Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 99, Issue 4, pp 587–608 | Cite as

Improving the “Leader–Follower” Relationship: Top Manager or Supervisor? The Ethical Leadership Trickle-Down Effect on Follower Job Response

  • Pablo Ruiz
  • Carmen Ruiz
  • Ricardo Martínez


Since time immemorial, the phenomenon of leadership and its understanding has attracted the attention of the business world because of its important role in human groups. Nevertheless, for years efforts to understand this concept have only been centred on people in leadership roles, thus overlooking an important aspect in its understanding: the necessary moral dimension which is implicit in the relationship between leader and follower. As an illustrative example of the importance of considering good morality in leadership, an empirical study is conducted in which a good performance of the “leader–follower” relationship is reflected when individuals perceive ethical leadership in higher hierarchical managerial levels. To be precise, findings of this study demonstrate that follower job response is improved through an ethics trickle-down partial effect from the Top Manager to the immediate supervisor, and also reveal both key aspects and managerial level on which the practice of ethical leadership should rest upon to have a stronger effect on the follower positive job response. Practical implications of these findings and directions for future research are finally presented.


ethics job response leadership “leader–follower” relationship trickle-down effect 



Social desirability bias


Supervisor’s ethical leadership


Top Manager’s ethical leadership


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, N.J. and J.P. Meyer: 1990, ‘The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organization’, Journal of Occupational Psychology 63 (1), 1-18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antioco, M., Moenaert, R.K., Lindgreen, A. and M.G.M. Wetzels: 2008, ‘Organizational Antecedents to and Consequences of Service Business Orientations in Manufacturing Companies’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 36, 337-358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aristotle: 2009, The Nichomachean Ethics (Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK).Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong, J.S. and T.S. Overton: 1977, ‘Estimating Non Response Bias in Mail Surveys’, Journal of Marketing Research 14 (3), 396-403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker, T.L., Hunt, G.H. and M.C. Andrews: 2006, ‘Promoting Ethical Behaviour and Organizational Citizenship Behaviours: The Influence of Corporate Ethical Values’, Journal of Business Research 59, 849-857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barclay, D., C. Higgins, and R. Thompson: 1995, ‘The Partial Least Squares (PLS) Approach to Causal Modelling: Personal Computer Adoption and Use as an Illustration’, Technology Studies, Special Issue on Research Methodology 2 (2), 285-309.Google Scholar
  7. Barnett, T. and E. Schubert: 2002, ‘Perceptions of the Ethical Work Climate and Covenantal Relationships’, Journal of Business Ethics 36, 279-290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barney, J.B.: 2005, ‘Should Strategic Management Research Engage Public Policy Debates?’, Academy of Management Journal 48, 945-948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bass, B.M.: 1985, Leadership and Performance: Beyond Expectations (The Free Press, Collier Macmillan Publishers, London).Google Scholar
  10. Bass, B. M.: 1990, Bass & Stodgill’s Handbook of Leadership, 3rd edition (The Free Press, New York).Google Scholar
  11. Bass, B.M. and P. Steidlmeier: 1999, ‘Ethics, Character and Authentic Transformational Leadership Behaviour’, Leadership Quarterly 10 (2), 181-217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beekun, R.I., Hamdy, R. Westerman, J.W. and H.R. HassabElnaby: 2008, ‘An Exploration of Ethical Decision-Making Processes in the United States and Egypt’, Journal of Business Ethics 82, 587-605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blake, R. R. and J.S. Mouton: 1964, The Managerial Grid (Guef Publishing, Houston).Google Scholar
  14. Brandes, P., Dharwadkar, R. and K. Wheatley: 2004, ‘Social Exchanges Within Organizations and Work Outcomes: The Importance of Local and Global Relationships’, Group and Organization Management 29, 117-134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, M. and L.K. Treviño: 2006, ‘Ethical Leadership: A Review and Future Directions’, The Leadership Quarterly 17, 595-616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, M.E., L.K. Treviño and D.A. Harrison: 2005, ‘Ethical leadership: A Social Learning Perspective for Construct Development and Testing’, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision processes 97 (2), 117-134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burke, R.J., E.S.W. Ng and L. Filksenbaum: 2009, ‘Virtues, Work Satisfactions and Psychological Wellbeing among Nurses’, International Journal of Workplace Health Management 2 (3), 202-219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burns, J. M.: 1978, Leadership (Harper & Row, New York).Google Scholar
  19. Cardona, P.: 2000, ‘El Liderazgo Relacional’, in D. Mele (ed.), Raíces Éticas del Liderazgo, (Ediciones Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona).Google Scholar
  20. Cardona, P., B.S. Lawrence and P.M. Bentler: 2004, ‘The Influence of Social and Work Exchange Relationships on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour’, Group & Organization Management 29 (2): 219-247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carmines, E. G. and R. A. Zéller: 1979, ‘Reliability and Validity Assessment’, in Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences (Sage Publications, Beverly Hills), pp. 7–17.Google Scholar
  22. Chiaburu, D.S. and A.S. Lim: 2008, ‘Manager Trustworthiness or Interactional Justice? Predicting Organizational Citizenship Behaviours’, Journal of Business Ethics 83, 453-467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chin, W. W.: 1998a, ‘Issues and Opinion on Structural Equation Modelling’, MIS Quarterly 22 (1), 7-14.Google Scholar
  24. Chin, W. W.: 1998b, ‘The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modelling’, in G.A. Marcoulides (ed.), Modern Methods for Business Research (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New York), pp. 295-336.Google Scholar
  25. Chin, W.W: 2003, PLS-Graph, Version 3.00 (Build 1130), University of Houston. Texas, USA.Google Scholar
  26. Chin, W.: 2010, ‘How to Write up and Report PLS Analyses’, in V. E. Vinzi, W. Chin, J. Hensler, and H. Wold (eds.), Handbook of Partial Least Squares (Springer, Heidelberg), pp. 655–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chin, W.W., B.L. Marcolin and P.R. Newsted: 2003, ‘A Partial Least Squares Latent Variable Modelling Approach for Measuring Interaction Effects: Results from a Monte Carlo Simulation Study and an Electronic Mail Emotion/Adoption Study’, Information Systems Research 14 (2), 189-217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ciulla, J.B.: 1995, ‘Leadership Ethics: Mapping the territory’, Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (1), 5-28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ciulla, J.B.: 2004, ‘Ethics and Leadership Effectiveness’, in J. Antonakis, A.T. Cianciolo and R.J. Sternberg (eds.), The Nature of Leadership (Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California)Google Scholar
  30. Cohen, J.: 1988, Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition (Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ).Google Scholar
  31. Cording, M., Christman, P. and D. King: 2008, ‘Reducing Causal Ambiguity in Acquisition Integration: Intermediate Goals as Mediators of Integration Decisions and Acquisition Performance’, Academy of Management Journal 51 (4), 744–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cotton, J.L. and J.M. Tuttle: 1986, ‘Employee Turnover: A Meta-Analysis and Review with Implications for Research’, Academy of Management Review 11 (1), 55-70.Google Scholar
  33. Davis, A. and H. Rothstein: 2006, ‘The Effects of the Perceived Behavioral Integrity of Managers on Employee Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis’, Journal of Business Ethics 67 (4), 407–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Deshpande, S. P. Joseph, J. and R. Prasad: 2006, ‘Factors Impacting Ethical Behavior in Hospitals’, Journal of Business Ethics 69, 207-216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Drucker, P.: 1986, The Practice of Management (Harper Collins Publishers, New York).Google Scholar
  36. Ehrhart, M.G.: 2004, ‘Leadership and Procedural Justice Climate as Antecedents of Unit-Level Organizational Citizenship Behaviour’, Personnel Psychology 57 (1): 61-95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Falk, R.F. and N.B. Miller: 1992, A Primer for Soft Modelling (The University of Akron Press, Akron, Ohio).Google Scholar
  38. Falkenberg, L. and I. Herremans, 1995: ‘Ethical Behaviours in Organisations: Directed by the Formal or Informal System’, Journal of Business Ethics 14 (2), 133–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fiedler, F. E.: 1967, A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness (McGraw Hill, New York)Google Scholar
  40. Fornell, C. 1982, ‘A Second Generation of Multivariate Analysis: An Overview’, in C. Fornell (ed.), A Second Generation of Multivariate Analysis (Praeger Publishers, New York), pp. 1-21.Google Scholar
  41. Fornell, C. and D.F. Larcker: 1981, ‘Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error’, Journal of Marketing Research 18 (1), 39-50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Garcia-Echevarria, S.: 1993, ‘La Ética de las Instituciones Económicas y Empresariales: La Ética en la Dirección de los Recursos Humanos en la Empresa’, in Conferencias y trabajos de investigación del IDOE 200, Universidad de Alcalá, Accessed June 21, 2010.
  43. Geisser, S.: 1975, ‘The Predictive Sample Reuse Method with Applications’, Journal of the American Statistical Association 70, 320–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gini, A.: 1997, ‘Moral Leadership and Business Ethics’, The Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 4 (4), 64-81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grant, R.M.: 1991, ‘The Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage: Implications for Strategy Formulation’, California Management Review 33 (3), 114-135.Google Scholar
  46. Greenleaf, R.K.: 1977, Servant Leadership (Paulist Press, New York)Google Scholar
  47. Greenleaf, R.K: 1979, Seeker and Servant (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco)Google Scholar
  48. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W. and S. Gaertner: 2000, ‘A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents and Correlates of Employee Turnover: Update, Moderator Tests and Research Implications for the Next Millennium’, Journal of Management 26 (3), 463-488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Guillen, M.: 2006, Ética en las Organizaciones. Construyendo Confianza (Prentice Hall, Madrid).Google Scholar
  50. Guillen, M. and T. Gonzalez: 2001, ‘The Ethical Dimension of Managerial Leadership Two Illustrative Case Studies in TQM’, Journal of Business Ethics 34, 175-189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Haenlein, M., and A.M. Kaplan: 2004, ‘A Beginner’s Guide to Partial Least Squares Analysis’, Understanding Statistics 3 (4), 283–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Havard, A.: 2007, Virtuous Leadership-An Agenda for Personal Excellence (Scepter Publishers, New York)Google Scholar
  53. Hersey, P. and K. H. Blanchard: 1988, Management of Organizational Behaviour (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, Nueva Jersey).Google Scholar
  54. James, L.R., Mulaik, S.A. and J.M. Brett: 2006, ‘A Tale of Two Methods’, Organizational research methods 9 (2), 233–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Katz, D., and R.L. Kahn: 1966, The Social Psychology of Organizations (Wiley, New York).Google Scholar
  56. Koh, H.Ch and E.H.Y. Boo: 2001, ‘The Link Between Organizational Ethics and Job Satisfaction: A Study of Managers in Singapore’, Journal of Business Ethics 29 (4), 309-324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Konovsky, M.A. and R. Cropanzano: 1991, ‘The Perceived Fairness of Employee Drug Testing as a Predictor of Employee Attitudes and Job Performance’, Journal of Applied Psychology 76 (5), 698-707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Koontz, H. and H. Weichrich: 1994, Administración: Una Perspectiva Global, 10th edition (McGraw Hill, México).Google Scholar
  59. Kouzes, J.M. and B.Z. Posner: 2002, ‘Las Lecciones del Pasado y del Futuro’, in W. Bennis, G.M. Spreitzer and T.G. Cummings (eds.), El futuro del liderazgo (Ediciones Deusto, Planeta Agostini Profesional y Formación, Bilbao).Google Scholar
  60. LePine, J.A. and D.E. Johnson 2002, ‘The Nature and Dimensionality of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: A Critical Review and Meta-Analysis’, Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (1), 52-65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Liden, R.C., S.J. Wayne, H. Zhao and D. Henderson: 2008, ‘Servant Leadership: Development of a Multidimensional Measure and Multi-Level Assessment’, The Leadership Quarterly 19 (2), 161-177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mathieu, J.E. and D.M. Zajac: 1990, ‘A Review and Meta-Analysis of the Antecedents, Correlates and Consequences of Organizational Commitment’, Psychological Bulletin 108 (2), 171-194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mayer, D., Kuenzi, M., Greenbaum, R., Bardes, M. and R. Salvador: 2009, ‘How Low Does Ethical Leadership Flow? Test of a Trickle-down Model’, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 108 (1), 1-13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mele, D.: 2000, ‘Para Dirigir, Servir al Desarrollo Humano. Una Aproximación al Liderazgo desde la Sabiduría Cristiana’, in D. Mele (ed.), Raíces Éticas del Liderazgo (Ediciones Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona).Google Scholar
  65. Merton, R.K.: 1957, ‘The Role Set: Problems in Sociological Theory’, British Journal of Sociology 8 (2), 106-120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moideenkutty, U., G. Blau, R. Kumar and A. Nalakath: 2001, ‘Perceived Organizational Support as a Mediator of the Relationship of Perceived Situational Factors to Affective Organizational Commitment’, Applied Psychology: An International Review 50 (4), 615-634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mulki, J.P, Jaramillo, J.F. and W.B. Locander: 2008, ‘Effect of Ethical Climate on Turnover Intention: Linking Attitudinal and Stress Theory’, Journal of Business Ethics 78, 559-574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Neubert, M.J., Carlson, D.S., Kacmar, K.M., Roberts, J.A. and L.B. Chonko: 2009, ‘The Virtuous Influence of Ethical Leadership Behavior: Evidence from the Field’, Journal of Business Ethics 90,157-170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nunnally, J.: 1978, Psychometric Theory, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill, New York).Google Scholar
  70. Offerman, L.R.: 2004, ‘Leader Categorization Theory’, in G.R Goethal, J.S. Sorensen and J.M. Burns (eds.), Encyclopedia of Leadership 3 (Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California), pp. 823-832.Google Scholar
  71. Perez-Lopez, J. A.: 1998, Liderazgo y Ética en la Dirección de Empresas (Ediciones Deusto, Bilbao).Google Scholar
  72. Peteraf, M.A.: 1993, ‘The Cornerstone of the Competitive Advantage: A Resource-Based View’, Strategic Management Journal 14 (3), 179-191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peterson, D.K.: 2003, ‘The Relationship between Ethical Pressure, Relativistic Moral Beliefs and Organizational Commitment’, Journal of Managerial Psychology 18 (6), 557-572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Peterson, D.K.: 2004, ‘Perceived Leader Integrity and Ethical Intentions of Subordinates’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal 25 (1/2), 7-23.Google Scholar
  75. Pettijohn, Ch., Pettijohn, L and A.J. Taylor: 2008, ‘Salesperson Perceptions of Ethical Behaviours: Their Influence on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions’, Journal of Business Ethics 78, 547-557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Podsakoff, P.M., S.B. MacKenzie, J.Y. Lee and N.P. Podsakoff: 2003, ‘Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies’, Journal of Applied Psychology 88 (5), 879-903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Randall, D.M. and M. Fernandes: 1991, ‘The Social Desirability Response Bias in Ethics Research’, Journal of Business Ethics 10, 805-817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rego, A., Ribeiro, N. and M.P. Cunha: 2010, ‘Perceptions of Organizational Virtuousness and Happiness as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship Behaviours’, Journal of Business Ethics 93, 215-235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Roman, S. and J.L. Munuera: 2005, ‘Determinants and Consequences of Ethical Behaviour: An Empirical Study of Salespeople’, European Journal of Marketing 39 (5/6), 473 - 495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rumelt, R.P.: 1991, ‘How Much does Industry Matter?’, Strategic Management Journal 12 (3), 167-185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ryan, J.J.: 2001, ‘Moral Reasoning as a Determinant of Organizational Citizenship Behaviours: a Study in the Public Accounting Profession’, Journal of Business Ethics 33, 233-244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schein, E. H.: 1992, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd edition (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco).Google Scholar
  83. Schminke, M., A. Ambrose and D. Neubaum: 2005, ‘The Effect of Leader Moral Development on Ethical Climate and Employee Attitudes’, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 97 (2), 135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schroeder, D.: 2002, ‘Ethics from the Top: Top Management and Ethical Business’, Business Ethics: A European Review 11 (3), 260-267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Scott, S.G. and Bruce, R.A. 1994: ‘Determinants of Innovative Behavior: a Path Model of Individual Innovation in the Workplace’, Academy of Management Journal 37 (3), 580-607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Seashore, S.E., E.E. Lawler III, P.H. Mirvis and Cammann, C.: 1982, Observing and Measuring Organizational Change: A Guide to Field Practice (Wiley, New York).Google Scholar
  87. Sendjaya, S.: 2005, ‘Morality and Leadership: Examining the Ethics of Transformational Leadership’, Journal of Academic Ethics 3 (1), 75-86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shafer, W. E.: 2002, ‘Ethical Pressure, Organizational-Professional Conflict and Related Work Outcomes among Management Accountants’, Journal of Business Ethics 38, 263-275.Google Scholar
  89. Sharma, D., Borna, S. and J.M. Stearns: 2009, ‘An Investigation of the Effects of Corporate Ethical Values on Employee Commitment and Performance: Examining the Moderating Role of Perceived Fairness’, Journal of Business Ethics 89, 251-260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sims, R.R. and J. Brinkmann: 2002, ‘Leaders as Moral Role Models: The Case of John Gutfreund at Salomon Brothers’, Journal of Business Ethics 35 (4), 327-339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stephens, R.D., D.D. Dawley and D.B. Stephens: 2004, ‘Commitment on the Board: A Model of Volunteer Directors’ Levels of Organizational Commitment and Self-Reported Performance’, Journal of Managerial Issues 26 (4), 483-504.Google Scholar
  92. Stodgill, R. M.: 1948, ‘Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A Survey of the Literature’, Journal of Psychology 25 (1), 35-71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stone, M.: 1974, ‘Cross-Validatory Choice and Assessment of Statistical Predictions’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 36, 111–147.Google Scholar
  94. Strahan, R. and K. Gerbasi: 1972, ‘Short, Homogeneous Versions of Malowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale’, Journal of Clinical Psychology 28, 191-193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tenenhaus, M., Vinzi, V.E., Y-M. Chatelin and C. Lauro (2005). PLS Path Modeling. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis 48 (1), 159–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tippins, M. J. and R. S. Sohi: 2003, `IT Competency and Firm Performance: Is Organizational Learning a Missing Link?', Strategic Management Journal 24(8), 745–761Google Scholar
  97. Toor, S-R. and G. Ofori: 2009, ‘Ethical Leadership: Examining the Relationships with Full Range Leadership Model, Employee Outcomes and Organizational Culture’, Journal of Business Ethics 90, 533-547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Treviño, L.K., K.D. Butterfield, and D.L. McCabe: 1998, ‘The Ethical Context in Organizations: Influences on Employee Attitudes and Behaviours’, Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (3), 447-476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Treviño, L. K., L. P. Hartman and M. Brown: 2000, ‘Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership’, California Management Review 42 (4), 128-142.Google Scholar
  100. Treviño, L.K., and G. Weaver, 2001: ‘Organizational Justice and Ethics Program “Follow Through: Influences on Employees Harmful and Helpful Behaviour’, Business Ethics Quarterly 11 (4), 651-671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tsai, M-T and Ch-Ch. Huang: 2008, ‘The Relationship Among Ethical Climate Types, Facets of Job Satisfaction and the Three Components of Organizational Commitment: a Study of Nurses in Taiwan’, Journal of Business Ethics 80, 565-581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Valentine, S. and T. Barnett: 2002, ‘Ethics Codes and Sales Professionals’ Perceptions of their Organizations’ Ethical Values’, Journal of Business Ethics 40, pp. 191-200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Valentine, S. and G. Fleischman: 2004, ‘Ethics Training and Businesspersons’ Perceptions of Organizational Ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics 52, 381-390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Valentine, S., Godkin, L. and M. Lucero: 2002, ‘Ethical Context, Organizational Commitment and Person-Organization Fit’, Journal of Business Ethics 41, pp. 349-360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Valentine, S., M.M. Greller and S. Richtermeyer: 2006, ‘Employee Job Response as a Function of Ethical Context and Perceived Organization Support’, Journal of Business Research 59 (5), 582-588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Viswesvaran, Ch., Deshpande S.P. and J. Joseph: 1998, ‘Job satisfaction as a Function of Top Management Support for Ethical Behaviour: A Study of Indian Managers’, Journal of Business Ethics 17, 365-371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Vitell, S. J. and D.L. Davis: 1990, ‘The Relationship between Ethics and Job Satisfaction: an Empirical Investigation’, Journal of Business Ethics 9 (6), 489-494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Vitell, S.J., Ramos, E. and C.M. Nishihara: 2010, ‘The Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility in Organizational Success: a Spanish Perspective’, Journal of Business Ethics 91, 467-483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Weaver, G.R., Treviño, L.K. and B. Agle: 2005, ‘Somebody I look up to: Ethical Role Models in Organizations’, Organizational Dynamics 34, 313-330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Werts, C.E., R.L. Linn and K.G. Joreskog: 1974, ‘Interclass Reliability Estimates: Testing Structural Assumptions’, Educational and Psychological Measurement 34 (1), 25-33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Whetstone, J.T.: 2002, ‘Personalism and Moral Leadership: the Servant Leader with a Transforming Vision’, Business Ethics: a European Review 11 (4), 385-392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wold, H.: 1979, Model Construction and Evaluation when Theoretical Knowledge is Scarce: An Example of the Use of Partial Least Squares (Cahiers du Département D économétrie, Faculté des Sciences économiques et Sociales. Université de Genève, Genève).Google Scholar
  113. Wright, T. A. and J. C. Quick: 2009, ‘The Emerging Positive Agenda in Organizations: Greater than a Trickle, but not yet a Deluge’, Journal of Organizational Behavior 30 (2), 147–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zerbe, W. J. and D. Paulhus: 1987, ‘Socially Desirable Responding in Organizational Behavior: A Reconception’, Academy of Management Review 12, 250–264.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Castilla-La ManchaCuencaSpain

Personalised recommendations