Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 87, Supplement 1, pp 71–89 | Cite as

Designing and Implementing Corporate Social Responsibility: An Integrative Framework Grounded in Theory and Practice

Article

Abstract

This article introduces an integrative framework of corporate social responsibility (CSR) design and implementation. A review of CSR literature – in particular with regard to design and implementation models – provides the background to develop a multiple case study. The resulting integrative framework, based on this multiple case study and Lewin’s change model, highlights four stages that span nine steps of the CSR design and implementation process. Finally, the study identifies critical success factors for the CSR process.

Keywords

corporate social responsibility stakeholder management stakeholder dialogue CSR implementation change strategy success factors case study 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agle, B. R., Mitchell, R. K., & Sonnenfeld, J. A. 1999. Who Matters to CEOs? An Investigation of Stakeholder Attributes and Salience, Corporate Performance, and CEO Values. Academy of Management Journal 42(5): 507–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayuso, S., Rodriguez, M. A., & Ricart, J. E. 2006. Using Stakeholder Dialogue as a Source for New Ideas: A Dynamic Capability Underlying Sustainable Innovation. Corporate Governance, 6(4): 475–490Google Scholar
  3. Bamford, D. R., & Forrester, P. L. 2003. Managing Planned and Emergent Change Within an Operations Management Environment. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 23(5): 546–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell, S. J., Whitwell G. J., & Lukas, B. A. 2002. Schools of Thought in Organizational Learning. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(1): 70–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beverland, M., & Lindgreen, A. 2007. Implementing Market Orientation in Industrial Firms: A Multiple Case Study. Industrial Marketing Management, 36(4): 430–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beverland, M., Napoli, J., & Lindgreen, A. 2007. Industrial Global Brand Leadership: A Capabilities View. Industrial Marketing Management, 36(8): 1084–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhattacharya, C. B., & Sen, S. 2004. Doing Better at Doing Good: When, Why, and How Consumers Respond to Corporate Social Initiatives. California Management Review, 47(1): 9–25Google Scholar
  8. Blaikie, N. 1993. Approaches to Social Enquiry. Cambridge: Polity PressGoogle Scholar
  9. Bollen, A.: 2004, ‹The Rise of Non-Financial Reporting: How to Use Research to Measure Your Reputation’, MORI White Paper, January. Available at http://www.ipsos-mori.com/publications/ahb/rise-and-rise.pdf, accessed April 24, 2007
  10. Bomann-Larsen, L., & Wiggen, O. 2004. Responsibility in World Business: Managing Harmful Side-Effects of Corporate Activity. Tokyo: United Nations University PressGoogle Scholar
  11. Bryson, J. M. 2004. What to Do When Stakeholders Matter: Stakeholder Identification and Analysis Techniques. Public Management Review, 6(1): 21–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bryson, J. M., Cunningham, G., & Lokkesmoe, K. L. 2002. What to Do When Stakeholders Matter: The Case of Problem Formulation for the African American Men Project of Hennepin County, Minnesota. Public Administration Review, 62(5): 568–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bullock, R. J., & Batten, D. 1985. It’s Just a Phase We’re Going Through: A Review and Synthesis of OD Phase Analysis. Group & Organization Studies, 10(4): 383–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burchell, J., & Cook, J. 2006. It’s Good to Talk? Examining Attitudes Towards Corporate Social Responsibility Dialogue and Engagement Processes. Business Ethics: A European Review, 15(2): 154–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burnes, B. 1996. No Such Thing as a ‹One Best Way’ to Manage Organizational Change. Management Decision, 34(10): 11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burnes, B. 2004. Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics. 4th ed. Harlow: Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  17. Clarkson, M. B. 1988. Corporate Social Performance in Canada, 1976–86. In: L. E. Preston (Ed), Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy. pp 241–265. Greenwich, CT: JAI PressGoogle Scholar
  18. Clarkson M. B. 1995. A Stakeholder Framework for Analyzing and Evaluating Corporate Social Performance. Academy of Management Review, 20(1): 92–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Comité 21: 2004, Conference of IKEA France’s CEO Jean-Louis Baillot at the Meeting of the French Comité 21, March 23, 2004. Available at http://www.comite21.org/rencontres_debats/rd2004/baillot.pdf, accessed June 22, 2006
  20. Cormack, M.: 2002, Unilever’s Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility-From Policy to Practice. Presentation made at the West LB conference on Social Responsible Investment, May 28, Frankfurt. Available at http://geekt.org/u/matt/admin/haas/ethics/uniliver.pdf, accessed April 24, 2007
  21. Covalence 2007. Covalence Ethical Ranking 2006. Geneva: Covalence S.AGoogle Scholar
  22. Cramer, J. M. 2005. Experiences with Structuring Corporate Social Responsibility in Dutch Industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 13(6): 583–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. CSR Europe: 2003, What is Corporate Social Responsibility? Available at http://www.csreurope.org/aboutus/FAQ/#csr, accessed April 10, 2007
  24. Dawkins, J.: 2004, ‹The Public’s Views of Corporate Responsibility 2003’, MORI White Paper, February. Available at http://www.ipsos-mori.com/publications/jld/publics-views-of-corporate-responsibilty.pdf, accessed April 24, 2007
  25. Dawson, P. 2003. Understanding Organisational Change: Contemporary Experience of People at Work. London: Sage PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  26. De Bakker, F. G. A., Groenewegen, P., & Den Hond, F. 2005. A Bibliometric Analysis of 30 Years of Research and Theory on Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Social Performance. Business & Society, 44(3): 283–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Draper, S. 2006. Corporate Responsibility and Competitiveness at the Meso Level: Key Models for Delivering Sector-Level Corporate Responsibility. Corporate Governance, 6(4): 409–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Driscoll, C., & Starik, M. 2004. The Primordial Stakeholder: Advancing the Conceptual Consideration of Stakeholder Status for the Natural Environment. Journal of Business Ethics, 49(1): 55–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eden, C., & Ackermann, F. 1998. Making Strategy: The Journey of Strategic Management. London: Sage PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  30. Eisenhardt, K. M. 1989. Building Theories from Case Study Research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4): 532–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Esty, D. C., & Winston, A. S. 2006. Green to Gold: How Smart Companies Use Environmental Strategy to Innovate, Create Value, and Build Competitive Advantage. New Haven, CT: Yale University PressGoogle Scholar
  32. Evan, W. M., & Freeman, R. E. 1988. A Stakeholder Theory of the Modern Corporation: Kantian Capitalism. In: T. L. Beauchamp, N. E. Bowie (Eds), Ethical Theory and Business. pp 97–106. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  33. Flint, D. J., Woodruff, R. B., Gardial, S. 2002. Exploring the Phenomenon of Customers’ Desired Value Change in a Business-to-Business Context. Journal of Marketing, 66(4): 102–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Freeman R. E. 1984. Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston: PitmanGoogle Scholar
  35. Friedman, A. L., & Miles, S. 2002. Developing Stakeholder Theory. Journal of Management Studies, 39(1): 1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gao, S. S., & Zhang, J. J. 2006. Stakeholder Engagement, Social Auditing and Corporate Sustainability. Business Process Management Journal, 12(6): 722–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garriga, E., & Melé, D. 2004. Corporate Social Responsibility Theories: Mapping the Territory. Journal of Business Ethics, 53(1–2): 51–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. George, J. M., & Jones, G. R. 1996. Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior. Reading, MA: Addison-WesleyGoogle Scholar
  39. Government of Canada. 2006. Corporate Social Responsibility: An Implementation Guide for Canadian Business. Ottawa: Government of CanadaGoogle Scholar
  40. Gray, R., Owen, D., & Adams, C. 1996. Accounting and Accountability: Changes and Challenges in Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting. London: Prentice-HallGoogle Scholar
  41. Hardjono, T., & de Klein, P. 2004. Introduction on the European Corporate Sustainability Framework (ECSF). Journal of Business Ethics, 55(2): 99–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hemingway, C. A. 2005. Personal Values as a Catalyst for Corporate Social Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 60(3): 233–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hemingway, C. A., & Maclagan, P. W. 2004. Managers’ Personal Values as Drivers of Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 50(1): 33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. IKEA: 2004, Social & Environmental Responsibility Report 2003, pp. 1–88. Available at http://www.ikea.com/ms/en_AU/about_ikea/social_environmental/se_report.pdf, accessed August 13, 2006
  45. IKEA: 2006, IKEA Marketing Strategy. Available at http://www.ikea.com/ms/en_GB/about_ikea/press_room/student_info.html, accessed June 22, 2006
  46. Jonker, J., & Foster, D. 2002. Stakeholder Excellence? Framing the Evolution and Complexity of a Stakeholder Perspective of the Firm. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 9(4): 187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson, G., & Scholes, K. 2002. Exploring Corporate Strategy. 6th ed. Essex: Pearson EducationGoogle Scholar
  48. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. 1978. The Social Psychology of Organizations, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  49. Khoo, H. H., & Tan, K. C. 2002. Using the Australian Business Excellence Framework to Achieve Sustainable Business Excellence. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 9(4): 196–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Klein, S. M. 1996. A Management Communication Strategy for Change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 9(2): 33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kotler, P., & Lee, N. 2005. Corporate Social Responsibility: Doing the Most Good for Your Company and Your Cause. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  52. Lewin, K. 1951. Field Theory in Social Science. New York: Harper & RowGoogle Scholar
  53. Lewis, E. 2005. Great IKEA! A Brand for All the People. London: Cyan BooksGoogle Scholar
  54. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. 1985. Naturalistic Inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  55. Lindgreen, A.: 2008, Managing Relationship Marketing: Methodological and Empirical Insights (Gower Publishing, Aldershot)Google Scholar
  56. Lindgreen, A., & Swaen, V. 2004. Corporate Citizenship: Let Not Relationship Marketing Escape the Management Toolbox. Corporate Reputation Review, 7(4): 346–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lockett, A., Moon, J., & Visser, W. 2006. Corporate Social Responsibility in Management Research: Focus, Nature, Salience and Sources of Influence. Journal of Management Studies, 43(1): 115–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Luo, X., & Bhattacharya, C. B. 2006. Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Satisfaction, and Market Value. Journal of Marketing, 70(4): 1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lyon D. 2004. How can You Help Organizations Change to Meet the Corporate Responsibility Agenda? Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 11(3): 133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Maignan I., Ferrell O. C., & Ferrell L. 2005. A Stakeholder Model for Implementing Social Responsibility in Marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 39(9/10): 956–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Maon, F., Swaen, V., & Lindgreen, A. 2008. Corporate Social Responsibility at IKEA: Commitment and Communication. In: Smith, C., Bhattacharya, C. B., Vogel, D., & Levine, D. (Eds), Global Challenges in Responsible Business: Corporate Responsibility and Strategy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcomingGoogle Scholar
  62. Margolis, J. D., & Walsh, J. P. 2003. Misery Loves Companies: Rethinking Social Initiatives by Business. Administrative Science Quarterly, 48(2): 268–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Matthyssens, P., & Vandenbempt, K. 2003. Cognition-in-Context: Reorienting Research in Business Market Strategy. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing 18(6/7): 595–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mazurkiewicz, P.: 2004, ‹Corporate Environmental Responsibility: Is a Common CSR Framework Possible?’, in 24th Annual IAIA Conference, Vancouver, BCGoogle Scholar
  65. Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R., & Wood, D. J. 1997. Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts’. Academy of Management Review, 22(4): 853–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mitleton-Kelly, E. 2003. Complex Systems and Evolutionary Perspectives on Organizations: The Application of Complexity Theory to Organizations. London: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  67. Morimoto, R., Ash, J., & Hope, C. 2005. Corporate Social Responsibility Audit: From Theory to Practice. Journal of Business Ethics, 62(4): 315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. O’Connell, C. S. 2004. Corporate Responsibility is More than Cause-Related Marketing. Corporate Responsibility Management, 1(1): 3Google Scholar
  69. Panapanaan, V. M., Linnanen, L., Karvonen, M. M., & Phan, V. T. 2003. Roadmapping Corporate Social Responsibility in Finnish Companies. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2): 133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pearce, J. A. II, & Doh, J. P. 2005. The High Impact of Collaborative Social Initiatives. MIT Sloan Management Review, 46(3): 30–38Google Scholar
  71. Philips: 2005. Sustainability Report 2004: Dedicated to Sustainability. Available at http://www.philips.com/assets/Downloadablefile//Sustainability_report_2004-13939.pdf, accessed February 28, 2006
  72. Pinkston, T. S., & Carroll, A. B. 1994. Corporate Citizenship Perspectives and Foreign Direct Investment in the U.S Journal of Business Ethics, 13(3): 157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Post, J. E., Frederick, W. C., Lawrence, A. T., & Weber, J. 1996. Business and Society. Corporate Strategy, Public Policy and Ethics. New York: McGraw-Hill Book CompanyGoogle Scholar
  74. Robertson, D. C. 1991. Corporate Ethics Programs: The Impact of Firm Size. In: Harvey, B., Van Luijk, H., & Corbetta, G. (eds), Market Morality and Company Size. pp 119–136. Dordrecht: KluwerGoogle Scholar
  75. Sachs, S., & Ruhli, E. 2005. Changing Managers’ Values Toward a Broader Stakeholder Orientation. Corporate Governance 5(2): 89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Savitz, A. W., & Weber, K. 2006. The Triple Bottom Line: How Today’s Best-Run Companies Are Achieving Economic, Social, and Environmental Success—and How You Can Too. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  77. Schein, E. H. 1992. Organizational Culture and Leadership. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith, N. C. 2003. Corporate Social Responsibility: Whether or How? California Management Review, 45(4): 52–76Google Scholar
  79. Spiggle, S. 1994. Analysis and Interpretation of Qualitative Data in Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(3): 491–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. 1998. Basics of Qualitative Research. 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CT: Sage PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  81. Swaen, V., & Maignan, I. 2000. The Social Responsibility Imperative. European Business Forum, 4: 18–22Google Scholar
  82. Unilever: 2001. Social Review 2000: Unilever’s Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility. London: UnileverGoogle Scholar
  83. Unilever: 2007, Sustainable Development Report 2006. Available at http://www.unilever.com/Images/es_Sustainable-development-report-2006_tcm13-91377.pdf, accessed May 6, 2007
  84. Van Lee R., Fabish L., & McGaw, N. 2004. The Value of Corporate Values. Strategy + Business, 39(Spring):1–14Google Scholar
  85. Waldman, D. A., & Siegel, D. 2005. The Influence of CEO Transformational Leadership on Firm-Level Commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility. In: Doh, J. P., & Stumpf, S. (Eds), Handbook on Responsible Leadership and Governance in Global Business. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. pp 195–220Google Scholar
  86. Walker, E. J. 2005. Transitioning from Charity to Community Investment at Marks & Spencer. Corporate Responsibility Management, 1(6): 26–29Google Scholar
  87. Walsh, J. P., Weber, K., & Margolis, J. D. 2003. Social Issues and Management: Our Lost Cause Found. Journal of Management, 29(6): 859–881Google Scholar
  88. Werre, M. 2003. Implementing Corporate Responsibility: The Chiquita Case. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2–3): 247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Whetten, D. A., Rands, G., & Godfrey, P. 2002. What are the Responsibilities of Business to Society? In: A. Pettigrew, H. Thomas, & R. Whittington (Eds), Handbook of Strategy and Management. London: Sage Publications. pp 373–408Google Scholar
  90. Wilson, D. 1992. A Strategy of Change: Concepts and Controversies in the Management of Change. London: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  91. Yin, R. 2003. Case Study Research. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage PublicationsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • François Maon
    • 1
  • Adam Lindgreen
    • 2
  • Valérie Swaen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Marketing, Louvain School of ManagementUniversité Catholique de LouvainLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Marketing and Business StrategyHull University Business SchoolHullU.K.

Personalised recommendations