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Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility: A Scale Development Study


Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is one of the most prominent concepts in the literature and, in short, indicates the positive impacts of businesses on their stakeholders. Despite the growing body of literature on this concept, the measurement of CSR is still problematic. Although the literature provides several methods for measuring corporate social activities, almost all of them have some limitations. The purpose of this study is to provide an original, valid, and reliable measure of CSR reflecting the responsibilities of a business to various stakeholders. Based on a proposed conceptual framework of CSR, a scale was developed through a systematic scale development process. In the study, exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the underlying factorial structure of the scale. Data was collected from 269 business professionals working in Turkey. The results of the analysis provided a four-dimensional structure of CSR, including CSR to social and nonsocial stakeholders, employees, customers, and government.

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Council of Economic Priorities


Canadian Social Investment Database


Corporate social responsibility


European Union


Kinder, Lydenberg, and Domini


Nongovernmental organization


Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility


World Commission on Environment and Development


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This article is mainly based on the unpublished master dissertation of the author. The author is grateful to Prof. Ömür N. Timurcanday Özmen, Dokuz Eylül University, for her constant support and advice throughout this process and Dr. Oyvind Ihlen, University of Oslo, for his valuable comments and suggestions.

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Correspondence to Duygu Turker.

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Turker, D. Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility: A Scale Development Study. J Bus Ethics 85, 411–427 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-008-9780-6

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  • Corporate social responsibility
  • employees
  • scale development
  • stakeholders
  • Turkey