Enabling the Original Intent: Catalysts for Social Entrepreneurship
- 773 Downloads
As capitalist economies have shifted their primary focus from providing goods and services for all, to concentrating wealth at the top echelons of societies, social entrepreneurs have been one source of re-capturing the original intent of capitalism. Social entrepreneurs have combined the efficiency and effectiveness of business organizations with the social concerns of many non-profit and governmental agencies. As a result, social entrepreneurship is viewed as having significant potential for alleviating many of the social ills we now face. To accomplish this mission, however, will require expansion of social enterprises beyond their current footprints. We explore alternate methods of expansion, scaling and replication, and then examine potential catalysts, which can enable social entrepreneurs to attain their goals of social improvement. The catalysts we identify are effectual logic, enhanced legitimacy through appropriate reporting metrics, and information technology. We conclude with two brief case studies that exemplify how these catalysts are currently working to enhance the effectiveness of social start-ups.
Key wordseffectual logic replication scaling social entrepreneurship
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Babajob: 2008, http://www.babajob.com/. Accessed 31 Jan 2010.
- Berle, A.A. and G.C. Means: 1933, The Modern Corporation and Private Property, (Macmillan Co,New York).Google Scholar
- Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: 2008, http://www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/public/media/annualreports/annualreport07/AR2007CEOLetter.html. Accessed 31 Jan 2010.
- Bradach, J.L.: 2003, ‘The Challenge of Replicating Social Programs’, Stanford Social Innovation Review 1(1), 18-25.Google Scholar
- Carson, R.: 1962, Silent Spring, (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA).Google Scholar
- Cho, A.: 2006, “Politics Values and Social Entrepreneurship: A Critical Appraisal”, in J. Mair, J. Robinson and K. Hockerts (eds.), Social Entrepreneurship, (Palmgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, UK) pp. 34-56.Google Scholar
- Christenson, J.A. and L. Sigelman: 1985, ‘Accrediting Knowledge: Journal Stature and Citation Impact in Social Sciences’, Social Sciences Quarterly Index 66, 964-976.Google Scholar
- Daly, H.E. and J.B. Cobb: 1989, For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future, (Boston Beacon Press, Boston, MA).Google Scholar
- Dees, J.: 1998, ‘Enterprising Nonprofits', Harvard Business Review, January–February, pp. 55–67.Google Scholar
- Dees, J.G., B.B. Anderson, and J.Wei-Skillern: 2004, ‘Scaling Social Impact: Strategies for Spreading Social Innovations’, Stanford Social Innovation Review 4(1), 25-32.Google Scholar
- Emerson, J., J. Wachowicz and S. Chun: 1999, ‘Social Return on Investment: Exploring Aspects of Value Creation in the Nonprofit Sector’, http://www.redf.org/learn-from-redf/publications/118. Accessed 31 Jan 2010.
- Friedman, T.L.: 2005, The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century, (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York).Google Scholar
- Gadgil, M. and R. Guha : 1993, This Fissured Land: An Ecological Survey of India, (University of California Press, Berkley, CA,).Google Scholar
- Galbraith, J.K.: 1996, The Good Society: The Human Agenda, (Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston).Google Scholar
- Gates, B.: 2008, ‘Making Capitalism More Creative’, Time, August 11.Google Scholar
- Giridharadas, A.: 2007, ‘In India, Poverty Inspires Technology Workers to Altruism’, The New York Times, October 30, pp. C4–C5.Google Scholar
- Gore, A.: 2006, An Inconvenient Truth, (Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA).Google Scholar
- Grossman, R.L. and F.T. Adams : 1993, Taking Care of Business : Citizenship and the Charter of Incorporation, (Charter, Ink. Cambridge, MA).Google Scholar
- Heslam, P.S.: 2007, “Reducing Poverty through Successful Business : The Role of Social Capital”, in J.F.A. Stoner and C. Wankel (eds.), Innovative Approaches to Reducing Global Poverty, (Information Age Publishing Inc., Charlotte, NC), pp. 131-152.Google Scholar
- Hinkley, R.: 2002, ‘How Corporate Law Inhibits Ethics', Business Ethics 16(1), 4–5.Google Scholar
- Kaplan, R.S. and D.P. Norton: 1996, The Balanced Scorecard : Translating Strategy into Action, (Harvard University Press, Boston, MA).Google Scholar
- Kelley, M.: 2003, The Divine Right of Capital: Dethroning the Corporate Aristocracy, (Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc.,San Francisco, CA).Google Scholar
- Kiva: 2009, http://www.kiva.org/?gclid=CN3h79ypmZgCFRFWagod7hudnQ. Accessed 31 Jan 2010.
- Koehn, N.: 2008, ‘The Time is Right for Creative Capitalism’, Working Knowledge Harvard Business School, http://hbswk.hbs.edu/cgi-bin/print?id=5988.
- Korten, D.C.: 1995, When Corporations Rule the World, (Berrett-Koehler Publishers,San Francisco,CA).Google Scholar
- Kurth, J.: 2006, ‘The Rich Get Richer’, The American Conservative, September 25.Google Scholar
- Murdoch, J.: 1999, ‘The Microfinance Promise’, Journal of Economic Literature 37(4), 1569-1614.Google Scholar
- Nace, T.: 2003, Gangs of America : The Rise of Corporate Power and the Disabling of Democracy, (Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA).Google Scholar
- Nicholls, A.: 2006, “Introduction”, in A. Nicholls (ed.), Social Entrepreneurship: New Models of Sustainable Change (Oxford University Press, Oxford).Google Scholar
- Nicholls, A. and Cho, A.: 2006, ‘Social Entrepreneurship: The Structuration of a Field’, in A. Nicholls (ed.), Social Entrepreneurship: New Models of Sustainable Social Change, (Oxford University Press, Oxford).Google Scholar
- O’Brien, M. J.: 2008, ‘The Only Nonprofit that Matters’, Fortune, March, pp. 37–42.Google Scholar
- Okun, A.M.: 1975, Equality and Efficiency: The Big Tradeoff, (Brookings Institution, Washington).Google Scholar
- Olson, L.: 1994, ‘Growing Pains’, Education Week, November 2, p. 29.Google Scholar
- Polak, P.: 2008, Out of Poverty, (Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., San Francisco).Google Scholar
- Rawls, J.: 1971, A Theory of Justice, (Oxford University Press, Oxford).Google Scholar
- Sarasvathy, S.M.: 2008, Effectuation: Elements of Entrepreneurial Expertise, (Edward Elgar, Northampton, MA).Google Scholar
- Seglen, P.O.: 1997, ‘Why the Impact Factor should not be used for Evaluating Research’, British Medical Journal 314, 498-502.Google Scholar
- Senge, P.: 1999, The Fifth Discipline, (Doubleday, New York).Google Scholar
- Sud, M., C. V. VanSandt and A. M. Baugous: 2009, ‘Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of Institutions’, Journal of Business Ethics 85(1), 201–216.Google Scholar
- Tawney, R.H.: 1962, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism: A Historical Study, (P. Smith, Gloucester, MA).Google Scholar
- Thurow, L.C.: 1975, Generating Inequality: Mechanisms of Distribution in the U.S. Economy, (Basic Books, New York).Google Scholar
- Weber, M.: 1958, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, (Scribner, New York).Google Scholar
- Wei-Skillern, J., J.E.Austin, H., Leonard and H. Stevenson: 2007, Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector, (Sage Publications, Los Angeles, CA).Google Scholar
- Werhane, P.H.: 1999, Moral Imagination and Management Decision Making, (New York, Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
- Williamson, O.E.: 1985, The Economic Institutions of Capitalism: Firms, Markets, Relational Contracting, (Free Press; New York).Google Scholar
- Wolman, W. and A. Colamosca: 1997, The Judas Economy: The Triumph of Capital and the Betrayal of Work, (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc. Reading, MA).Google Scholar