Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 88, Supplement 4, pp 617–633 | Cite as

Corporate Social Responsibility and Different Stages of Economic Development: Singapore, Turkey, and Ethiopia



The U.S. and U.K. models of corporate social responsibility (CSR) are relatively well defined. As the phenomenon of CSR establishes itself more globally, the question arises as to the nature of CSR in other countries. Is a universal model of CSR applicable across countries or is CSR specific to country context? This article uses integrative social contracts theory (ISCT) and four institutional factors – firm ownership structure, corporate governance, openness of the economy to international investment, and the role of civil society – to examine CSR in Singapore, Turkey, and Ethiopia. Field research results illustrate variation across the institutional factors and suggest that CSR is responsive to country differences. Research findings have implications for consideration of the tradeoff between global and local CSR priorities and practices.


corporate social responsibility integrative social contracts theory international economies firm ownership structure corporate governance international investment civil society Singapore, Turkey, and Ethiopia 


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The author would like to thank Andrew Likierman and Mahmut Yasar, as well as participants in the Transatlantic Business Ethics Conference, The Wharton School, 2006, for their helpful comments. Special thanks go to Ser Keng Ang, Guray Karacar, and Ambassador Donald Yamamoto for assistance in Singapore, Turkey, and Ethiopia, respectively, and Alexandra Snow and Sarah Yanes for research assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Legal Studies and Business Ethics, The Wharton SchoolUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaU.S.A.

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