Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 100, Issue 3, pp 419–443 | Cite as

The Meaning of Corporate Social Responsibility: The Vision of Four Nations

  • Ina Freeman
  • Amir Hasnaoui
Article

Abstract

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has existed in name for over 70 years. It is practiced in many countries and it is studied in academia around the world. However, CSR is not a universally adopted concept as it is understood differentially despite increasing pressures for its incorporation into business practices. This lack of a clear definition is complicated by the use of ambiguous terms in the proffered definitions and disputes as to where corporate governance is best addressed by many of the national bodies legislating, mandating, or recommending CSR. This article explores the definitions of CSR as published on the Internet by governments in four countries (United Kingdom (UK), France, the United States, and Canada). We look for a consensus of understanding in an attempt to propose a more universal framework to enhance international adoption and practice of CSR using the triple bottom line. Our results concur with the findings of both national and international bodies and suggest that both within and among the countries in our study there exists no clear definition of the concept of CSR. While there are some similarities, there are substantial differences that must be addressed. We present a number of proposals for a more universal framework to define CSR.

Keywords

corporate social responsibility definition United Kingdom France United States Canada 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackerman, R.W. and R.A. Bauer: 1976, Corporate Social Responsiveness, (Reston, VA: Reston Publishing).Google Scholar
  2. AFNOR: n.d., ‘Développement Durable’, http://www.afnor.org/profils/centre-d-interet/developpement-durable. 19 February 2010.
  3. Agle, B.R., R.K. Mitchell, and J.A. Sonnenfeld: 1999, ‘Who Matters to CEOs? An Investigation of Stakeholder Attributes and Salience, Corporate Performance, and CEO Values’, Academy of Management Journal, 42(5), 507-525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antal, A.B. and A. Sobczak: 2007, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility in France: A Mix of National Traditions and International Influences’, Business & Society, 46(1), 9-32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Archer, M.: 1995, Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Argandona, A. and H. von Weltzien Hoivik: 2010, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: One Size Does not Fit All. Collecting Evidence from Europe’, Journal of Business Ethics, 89(Supplement 3), 221-234.Google Scholar
  7. Barnard CI (1938) The Functions of the Executive. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  8. Beckman, J. 1975, Social Responsibility and Accountability, (New York, NY: New York University Press).Google Scholar
  9. Berle Jr., A.A.: 1932, ‘For Whom Corporate Managers are Trustees: A note’, Harvard Law Review, 45(8), 1365-1372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowen, H.R.: 1953, Social Responsibilities of the Businessman, (New York, NY : Harper & Row).Google Scholar
  11. Bowen, F., Newenham-Kahindi, A., and Herremans, I.: 2010, ‘When suits meet roots: The antecedents and consequences of community engagement strategy’, Journal of Business Ethics, 95(2), 297-318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buchholtz RA, Rosenthal SB (1999) Social responsibility and business ethics. In: Frederick RE (ed.) A Companion to Business Ethics. Blackwell, Malden, MA, pp 303–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buhr, H. and M. Grafstöm: 2004: CSR Edited in the Business Press – Package Solutions with Problems Included. Paper Presented at the EGOS Colloquium, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 1–3 July 2004.Google Scholar
  14. Campbell, T.: 2007: ‘The Normative Grounding of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Human Rights Approach’, in D.J; McBarnet, A. Voiculescu, and T. Campbell (Eds.), The New Corporate Accountability: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Law, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)Google Scholar
  15. Canadian Business for Social Responsibility: 2008, ‘Home Page’, http://www.cbsr.ca/about-cbsr/about-cbsr. 18 February 2010.
  16. Carroll, A. B.: 1979, ‘A Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance’, Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497-505.Google Scholar
  17. Carroll, A.B.: 1983, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: Will Industry Respond to Cutbacks in Social Program Funding?’, Vital Speeches of the Day, 49(19), 604-608.Google Scholar
  18. Carroll, A.B.: 1991, ‘The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Toward the Moral Management of Organizational Stakeholders’, Business Horizons, 34(4), 39-48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carroll, A.B.: 1999, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: Evolution of a Definitional Construct’, Business & Society, 38(3), 268-295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carroll, G.R., J. Delacroix (1982) ‘Organizational Mortality in the Newspaper Industries of Argentina and Ireland: An Ecological Approach’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 27(2):169-198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chalmers, D.M.: 1959, ‘The Muckrakers and the Growth of Corporate Power: A Study in Constructive Journalism’, American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 18(3), 295-311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chih, H-L., Chih, H-H., and Chen, T-Y.: 2010, ‘On the determinants of corporate social responsibility: International evidence on the financial industry’, Journal of Business Ethics, 93, 115-135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clark, J.M.: 1926, Social Control of Business, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  24. Committee for Economic Development: 1971, Social Responsibility of Business Corporations, (New York: Committee for Economic Development).Google Scholar
  25. Crane, A., Matten, D., Moon, J.: 2004, ‘Stakeholders as citizens? Rethinking rights, participation, and democracy?’, Journal of Business Ethics, 53(1/2), 107-122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crawford, R.I. and H.A. Gram: 1978, ‘Social Responsibility as Interorganizational Transaction’, The Academy of Management Review, 3(4), 880-888.Google Scholar
  27. Crotty, P.T.: 1971, ‘The Professional Manager of the Future’, Management of Personnel Quarterly, 10(3), 4-9.Google Scholar
  28. Cruz, L.B., E.A. Pedrozo: 2009, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility and Green Management: Relation Between Headquarters and Subsidiary in Multinational Corporations’, Management Decision, 47(7):1174-00CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. CSR Newswire: 2010, ‘CSRlive: Contribute, Discover, Share’, http://www.csrwire.com/csrlive/?category=14. 5 January 2010.
  30. Dahlsrud, A.: 2008, ‘How Corporate Social Responsibility is Defined: An Analysis of 37 Definitions’, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15(1), 1-13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis, K.: 1960, ‘Can Business Afford to Ignore Social Responsibility?’, California Management Review, 2(3), 70-76.Google Scholar
  32. Davis, K. (1973). The Case for and against Business Assumption of Social Responsibilities. Academy of Management Journal, 16(2): 312-322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Davis, K. and R.L. Blomstrom: 1966, Business and Its Environment, (New York, NY: McGraw Hill).Google Scholar
  34. Department of Trade and Industry: 2004, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: A Government Update’, http://www.colombiaincluyente.org/documentos/CSR%20UK%20Documento%20del%20Ministerio.pdf. 20 February 2010.
  35. DiMaggio, P., and W. Powell: 1983, ‘The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationalist in Organizational Fields’, American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147-160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dobers, P. and Springett, D.: 2010, ‘Corporate social responsibility: Discourse, narratives and communication’, Corporation Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 17(2), 63-69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Doing Business: 2010, ‘Ease of Doing Business Rank’, http://www.doingbusiness.org/EconomyRankings/. 18 February 2010.
  38. Donham, W.B.: 1927, ‘The Social Significance of Business’, Harvard Business Review, 5(4), 406-419.Google Scholar
  39. Donham, W.B. 1929 ‘Business Ethics – A General Survey’, Harvard Business Review, 7(4):385-394.Google Scholar
  40. Drucker, P.F. (Ed.): 1969, Preparing Tomorrow’s Business Leaders Today, pp. 280-289. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.).Google Scholar
  41. Duhé, S.C.: 2009, ‘Two Decades of U.S. Corporate Insider Perspectives on Reputation and the Bottom Line’, Public Relations Review, 35(1), 77-78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Eells, R.: 1958, ‘Corporate Giving: Theory and Practice’, California Management Review, 1(1), 37-46.Google Scholar
  43. Eells, R., and C. Walton: 1961, Conceptual Foundations of Business, (Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin).Google Scholar
  44. Eells, R. and C. Walton: 1974, Conceptual Foundations of Business (3rd Ed.), (Burr Ridge, Il: Irwin Books).Google Scholar
  45. Eilbert, H. and I.R. Parket: 1973, ‘The Current Status of Corporate Social Responsibility’, Business Horizons: 16(4), 5-14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Epstein, E.M.: 1987, ‘The Corporate Social Policy Process: Beyond Business Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Corporate Social Responsiveness’, California Management Review, 29(3), 99-114.Google Scholar
  47. Epstein, E.M.: 1989, ‘Business Ethics; Corporate Good Citizenship and the Corporate Social Policy Process: A View from the United States’, Journal of Business Ethics, 8(8): 583-595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fitch, H.G.: 1976, ‘Achieving Corporate Social Responsibility’, Academy of Management Review: 1(1), 38-46.Google Scholar
  49. Fleishman Hillard Inc.: 2007, ‘Rethinking Corporate Social Responsibility. A Fleishman-Hillard/National Consumers League Study’, http://www.csrresults.com/CSR_ExecutiveSummary07.pdf. 24 January 2010.
  50. Forbes.com: 2010, ‘The Global 2000’, http://www.forbes.com/lists/2009/18/global-09_The-Global-2000_Counrty.html. 18 February 2010.
  51. Franklin, D.: 2008, ‘Just Good Business: A Special Report on Corporate Social Responsibility’, The Economist 386(8563), 3–6, 22–24.Google Scholar
  52. Frederick, W.C.: 1960, ‘The Growing Concern Over Business Responsibility’, California Management Review: 2(4), 54-61.Google Scholar
  53. Frederick, W.C.: 2006, Corporation, be good! The story of corporate social responsibility. Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Publishing.Google Scholar
  54. Freeman, I. and I. Sussin: 2010, ‘International Cultural Competence in International Business Education: The Need to Respond’, The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic, & Social Sustainability 6(1), 355–370.Google Scholar
  55. Freeman, R.E. and J. Liedtka: 1991, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: A Critical Approach’, Business Horizons, 34(4), 92-98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Friedman, M.: 1962, Capitalism and Freedom. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  57. Friedman, M.: 1970, ‘The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase Its Profits’, The New York Times Magazine. http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html. 20 January 2010.
  58. Fulmer, R.M.: 1971, ‘Business Ethics: Present and Future’, Personnel Administration, 34, 48-56.Google Scholar
  59. Galbreath, J.: 2010, ‘Drivers of corporate social responsibility: The role of formal strategic planning and firm culture,’ British Journal of Management, 21(2), 511-525.Google Scholar
  60. General Accountancy Office: 2005, ‘Globalization: Numerous Federal Activities Complement U.S. Business’s Global Corporate Social Responsibility Efforts’, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d05744.pdf. 25 January 2010.
  61. Gjølberg, M.: 2009, ‘The Origin of Corporate Social Responsibility: Global Forces or National Legacies?’, Socio-Economic Review, 7(4), 605-637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Godfrey, P.C.L.: 2005, ‘The Relationship Between Corporate Philanthropy and Shareholders Wealth: A Risk Management Perspective’, Academy of Management Review, 30(4), 777-798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Godfrey, P.C. and N.W. Hatch.: 2007, ‘Researching Corporate Social Responsibility: An Agenda for the 21st Century’, Journal of Business Ethics, 70(1), 87-98,Google Scholar
  64. Goeke, J.R. and C.S. Weymar: 1969, ‘Barriers to Hiring the Blacks’, Harvard Business Review, 47(5), 144-149.Google Scholar
  65. Goodpaster, K.E.: 2007. Conscience and Corporate Culture, (Oxford, UK; Blackwell Publishing).Google Scholar
  66. Government of France, Loi No. 2001-420: 2001, ‘Loi Nouvelle Régulations Economiques’, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JOFTEXT000000223114. 20 January 2010.
  67. Graves, S.B. and S.A. Waddock: 1994, ‘Institutional Owners and Corporate Social Performance’, Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), 1034-1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Guthrie, D. and R. Durand: 2008, ‘Social Issues in the Study of Management’, European Management Review, 5(3), 137-149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Handelman, J.M. and Arnold, S.J.: 1999, ‘The role of marketing actions with a social dimension: Appeals to the institutional environment’, Journal of Marketing, 63(3), 33-48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hay, R.D., E.R. Gray, and J.D. Gates: 1976, Business and Society, (Cincinnati, OH: Southwestern Publishing).Google Scholar
  71. Hofstede, G. and G.J. Hofstede: 2005, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (2nd Ed.), (New York: McGraw-Hill).Google Scholar
  72. Hooghiemstra, R.: 2000, ‘Corporate communication and impression management – new perspectives who companies engage in corporate social reporting’, Journal of Business Ethics, 27(1/2), 55-68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. IBM: 2009, Corporate Responsibility Report 2008, (Chengdu, China: Global Reporting Initiative).Google Scholar
  74. Industry Canada: 2010, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’, http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/csr-rse.nsf/eng/home. 20 February 2010.
  75. Internet World Stats: 2010, ‘Ìnternet Usage Statistics’, http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm.
  76. ISO: 2008, ‘About the Standard’, Social Responsibility. http://isotc.iso.org/livelink/livelink/fetch/2000/2122/830949/3934883/3935096/07_gen_info/aboutStd.html. 31 March 2010.
  77. Jacques, A.: 2010. ‘Socially conscious: Companies share CSR best practices’, Public Relations Tactics, July 2010, 12-13.Google Scholar
  78. Johnson, H.L.: 1971 Business in Contemporary Society: Framework and Issues, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co.Google Scholar
  79. Jones, T.M.: 1980, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility Revisited, Redefined’, California Management Review: 22(3), 59-67.Google Scholar
  80. Kalwarski, T.: 2010, ‘It Pays to be Good’, Businessweek, February 1. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/10_05/c4165moneyrepo963671.htm. 22 January 2010.
  81. Knill, C., and D. Lehmkuhl: 2002, ‘Private Actors and the State: Internationalization and Changing Patterns of Governance’, Governance, 15(1), 41-63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Koleva, P. : 2005, ‘La Responsabilité Sociale des Enterprises dans les Pays Européens en Transition : Réalitié et Limites’, La Revue des Sciences de Gestion : Direction et Gestion, 40(211/212), 155-168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kreps, T.: 1940, ‘Measurement of the Social Performance of Business’, in K. R. Wright (ed.), An Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power for the Temporary National Economic Committee, Monograph 7 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office).Google Scholar
  84. Kung, H.: 1997, ‘A global ethic in an age of globalization’, Business Ethics Quarterly, 7(3), 17-32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lantos, G.P.: 2002, ‘The ethicality of altruistic corporate social responsibility’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 19(2/3), 205-230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lattemann, C., M. Fetscherin, I. Alon, L. Shaomin, and A.M. Schneider: 2009, ‘CSR Communication Intensity in Chinese and Indian Multinational Companies’, Corporate Governance: An International Review, 17(4), 426-442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Levitt, T.: 1958, ‘The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, Harvard Business Review, 36(5), 41-50.Google Scholar
  88. Lindgreen, A., Swaen, V., and Maon, F.: 2009, ‘Corporate social responsibility implementation,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 85(Suppl. 2), 251-256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Maak, T.: 2008, ‘Undivided Corporate Responsibility: Toward a Theory of Corporate Integrity’, Journal of Business Ethics, 82(2), 353-368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Maclagan, P.W.: 1998, Management and Morality, London, UK: Sage.Google Scholar
  91. Maignan, I. and Ralston, D.A.: 2002, ‘Corporate social responsibility in Europe and the U.S.: Insights from businesses’ self-presentations’, Journal of International Business Studies, 33(3), 497-514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Manne, H., and H.C. Wallich: 1972, The Modern Corporation and Social Responsibility, Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.Google Scholar
  93. Maon, F., Lindgreen, A., and Swaen, V.: 2010, ‘Consolidative model of corporate social responsibility development’, International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(1), 20-38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Margolis, J. and J. Walsh: 2003, ‘Misery Loves Companies: Rethinking Social Initiatives by Business’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 48(2), 268-305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Markley, M. and L. Davis: 2007, ‘Sustainability in supply chains: The triple bottom line approach to future competitive advantage’, Society for Marketing Advances Proceedings, 273–274.Google Scholar
  96. Matten, D. and Moon, J.: 2004, ‘Corporate social responsibility education in Europe’, Journal of Business Ethics, 54(4): 323-337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Matten, D. and J. Moon: 2008, ‘“Implicit” and “Explicit” CSR: A Conceptual Framework for Comparative Understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility’, Academy of Management Review 33(2), 404–424.Google Scholar
  98. McGuire, J.W.: 1963, Business and Society, (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill).Google Scholar
  99. Meyer, J. and B. Rowan, B.: 1977, ‘Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony’, American Journal of Sociology, 83(2), 340-363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ministére de l’Ecologie, de l’Energie, du Développement et de la mer: n.d., ‘Focus’, http://www.semainedudeveloppementdurable.gouv.fr/. 18 February 2010.
  101. Ministére des Affaires Etrangiéurs et Européenne: 2009, ‘Droits Economiques, Sociaux et Culturels’, http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/actions-france_830/droits-homme_1048/droits-economiques-sociaux-culturels_4720/responsabilite-sociale-entreprises-engagement-france_17059.html. 24 January 2010.
  102. Moran, M.: 2002, ‘Understanding the Regulatory State’, British Journal of Political Science, 32(2), 391-413.Google Scholar
  103. Nippa, M. and A. Klossek: 2008, ‘Reflections on Corporate Social Responsibility in Differing Institutional Systems: How Chinese, German, and U.S. Corporations Address Stakeholder Interests’, Sciences de Gestion, 65, 155-195.Google Scholar
  104. Okoye, A.: 2009, ‘Theorising Corporate Social Responsibility as an Essentially Contested Concept: Is a Definition Necessary?’, Journal of Business Ethics, 89(4), 613-627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Palazzo, G.S. and A.G. Scherer: 2006, ‘Corporate Legitimacy as Deliberation: A Communicative Framework’, Journal of Business Ethics, 66(1), 71-88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Péron, M. and M. Bonnet: 2008. ‘CSR in Intervention-Research : Example of an Implementation of the SEAM Model’, Revue Sciences de Gestion, 65, 239-257.Google Scholar
  107. Ralston, E.S. (2010) ‘Deviance or norm? Exploring corporate social responsibility’, European Business Review, 22(4):397-410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sahlin-Andersson, K.: 2006, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: A Trend and a Movement, but of What and for What?’, Corporate Governance, 6(5), 595-608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schwartz, M.S. and A.B. Carroll: 2003, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: A Three-Domain Approach’, Business Ethics Quarterly, 13(4), 503-530.Google Scholar
  110. Sethi, S.P.: 1975, ‘Dimensions of Corporate Social Responsibility’, California Management Review, 17(3), 58-64.Google Scholar
  111. Simberova, I. and D. Pollard: 2008, ‘Stakeholder Relations Focus in Marketing Concepts of Companies’, Economics & Management 13, 305–312.Google Scholar
  112. Simon, H.A.: 1957, Models of Man: Social and Rational, (New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.).Google Scholar
  113. Sohn, H.F.: 1982, ‘Prevailing Rationales in the Corporate Social Responsibility Debate’, Journal of Business Ethics, 1(2), 139-144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Steiner, G.A.: 1971, Business and Society, (New York, NY: Random House).Google Scholar
  115. Stohl, C., M. Stohl, and L. Popova: 2009, ‘A New Generation of Corporate Codes of Ethics”, Journal of Business Ethics, 90, 607-622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Strike, V.M., J. Gao, and P. Bansal: 2006, ‘Being Good While Being Bad: Social Responsibility and the International Diversification of US Firms’, Journal of International Business Studies, 37(6), 850-862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Surroca, J., Tribo, J.A., and Waddock, S.: 2009, ‘Corporate responsibility and financial performance: The role of intangible resources’, Strategic Management Journal, 31(5), 463-490.Google Scholar
  118. The European Sustainability Reporting Association: 2008, ‘Home Page’, http://www.sustainabilityreporting.eu/. 18 February 2010.
  119. The Globe and Mail: 2006, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility Ranking’, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/article813500.ece. 18 February 2010.
  120. Tschopp, D.J.: 2005, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: A Comparison Between the United States and the European Union’, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 12(1), 55-59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Turban, D.B. and D.W. Greening: 1997, ‘Corporate Social Performance and Organizational Attractiveness to Prospective Employees’, Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 658-672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. United States Government Accountability Office: 2006, ‘Globalization. Numerous Federal Activities Complement U.S. Business’s Global Corporate Social Responsibility Efforts’, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d05744.pdf. 20 February 2010.
  123. Vaaland, T. I. and M. Heide: 2005, ‘Corporate Social Responsiveness: Exploring the Dynamics of `Bad Episides’', European Management Journal 23(5), 495–506.Google Scholar
  124. Venard, B.: 2001, Management Research Between Sense and Action, Paper Presented at the Academy of Management Proceedings 2001.Google Scholar
  125. Visser, W.: 2005, ‘Revisiting Carroll’s Pyramid: An African Perspective’, http://www.waynevisser.com/chapter_wvisser_africa_csr_pyramid.pdf. 20 January 2010.
  126. Votaw, D.: 1972, ‘Genius Becomes Rare: A Comment on the Doctrine of Social Responsibility, Pt. 1’, California Management Review, 15(2), 25-31.Google Scholar
  127. Waldman, D. A., M. S. de Luque, N. Washburn, R. J. House, et al.: 2006, ‘Cultural and Leadership Predictors of Corporate Social Responsibility Values of Top Management: A GLOBE Study of 15 Countries’, Journal of International Business Studies 37(6), 823-837.Google Scholar
  128. Walton, C.C.: 1967, Corporate Social Responsibilities, (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth).Google Scholar
  129. Wartick, S.L. and P.L. Cochran: 1985, ‘The Evolution of the Corporate Social Performance Model’, Academy of Management Review, 10(4), 758-769.Google Scholar
  130. Weitzner, D. and J. Darroch: 2009, ‘Why Moral Failures Precede Financial Crises’, Critical Perspectives on International Business 5(1/2), 6–13.Google Scholar
  131. Windsor, D,: 2009, ‘Tightening corporate governance’, Journal of International Management, 15(3), 306-316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wood, D.J.: 1991, ‘Corporate Social Performance Revisited’, The Academy of Management Review, 16(4), 691-718.Google Scholar
  133. Wry, T.E.: 2009, ‘Does Business and Society Scholarship Matter to Society? Pursuing a Normative Agenda with Critical Realism and Neoinstitutional Theory’, Journal of Business Ethics, 89(2), 151-171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zenisek, T.J.: 1979, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: Conceptualization Based on Organizational Literature’, Academy of Management, 4(3), 359-368.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ESC Rennes School of BusinessRennesFrance
  2. 2.La Rochelle Business School/Centre de Recherche TELECOM Ecole de ManagementLa RochelleFrance

Personalised recommendations