Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 92, Issue 3, pp 463–478 | Cite as

How do Small and Medium Enterprises Go “Green”? A Study of Environmental Management Programs in the U.S. Wine Industry

  • Mark Cordano
  • R. Scott Marshall
  • Murray Silverman


In industries populated by small and medium enterprises, managers’ good intentions frequently incur barriers to superior environmental performance (Tilley, Bus Strategy Environ 8:238–248, 1999). During the period when the U.S. wine industry was beginning to promote voluntary adoption of sound environmental practices, we examined managers’ attitudes, norms, and perceptions of stakeholder pressures to assess their intentions to implement environmental management programs (EMP). We found that managers within the simple structures of these small and medium firms are responsive to attitudes, norms, and pressures from internal stakeholders and that voluntarily established EMP increased the success of firms’ implementation of energy conservation and recycling practices. Applications of our findings to future research on small and medium enterprises as well as direct practical applications of our results are discussed.

Key words

energy conservation environmental management systems recycling small and medium enterprises stakeholder pressures Theory of Planned Behavior 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors gratefully acknowledge a Business and International Education (BIE) grant from the U.S. Department of Education and a matching grant from the College of Business at San Francisco State University in support of this research as well as endorsements for the surveys by the New York Wine and Grape Commission, American Vintners Association (now called WineAmerica), the Washington Wine Commission, and the WineVision Sustainability Task Force. The authors also wish to acknowledge thoughtful and thorough reviews by Nicole Darnall, Mike McCall, and Deborah Gallagher.


  1. Ajzen, I. (1991). ‹A theory of planned behavior’. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211. doi: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberti, M., Cain, L., Calabrese, A., & Rossi, D. (2000). ‹Evaluation of the costs and benefits of an environmental management systems’. International Journal of Production Research, 38, 4455–4466. doi: 10.1080/00207540050205226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews, R.N.L., Darnall, N., Gallagher, D., Keiner, S.T., Feldman, E., Mitchell, M., Amaral, D., & Jacoby, J.(2001). ‹Environmental management systems: History, theory, and implementation research.’ In Coglianese, C. and Nash, J. (Eds). Regulating from the Inside: Can Environmental Management Systems Achieve Policy Goals? Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.Google Scholar
  4. Anton, W.R.Q., Deltas, G., & Khanna, M. (2004). ‹Incentives for environmental self-regulation and implications for environmental performance’. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 48, 632–654. doi: 10.1016/j.jeem.2003.06.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldy, M. (1995). The University Wine Course 2nd Edition. The Wine Appreciation Guild: San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  6. Banerjee, S.B., Iyer, S., & Kashyap, R.K. (2003). ‹Corporate environmentalism: antecedents and influence of industry type’. Journal of Marketing, 67, 106–122. doi: 10.1509/jmkg. Scholar
  7. Bansal, P., & Clelland, I. (2004). ‹Talking trash: legitimacy, impression management, and unsystematic risk in the context if the natural environment’. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bansal, P., & Hunter, T. (2003). ‹Strategic explanations for the early adoption of ISO 14001’. Journal of Business Ethics, 46, 289–299. doi: 10.1023/A:1025536731830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouma, J., & Kamp-Roelands, N. (2000). ‹Stakeholders’ expectations of an environmental management system: some exploratory research’. European Accounting Review, 9, 131–144. doi: 10.1080/096381800407987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. California Sustainable Winegrowing Alliance: 2006, California Sustainable Winegrowing Program Progress Report 2006. Google Scholar
  11. Carmin, J., Darnall, N., & Mil-Homens, J. (2003). ‹Stakeholder involvement in the design of US voluntary environmental programs: Does sponsorship matter’? Policy Studies Journal: the Journal of the Policy Studies Organization, 31, 527–543. doi: 10.1111/1541-0072.00041.Google Scholar
  12. Carraro, C., & Leveque, F.(1999). Voluntary Approaches in Environmental Policy. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Boston.Google Scholar
  13. Cartier, R., Dolan, P., & Matz, T.(2004). ‹Looking towards the future’. In Thach, L. and Matz, T. (Eds.), Wine a Global Business. Elmsford, NY: Miranda Press, 203-212.Google Scholar
  14. Coglianese, C., & Nash, J.(2001). ‹Environmental management systems and the new policy agenda’. In Coglianese, C. and Nash, J. (Eds). Regulating from the Inside: Can Environmental Management Systems Achieve Policy Goals? Washington, DC: Resources for the Future: 61-81.Google Scholar
  15. Cordano, M., & Frieze, I.H. (2000). ‹Pollution reduction preferences of U.S. environmental managers: Applying Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior’. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 624–641. doi: 10.2307/1556358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cordano, M., Frieze, I., & Ellis, K. (2004). ‹Entangled affiliations and attitudes: An analysis of the influences on environmental policy stakeholders’ behavioral intentions’. Journal of Business Ethics, 49, 27–40. doi: 10.1023/B:BUSI.0000013850.14353.b6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Darnall, N., & Edwards, D. (2006). ‹Predicting the cost of environmental management system adoption: The role of capabilities, resources and ownership structure’. Strategic Management Journal, 27, 301–320. doi: 10.1002/smj.518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dunlap, R.E., & Van Liere, K.D. (1984). ‹Commitment to the dominant social paradigm and concern for environmental quality’. Social Science, 65, 1013–1028.Google Scholar
  19. Edwards, A.R. 2005. The Sustainability Revolution: A Portrait of a Paradigm Shift, New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Firestone, J. (2002). ‹Agency governance and enforcement: The influence of mission on environmental decision making’. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 21, 381–408. doi: 10.1002/pam.10052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fish, T.: 2002, ‹Sierra Club Tries to Block New Beringer Complex in Napa’, Wine Spectator January 18, p. 17Google Scholar
  22. Flannery, B.L., & May, D.R. (2000). ‹An empirical study of the effect of moral intensity on environmental ethical decision-making’. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 642–662. doi: 10.2307/1556359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Florida, R., & Davison, D. (2001). ‹Gaining from green management: Environmental management systems inside and outside the factory’. California Management Review, 43, 64–54.Google Scholar
  24. Folwell, R.J., & Volanti, M. (2003). ‹The changing market structure of the USA wine industry’. Journal of Wine Research, 14, 25–30. doi: 10.1080/0957126032000114964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gallagher, D.R. (2003). ‹Building environmental management systems focused on sustainability: The influence of employees, company leaders, and external stakeholders’. In Starik, M. and Sharma, S. (eds.) New Horizons in Research in Sustainable Organizations: Emerging Ideas, Approaches, and Tools for Practitioners and Researchers. Sheffield, England: Greenleaf.Google Scholar
  26. Henriques, I., & Sadorsky, P. (1996). ‹The determinants of an environmentally responsive firm: An empirical approach’. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 30, 381–395. doi: 10.1006/jeem.1996.0026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jiang, R.J., & Bansal, P. (2003). ‹Seeing the need for ISO 14001’. Journal of Management Studies, 40, 1047–1067. doi: 10.1111/1467-6486.00370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kolk, A. (2000). Economics of Environmental Management. Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited.Google Scholar
  29. Koski, C., & May, P.J. (2006). ‹Interests and implementation: Fostering voluntary regulatory actions’. Journal of Public Administration: Research and Theory, 16, 329–340. doi: 10.1093/jopart/mui048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lawrence, A.T., & Morell, D.(1995). ‹Leading-edge environmental management: Motivation, opportunity, resources, and processes’. In Collins, D. and Starik, M. (Eds.), Research in corporate social performance and policy: Greenwich, CT: JAI, 99-126.Google Scholar
  31. Marshall, S.R., Cordano, M., & Silverman, M. (2005). ‹Exploring individual and institutional drivers of proactive environmentalism in the US Wine Industry’. Business Strategy and the Environment, 14, 92–109. doi: 10.1002/bse.433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McCaffrey, D.P., Smith, A.E., & Martinez-Moyano, I.J. (2007). ‹Then let’s have a dialogue: Interdependence and negotiation in a cohesive regulatory system’. Journal of Public Administration: Research and Theory, 17, 307–334. doi: 10.1093/jopart/muj020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Potoski, M., & Prakash, A. (2005). ‹Covenants with weak swords: ISO 14001 and facilities’ environmental performance’. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 24, 745–769. doi: 10.1002/pam.20136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rondinelli, D., & Vastag, G. (2000). ‹Panacea, common sense, or just a label? The value of ISO 14001 environmental management systems’. European Management Journal, 18, 499–510. doi: 10.1016/S0263-2373(00)00039-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rothenberg, S., & Becker, M. (2004). ‹Technical assistance programs and the diffusion of environmental technologies in the printing industry: the case of SME’s. Business & Society, 43, 366–397. doi: 10.1177/0007650304268801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sawyer, C. (2003). ‹A western approach to Nicolas Joly’s focus on biodynamics, philosophy and applications’. Vineyard and Winery Management, 29, 26–32.Google Scholar
  37. Sogg, D.: 2000, ‹Sonoma wineries and environmentalists battle over pesticides’, Wine Spectator,
  38. Stead, W.E., & Stead, J.G.(1995). ‹An empirical investigation of sustainability strategy implementation in industrial organizations’. In Collins, D. and Starik, M. (Eds.), Research in Corporate Social Performance Policy. Greenwich, CT: JAI, 43-66.Google Scholar
  39. Thomas, R., Greenspan, M., Beckstoffer, D., & Thach, L.(2004). ‹The business of viticulture’. In Thach, L. and Matz, T. (Eds.), Wine a Global Business. Elmsford, NY: Miranda Press, 203-212.Google Scholar
  40. Tilley, F. (1999). ‹The gap between the environmental attitudes and the environmental behavior of small firms’. Business Strategy and the Environment, 8, 238–248. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0836(199907/08)8:4<238::AID-BSE197>3.0.CO;2-M.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Van Liere, K.D., & Dunlap, R.E. (1981). ‹Environmental concern: Does it make a difference how it is measured?’. Environment and Behavior, 13, 651–676. doi: 10.1177/0013916581136001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Whitehead, G., & Cooper, W.H. (2001). ‹Ecological embeddedness’. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 1265–1282.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Cordano
    • 1
  • R. Scott Marshall
    • 2
  • Murray Silverman
    • 3
  1. 1.Ithaca CollegeIthacaU.S.A.
  2. 2.Portland State UniversityPortlandU.S.A.
  3. 3.San Francisco State UniversitySan FranciscoU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations