Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 153–169 | Cite as

Relational Well-Being and Wealth: Māori Businesses and an Ethic of Care

  • Chellie Spiller
  • Ljiljana Erakovic
  • Manuka Henare
  • Edwina Pio


Care is at the heart of the Māori values system, which calls for humans to be kaitiaki, caretakers of the mauri, the life-force, in each other and in nature. The relational Five Well-beings approach, based on four case studies of Māori businesses, demonstrates how business can create spiritual, cultural, social, environmental and economic well-being. A Well-beings approach entails praxis, which brings values and practice together with the purpose of consciously creating well-being and, in so doing, creates multi-dimensional wealth. Underlying the Well-beings approach is an ethic of care and an intrinsic stakeholder view of business.


value based management ethic of care Indigenous business Maori business sustainability relational wellbeing and wealth stakeholder theory 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, E. A.: 1884/1978, Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions (Blackwell, Oxford).Google Scholar
  2. Academy of Management: 2009, ‘Dare to Care: Passion & Compassion in Management Practice & Research’, Call for Submissions, 2010 Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Montreal, Canada, 2010. Author.Google Scholar
  3. Baier, A. C.: 1993, ‘What Do Women Want in a Moral Theory?’, in M. J. Larrabee (ed.), An Ethic of Care: Feminist and Interdisciplinary Perspectives (Routledge, New York), pp. viii, 310 p.Google Scholar
  4. Barclay, B. (2005). Mana tūturu: Māori treasures and intellectual property rights. Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bargh, M. (Ed.). (2007). Resistance: An indigenous response to neoliberalism . Wellington, N.Z.: Huia.Google Scholar
  6. Barlow, C. (1991). Tikanga whakaaro: Key concepts in Māori culture . Auckland, N.Z.: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bauman, Z. (1997). Postmodernity and its discontents . Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  8. Benton, N. B. E. (2004). Whanaungatanga in action: A handbook for a values - based approach to sustainable tourism for Māori communities and entrepreneurs . Auckland: James Henare Māori Research Centre, The University of Auckland.Google Scholar
  9. Bishop, R. (1996). Collaborative research stories whakawhanaungatanga . Palmerston North: The Dunmore Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  10. Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (1995). Leading with soul: An uncommon journey of spirit (1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Boorstin, D. J. (1962). The image: Or what happened to the American dream . Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  12. Bruner, E. M. (1991). Transformation of self in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 18, 238-250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Butler, R., & Hinch, T. (Eds.). (2007). Tourism and indigenous peoples: Issues and implications . Oxford; Burlington, Mass.: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  14. Cajete, G (2000) Native science: Natural laws of interdependence (1st ed.). Santa Fe, N.M.: Clear Light Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Carden, L. et al. (Eds.). (2002). Peter Senge: The learning organization . London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  16. Carroll, A. B., & Buchholtz, A. K. (2008). Business & society: Ethics & stakeholder management (7th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  17. Chanter, T. (2001). The problematic normative assumptions of Heidegger’s ontology. In N. J. Holland & P. J. Huntington (Eds.), Feminist interpretations of Martin Heidegger . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Cohen, E.: 1972, ‘Toward a Sociology of International Tourism’, Social Research 39, 164–182.Google Scholar
  19. Donaldson, T. (2008). IV. Two stories in dialogue: Toward superior stakeholder theory. Business Ethics Quarterly, 18(2), 153-190.Google Scholar
  20. Donaldson, T., & Preston, L. E. (1995). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications. Academy of Management Review, 20(1), 65-91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dunphy, D. C (2000) Sustainability: The corporate challenge of the 21st century . St Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  22. Durie, M. (2001). Mauri ora: The dynamics of Māori health . Auckland, N.Z.: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Durie, M. (2003). Ngā kāhui pou: Launching Māori futures. Wellington, N.Z.: Huia.Google Scholar
  24. Epstein, M. J. (2008). Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental, and economic impacts (1st ed.). Sheffield, UK Greenleaf Pub.; San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  25. Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach . Boston: Pitman.Google Scholar
  26. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed . New York: Herder and Herder.Google Scholar
  27. Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. In M. Hoffman, W. & R. E. Frederick (Eds.), Business ethics: Readings and cases in corporate morality (3rd ed.). USA: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  28. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Gilligan, C. (1995). Hearing the difference: Theorizing connection. Hypatia, 10(2), 120-127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research . Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co.Google Scholar
  31. Hall, S., Held, D., & McGrew, T. (1992). Modernity and its futures . Cambridge, England: Polity Press in association with the Open University.Google Scholar
  32. Hardy, A. (2005). Using grounded theory to explore stakeholder perceptions of tourism. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 3(2), 108-133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Henare, M.: 1988, ‘Nga tikanga me nga ritenga o te ao Maori: Standards and Foundations of Maori Society’, Report of the Royal Commission on Social Policy, Wellington.Google Scholar
  34. Henare, M. (2001). Tapu, mana, mauri, hau, wairua: A Mäori philosophy of vitalism and cosmos. In J. A. Grim. (Ed.), Indigenous traditions and ecology: The interbeing of cosmology and community . Harvard: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Henare, M. A.: 2003, ‘The Changing Images of Nineteenth Century Māori Society: From Tribes to Nation’, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington.Google Scholar
  36. Henare, M. (2004). Kaupapa Maori and organisations [handout]. Department of Management and Employment Relations, The University of Auckland, Auckland, N.Z.Google Scholar
  37. Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2006). More than an “industry”: The forgotten power of tourism as a social force. Tourism Management, 27, 1192-1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jennings, G., & Junek, O. (2007). Grounded theory: Innovative methodology or a critical turning from hegemonic methodological praxis in tourism studies. In I. Ateljevic, A. Pritchard & N. Morgan (Eds.), The critical turn in tourism studies: Innovative research methodologies (1st ed.). Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  39. Johnston, A. M. (2006). Is the sacred for sale?: Tourism and indigenous peoples . London; Sterling, VA: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  40. Jones, T. M., Felps, W., & Bigley, G. A. (2007). Ethical theory and stakeholder-related decisions: The role of stakeholder culture. Academy of Management Review, 32(1), 137-155.Google Scholar
  41. Jones, K., & Morrison-Briars, Z. (2004). The competitive advantage of being a Maori business: A report investigating Maori tourism products, Mana Taiao.Google Scholar
  42. Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (1996). The balanced scorecard: Translating strategy into action . Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  43. Kline, W. (2006). Business ethics from the internal point of view. Journal of Business Ethics, 64, 57-67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Krippendorf, J. (1989). The holiday makers: Understanding the impact of leisure and travel . Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  45. Laplume, A. O., Sonpar, K., & Litz, R. A. (2008). Stakeholder theory: Reviewing a theory that moves us. Journal of Management, 34(6), 1152-1189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Leana, C. R., & Rousseau, D. M (2000) Relational wealth: The advantages of stability in a changing economy . London; New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Liedtka, J. (2008). Strategy making and the search for authenticity. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(2), 237-248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Locke, K. D. (2001). Grounded theory in management research. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  49. Māori Language Commission, Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori. (1995). Te matatiki contemporary Māori words. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Māori Tourism Not Just About Hangi and Haka: 2007, Retrieved 26 May 2007.
  51. Marsden, M. (2003). The woven universe: Selected writings of Rev. Māori Marsden . Otaki, N.Z.: Estate of Rev. Māori Marsden.Google Scholar
  52. Mauss, M.: 1950/1990, The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies (W. W. Norton, London).Google Scholar
  53. McLaren, D. (2003). Rethinking tourism and ecotravel (2nd ed.). Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  54. Mead, S. M. (1997). Landmarks, bridges and visions: Aspects of Maori culture . Wellington, N.Z.: Victoria University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Mead, H. M. (2003). Tikanga Māori: Living by Māori values . Wellington, N.Z.: Huia.Google Scholar
  56. Metge, J. (1995). New growth from old: The whānau in the modern world . Wellington, N.Z.: Victoria University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Ministry for the Environment: 2006, ‘Principles of the Resource Management Act: 1.5.2 Other Matters (Section 7)’, Retrieved 28 Aug 2009.
  58. Moon, P. (2003). Tohunga: Hohepa Kereopa . Auckland, N.Z.: David Ling Pub.Google Scholar
  59. Morgan, T. K. K. B.: 2008, ‘The Calue of a hapū Perspective to Municipal Water Management Practice: Mauri and Its Potential Contribution to Sustainability Decision-Making in Aotearoa New Zealand’, Unpublished PhD, University of Auckland, Auckland.Google Scholar
  60. New Zealand Institute for Economic Research [NZIER]: 2003, ‘Māori Economic Development: Te ōhanga whanaketanga Māori’, Report for Te Puni Kōkiri, Wellington, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  61. Ombler, K.: 2007, ‘The New Wave of Tourism’, Tourism Business, Spring 23–26.Google Scholar
  62. Patterson, J. (1992). Exploring Māori values . Palmerston North, N.Z.: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  63. Peet, J. (2006). Systems thinking and common ground. International Journal of Transdisciplinary Research, 1(1), 88-99.Google Scholar
  64. Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues: 2000, ‘Declaration of Indigenous Peoples on Climate Change’, Paper presented at the Second International Indigenous Peoples Forum on Climate Change, The Hague, 11–12 Nov 2000.Google Scholar
  65. Petrie, H. (2006). Chiefs of industry: Māori tribal enterprise in early colonial New Zealand . Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Phillips, R. (1997). Stakeholder theory and a principle of fairness. Business Ethics Quarterly, 7(1), 51-66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Post, J. E., Lawrence, A. T., & Weber, J. (2002). Business and society: Corporate strategy, public policy, ethics (10th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.Google Scholar
  68. Post, J. E., Preston, L. E., & Sachs, S. (2002). Redefining the corporation: Stakeholder management and organizational wealth . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Business Books.Google Scholar
  69. Royal, T. A. C.: 2002, ‘Indigenous Worldviews: A Comparative Study’, Report for Ngāti Kikopiri, Te Wānanga-o-Raukawa, Te Puni Kōkiri, Fulbright New Zealand, Winston Churchill Memorial Trust, 21 Feb 2002.Google Scholar
  70. Ryan, C., & Aicken, M. (Eds.). (2005). Indigenous tourism: The commodification and management of culture . Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  71. Sen, A.: 2009, ‘Capitalism Beyond the Crisis’, The New York Review of Books 56(5), 26.Google Scholar
  72. Senge, P. M., Scharmer, C. O., Jaworski, J., & Flowers, B. S. (2004). Presence: Human purpose and the field of the future (1st ed.). Cambridge, MA: SoL, The Society for Organizational Learning.Google Scholar
  73. Simola, S. (2003). Ethics of justice and care in corporate crisis management. Journal of Business Ethics, 46(4), 351-361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smith, L. T. (1998). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. New York; Dunedin: Zed Books; University of Otago Press.Google Scholar
  75. Spiller, C.: 2010, ‘How Māori Cultural Tourism Businesses Create Authentic and Sustainable Well-Being’, Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland.Google Scholar
  76. Spiller, R.: 1999, ‘Business Ethics, Investment and Socially Responsible Business: A New Paradigm Business Perspective’, Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Auckland.Google Scholar
  77. Suzuki, D. T., A. McConnell and A. Mason: 1997/2007, The Sacred Balance: Rediscovering Our Place in Nature (Allen & Unwin, St. Leonards, NSW).Google Scholar
  78. Taylor, C.: 1991/2003, The Ethics of Authenticity (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA).Google Scholar
  79. Te Awekotuku, N. (1991). He tikanga whakaaro: Research ethics in the Māori community . Wellington: Manatū Māori.Google Scholar
  80. Te Puni Kōkiri: 2006, ‘Hei whakamārama i ngā āhuatanga o te tūrua pō – Investigating Key Māori Business Characteristics for Future Measures’, Thinking Paper. Author with New Zealand Institute for Economic Research, Wellington.Google Scholar
  81. Te Puni Kōkiri: 2007, Te tirohanga hou: Discovering the “Mäori Edge”. Author with the New Zealand Institute for Economic Research, Wellington.Google Scholar
  82. Tourism Strategy Group: 2007, ‘New Zealand Tourism Strategy 2015’, Prepared by the Tourism Industry Association, Ministry of Tourism, Tourism New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  83. Walker, R.: 1990/2004, Ka whawhai tonu mātou: Struggle without end, Revised Edition (Penguin, Auckland, New Zealand).Google Scholar
  84. Wicks, A. C., Gilbert Jr., D. R., & Freeman, R. E. (1994). A feminist reinterpretation of the stakeholder concept. Business Ethics Quarterly, 4(4), 475-497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Williams, H. W.: 2004, Dictionary of the Maori Language, 7th Edition (Legislation Direct, Wellington).Google Scholar
  86. Wilson, J., Horn, C., Sampson, K., Doherty, J., Becken, S., & Hart, P. (2006). Demand for Maori eco - cultural tourism (No. 31). Lincoln: Landcare Research.Google Scholar
  87. Wolfgramm, R. M.: 2007, ‘Continuity and Vitality of Worldview(s) in Organisational Culture: Towards a Māori Perspective’, Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Auckland.Google Scholar
  88. Zeppel, H. (2006). Indigenous ecotourism, sustainable development and management. Wallingford: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zohar, D., & Marshall, I. N. (2004). Spiritual capital: Wealth we can live by (1st ed.). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chellie Spiller
    • 1
  • Ljiljana Erakovic
    • 1
  • Manuka Henare
    • 1
  • Edwina Pio
    • 1
  1. 1.AUT UniversityAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations