How do Small and Medium Enterprises Go “Green”? A Study of Environmental Management Programs in the U.S. Wine Industry
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In industries populated by small and medium enterprises, managers’ good intentions frequently incur barriers to superior environmental performance (Tilley, Bus Strategy Environ 8:238–248, 1999). During the period when the U.S. wine industry was beginning to promote voluntary adoption of sound environmental practices, we examined managers’ attitudes, norms, and perceptions of stakeholder pressures to assess their intentions to implement environmental management programs (EMP). We found that managers within the simple structures of these small and medium firms are responsive to attitudes, norms, and pressures from internal stakeholders and that voluntarily established EMP increased the success of firms’ implementation of energy conservation and recycling practices. Applications of our findings to future research on small and medium enterprises as well as direct practical applications of our results are discussed.
Key wordsenergy conservation environmental management systems recycling small and medium enterprises stakeholder pressures Theory of Planned Behavior
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The authors gratefully acknowledge a Business and International Education (BIE) grant from the U.S. Department of Education and a matching grant from the College of Business at San Francisco State University in support of this research as well as endorsements for the surveys by the New York Wine and Grape Commission, American Vintners Association (now called WineAmerica), the Washington Wine Commission, and the WineVision Sustainability Task Force. The authors also wish to acknowledge thoughtful and thorough reviews by Nicole Darnall, Mike McCall, and Deborah Gallagher.
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