (2), 260-268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Perrini, F.: 2006, ‘SMEs and CSR Theory: Evidence and Implications from an Italian Perspective’, Journal of Business Ethics 67(3), 306-316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Platt, J.: 1988 ‘What can case studies do?’ in R.G. Burgess (ed.) Conducting Qualitative Research, (JAI Press,Greenwich, CT).Google Scholar
  83. Pool, H.: 2008, ‘Carried Away with Pride’, The Guardian, 10th April 2008, http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/apr/10/plasticbags.ethicalliving/print. Acc- essed 7 July 2009.
  84. Prahalad, C. and A. Hammond: 2002, ‘Serving the World’s Poor Profitably’, Harvard Business Review 80 (9), 1-11.Google Scholar
  85. Prochaska, J. O. and C. C. DiClemente: 1983, ‘Stages and processes of self-change in smoking: Toward an integrative model of change’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 51, 390-395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Prochaska, J. M., Prochaska, J. O. and D. A. Levesque: 2001, ‘A Transtheoretical Approach to Changing Organizations’, Administration and Policy in Mental Health 28 (4), 247-261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Prochaska, J. O. and W. F. Velicer: 1997, ‘The Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change’, American Journal of Health Promotion 2 (1), 38-48.Google Scholar
  88. Reusable bags: 2009, The Numbers…Believe it or Not, http://www.reusablebags.com/facts.php?id=4. Accessed 25 Sept 2009.
  89. Revell, A. and R. Rutherfoord: 2003, ‘UK Environmental Policy and the Small Firm’, Business Strategy and the Environment 13(3), 156-171.Google Scholar
  90. Reynolds, P.D.: 1991 ‘Sociology and Entrepreneurship: Concepts and Contributions’, Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice 16(2), 47-70.Google Scholar
  91. Ritchie, J. and J. Lewis: 2003, ‘Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers’, (Sage, London).Google Scholar
  92. Roberts, S., R. Lawson and J. Nicholls: 2006, ‘Generating Regional-Scale Improvements in SME Corporate Responsibility Performance: Lessons from Responsibility Northwest’, Journal of Business Ethics 67(3), 275-286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Robson, C. (ed.): 2002, Real World Research (Blackwell, Oxford)Google Scholar
  94. Roch, C.H.: 2005, ‘The Dual Roots of Opinion Leadership’, Journal of Politics 67, 110-131.Google Scholar
  95. Rogers, E.M.: 2003, Diffusion of innovations, 5th edition. (New York: Free Press).Google Scholar
  96. Rothenberg, S. and M. Becker: 2004, ‘Technical Assistance Programs and the Diffusion of Environmental Technologies in the Printing Industry: The Case of SMEs’, Business & Society 43, 366-397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ryan, B. and N. Gross: 1950, Acceptance and Diffusion of Hybrid Seed Corn in Two Iowa Communities, Research Bulletin 372 (Agricultural Station, Ames, IA), pp. 665–679Google Scholar
  98. Shaw, D.: 2005, ‘Modelling Consumer Decision Making in Fair Trade’, in R. Harrison, T. Newholm and D. Shaw (eds), The Ethical Consumer, (Sage, London), pp. 137-153.Google Scholar
  99. Shaw, D. and I. Clarke: 1999, ‘Belief Formation in Ethical Consumer Groups: An Exploratory Study’, Marketing Intelligence and Planning 17 (2), 109-120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shaw, D. and E. Shiu: 2003, ‘Ethics in Consumer Choice: A Multivariate Modelling Approach’, European Journal of Marketing 37 (10), 1485-1498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shaw, D., Shiu, E. and I. Clarke: 2000, ‘The Contribution of Ethical Obligation and Self-identity to the Theory of Planned Behaviour: An Exploration of Ethical Consumers’, Journal of Marketing Management 16 (8), 879-894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Shippee, G. E. and W. L. Gregory: 1982, ‘Public Commitment and Energy Conservation’, American Journal of Community Psychology 10, 81–93Google Scholar
  103. Simpson, L.: 2005, ‘Community Informatics and Sustainability: Why Social Capital Matters’, The Journal of Community Informatics, 1(2), 102-119.Google Scholar
  104. Simpson, M., N. Taylor and K.Barker: 2004, ‘Environmental Responsibility in SMEs: does it Deliver Competitive Advantage?’, Business Strategy and the Environment 33(3), 156-171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Smith, A., R. Kemp and C. Duff: 2000, ‘Small Firms and the Environment: Factors that Influence Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ Environmental Behaviour’ In R. Hillary (eds), Small and Medium Enterprises and the Environment.Greenleaf: Sheffield. 24-34.Google Scholar
  106. Southwell, C.: 2004, ‘Engaging SMEs in Community and Social Issues’, in L.J. Spence, A. Habisch and R. Schmidpeter (eds), Responsibility and Social Capital: The World of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke), pp.96-111.Google Scholar
  107. Sparks, P. and R. Shepherd: 1992, ‘Self-Identity and the Theory of Planned Behavior: Assessing the Role of Identification with ‘Green Consumerism’, Social Psychology Quarterly 55 (4), 388-399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Spence, L.J., R. Schmidpeter and A. Habisch: 2003, ‘Assessing Social Capital: Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the UK and Germany’, Journal of Business Ethics 47(1), 17-29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Stake, R. E.: 2000, ‘Case Studies’ in N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln (eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research (Sage: London), pp.435-453.Google Scholar
  110. Szmigin, I. and M. Carrigan: 2003, New Consumption Communities: Resisting the Hegemony of the Marketing Process. 3rd International Critical Management Studies Conference, Lancaster University, July 7–9.Google Scholar
  111. Szmigin, I., Carrigan, M. and M. McEachern: 2009, ‘The Conscious Consumer: Taking a Flexible Approach to Ethical Behaviour’, International Journal of Consumer Studies 33 (2), 224-231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tellis, W.: 1997, ‘Application of a Case Study Methodology,’ The Qualitative Report, 3(3), http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR3-3/tellis2.html. Accessed 12 Nov 2004.
  113. Thake, S.: 2008, Individualism and Consumerism: Reframing the Debate (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, London), www.jrf.org.uk. Accessed 25 Sept 2009 (online).
  114. The Co-operative Bank: 2008, The Ethical Consumerism Report, http://www.goodwithmoney.co.uk/assets/Uploads/Documents/ECR_2008_Web.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2009 (online).
  115. Thogersen, J. and T. Crompton: 2009, ‘Simple and Painless? The Limitations of Spillover in Environmental Campaigning’, Journal of Consumer Policy 32 (2), 141-163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Thøgersen, J. and F. Olander: 2006, ‘The Dynamic Interaction of Personal Norms and Environment-Friendly Buying Behavior: A Panel Study’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology 36, 1758–1780Google Scholar
  117. Tilley, F.: 1999 ‘The Gap Between the Environmental Attitudes and the Environmental Behavior of Small Firms, Business Strategy and the Environment 8, 238-248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tilley, F.: 2000 ‘Small Firm Environmental Ethics: How Deep Do They Go?’, Business Ethics: A European Review 9(1), 31-41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Vaaland, T. I., Heide, M. and K. Gronhaug: 2008, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: Investigating Theory and Research in the Marketing Context’, European Journal of Marketing, 42 (9/10), 927-53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Valente, T.W. and R.L. Davis.: 1999, ‘Accelerating the Diffusion of Innovations Using Opinion Leaders, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 566, 55-67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Varman, R. and J. A. Costa: 2008, ‘Embedded Markets, Communities, and the Invisible Hand of Social Norms’, Journal of Macromarketing, 28 (2), 141-156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Verplanken, B. and W. Wood: 2006, ‘Interventions to Break and Create Consumer Habits’, Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 25 (1), 90-103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Vidal, J.: 2007, ‘Profile: Rebecca Hosking’, The Guardian, 23 November, http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/nov/23/plasticbags.recycling/print. Accessed 28 June 2009.
  124. Vidal, J.: 2009, ‘Plastic Bag Revolt Halves Use – to 450 m’, The Guardian, 17th July, 9.Google Scholar
  125. Vives, A.: 2006, ‘Social and Environmental Responsibility in Small and Medium Enterprises in Latin America’, The Journal of Corporate Citizenship 21, 39-50.Google Scholar
  126. Warde, A.: 2005, ‘Consumption and Theories of Practice’, Journal of Consumer Culture 5(2), 131–153Google Scholar
  127. WRAP: 2009, New Figures Show Single Use Carrier Bags Cut, 17 July, http://www.wrap.org.uk/wrap_corporate/news/new_figures_show.html.
  128. Yin, R.K.: 1993 Case Study Research: Design and Methods, (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage).Google Scholar
  129. Yin, R.K.: 1994 Applications of Case Study Research, (Newbury Park, CA: Sage).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marylyn Carrigan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Caroline Moraes
    • 2
  • Sheena Leek
    • 2
  1. 1.Open University Business SchoolThe Open UniversityMilton KeynesU.K.
  2. 2.Birmingham Business SchoolUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamU.K.

Personalised recommendations