Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 81, Issue 2, pp 427–445 | Cite as

The Discursive Construction of Gender in Contemporary Management Literature

  • Elisabeth K. Kelan
Article

Abstract

This article analyses how the new type of worker is constructed in respect to gender in current management literature. It contributes to the increasing body of work in organisational theory and business ethics which interrogates management texts by analysing textual representations of gender. A discourse analysis of six texts reveals three inter-connected yet distinct ways in which gender is talked about. First, the awareness discourse attempts to be inclusive of gender yet reiterates stereotypes in its portrayal of women. Second, within the individualisation discourse, formerly discriminatory elements of gender lose their importance but a gender dimension reappears within the idea of ‹Brand You’. Third, in the new ideal discourse, women are constructed as ideal workers of the future. The article argues that there is little space within this web of discourses for an awareness of the continued inequalities experienced by women in relation to men to be voiced and that this rhetorical aporia contributes to a ‹post-feminist’ climate.

Keywords

gender management organisational theory post-feminism discourse analysis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgment

An earlier version of this article was published in German. The full reference is Kelan, E. K.: 2006. ``Zur (De)Konstruktion von Geschlecht in neuer Managementliteratur'', in R. Bendl, Betriebswirtschaftslehre und Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung, Teil 1: Verortung geschlechterkonstituierender (Re-)Produktionsprozesse (Peter Lang, Frankfurt/Main). I thank the Peter Lang Verlag for allowing me to publish a changed version of the article in English. I am also grateful to Rosalind Gill, Julia Nentwich, Rachel Dunkley-Jones and the two anonymous reviewers for their comments which improved this article immensely.

References

  1. Acker J. 1990, Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations Gender & Society 4(2), 139–158Google Scholar
  2. Acker J., D. R. V. Houten 1992. Differential Recruitment and Control: The Sex Structuring of Organizations in: A. J. Mills, P. Tancred (eds) Gendering Organizational Analysis. Sage, London, pp 15-30Google Scholar
  3. Ahl H.: 2004, The Scientific Reproduction of Gender Inequality: A Discourse Analysis of Research Texts on Women’s Entrepreneurship. Copenhagen Business School Press, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvesson M.: 1998, Gender Relations and Identity at Work: A Case Study of Masculinities and Femininities in an Advertising Agency Human Relations 51(8), 969–1005Google Scholar
  5. Alvesson M.: 2002, Postmodernism and Social Research. Open University Press, BuckinghamGoogle Scholar
  6. Alvesson M., Y. D. Billing: 1997, Understanding Gender and Organizations. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Arthur M. B., D. M. Rousseau: 1996. Introduction: The Boundaryless Career as a New Employment Principle in: M. B. Arthur, D. M. Rousseau (eds) The Boundaryless Career – A New Employment Principle for a New Organizational Era. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 3–20Google Scholar
  8. Ayman R.: 1993. Leadership Perception: The Role of Gender and Culture. in: M. M. Chemers, R. Ayman (eds) Leadership Theory and Research: Perspectives and Directions. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 137–166Google Scholar
  9. Batt R., S. Christopherson, N. Rightor, D. Van Jaarsveld: 2001, Networking. Work Patterns and Workforce Policies for the New Media Industries. Economic Policy Institute, Washington (DC)Google Scholar
  10. Beck U.: 2000, The Brave New World of Work. Polity, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  11. Beck U., E. Beck-Gernsheim: 1996. Individualization and “Precarious Freedoms”: Perspectives and Controversies of a Subject-Orientated Sociology. in: P. Heelas, S. Lash, P. Morris (eds) Detraditionalization: Critical Reflections on Authority and Identity. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 23–48Google Scholar
  12. Bendl R.: 2006. Gender Subtexte der Betriebswirtschaftlichen Organisationsforschung – zur Analyse zum State of the Field in: R. Bendl (eds) Betriebswirtschaftslehre und Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung, Teil 1: Verortung geschlechterkonstituierender (Re-)Produktionsprozesse. Peter Lang, Frankfurt/Main, pp. 165-194Google Scholar
  13. Benschop Y., H. Doorewaard: 1998a, Covered by Equality: The Gender Subtext of Organizations. Organization Studies 19(5), 787–805Google Scholar
  14. Benschop Y., H. Doorewaard: 1998b, Six of One and Half a Dozen of the Other: The Gender Subtext of Taylorism and Team-Based Work Gender, Work and Organization 5(1), 5–18Google Scholar
  15. Billig M., S. Condor, D. Edwards, M. Gane, D. Middleton, A. Radley: 1988, Ideological Dilemmas – A Social Psychology of Everyday Thinking. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Blair H.: 2001, You’re Only as Good as Your Last Job’: the Labour Process and the Market in the British Film Industry Work, Employment and Society 15(1), 149–169Google Scholar
  17. Bly R.: 1991, Iron John – A Book about Men. Element Books, ShaftesburyGoogle Scholar
  18. Boltanski L., E. Chiapello: 2006, The New Spirit of Capitalism. Verso Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Brenkert G. G.: 1997. Radical Feminism and Business Ethics in: A. L. Larson, R. E. Freeman (eds) Women’s Studies and Business Ethics: Towards a New Conversation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 95–104Google Scholar
  20. Brewis J.: 2000. When a Body Meet a Body...’: Experiencing the Female Body at Work. in: L. McKie, N. Watson (eds) Organizing Bodies: Policy, Institutions and Work. MacMillan, London, pp. 166–184Google Scholar
  21. Brewis J., S. Linstead: 2000, Sex, Work and Sex Work – Eroticizing Organization. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown R. B.: 1995, Meetings and Intersections: Organizational Theory Encounters Feminist Theorising Women’s Studies International Forum 18(2), 197–203Google Scholar
  23. Burgess Z., P. Tharenou: 2002, Women Board Directors: Characteristics of the few Journal of Business Ethics 37(1), 39–49Google Scholar
  24. Burke R. J.: 1997, Women on Corporate Boards of Directors: A Needed Resource Journal of Business Ethics 16(9), 909–915Google Scholar
  25. Butler J.: 1990, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Butler J.: 1993, Bodies That Matter: On The Discursive Limits of “Sex”. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Cadbury Schweppes. 2006. Corporate and Social Responsibility Report 2006Google Scholar
  28. Cairncross F.: 1997, The Death of Distance : How the Communications Revolution Will Change Our Lives. Orion Business Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Cairncross F.: 2002, The Company of the Future – How the Communications Revolution is Changing Management. Harvard Business School Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  30. Calás M. B.: 1992. An/other silent voice? Representing “Hispanic women” in Organizational Texts. in: A. J. Mills, P. Tancred (eds) Gendering Organizational Analysis. Sage, London, pp. 201–221Google Scholar
  31. Calás M. B., L. Smircich: 1991a. Re-Writing Gender into Organizational Theorizing: Directions from Feminist Perspectives in: M. Reed, M. Hughes (eds) Rethinking Organization: New Directions in Organization Theory and Analysis. Sage, London, pp. 227–253Google Scholar
  32. Calás M. B., L. Smircich: 1991b, Voicing Seduction to Silence Leadership Organization Studies 12(4), 567–601Google Scholar
  33. Calás M. B., L. Smircich: 1992. Using the “F” Word – Feminist Theories and the Social Consequences of Organizational Research. in: A. J. Mills, P. Tancred (eds) Gendering Organizational Analysis. Sage, London, pp. 222–234Google Scholar
  34. Calás M. B., L. Smircich: 1993, Dangerous Liaisons: The “Feminine-in-Management” Meets “Globalization” Business Horizons 36(2), 71–82Google Scholar
  35. Calás M. B., L. Smircich: 1996. From ‹The Woman’s’ Point of View: Feminist Approaches to Organization Studies. in: S. R. Clegg, C. Hardy, W. R. Nord (eds) Handbook of Organization Studies. Sage, London, pp. 218–257Google Scholar
  36. Calás M. B., L. Smircich: 1997. Predicando la Moral en Calzoncillos? Feminist Inquiries into Business Ethics in: A. L. Larson, R. E. Freeman (eds) Women’s Studies and Business Ethics: Towards a New Conversation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 50–79Google Scholar
  37. Calvert L. M., J. V. Ramsey: 1996, Speaking as Female and White: A Non-Dominat/Dominat Group Standpoint Organization 3(4), 468–485Google Scholar
  38. Cameron D.: 1995. Verbal Hygiene for Women: Performing Gender Identity. in: U. Pasero, F. Braun (eds) Konstruktion von Geschlecht. Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler, pp. 143–152Google Scholar
  39. Castells M.: 1996, The Rise of the Network Society. Blackwell, Cambridge (MA)Google Scholar
  40. Castells M.: 1997, Power of Identity. Blackwell, Cambridge (MA)Google Scholar
  41. Castells, M.: 2000. The Institutions of the New Economy, Vol. 2002: A summary of the Address to the Delivering the Virtual Promise? Conference, London, 19th June 2000 (http://virtualsociety.sbs.ox.ac.uk/events/castells.htm)Google Scholar
  42. Catalyst. 2006. 2006 Census: Women Corporate Officers (http://www.catalystwomen.org/knowledge/cote.shtml)Google Scholar
  43. CEPT Consult. 2002. Frauen in Zukunftsberufen – Chance Multimedia – Eine Untersuchung im Auftrag des Senatsamtes für Gleichstellung. Hamburg: Senatsamt für GleichstellungGoogle Scholar
  44. Cockburn C.: 1983, Brothers – Male Dominance and Technological Change. Pluto, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. Cohen L., M. Mallon: 1999, The Transition from Organisational Employment to Portfolio Working: Perceptions of `Boundarylessness Work, Employment & Society 13(2), 329–352Google Scholar
  46. Collinson D.: 1992, Managing The Shopfloor: Subjectivity, Masculinity, And Workplace Culture. W. de Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  47. Collinson D., J. Hearn: 1994, Naming Men as Men: Implications for Work, Organization and Management Gender, Work and Organization 1(1), 2–22Google Scholar
  48. Collinson D., J. Hearn: 2000. Critical Studies on Men, Masculinities and Management. in: M. J. Davidson, R. J. Burke (eds) Women in Management Current Research Issues Vol 2. Sage, London, pp. 263–278Google Scholar
  49. Collinson D. L., J. Hearn: 2005. Men and Masculinities in Work, Organizations, and Management. in: M. S. Kimmel, J. Hearn, R. W. Connell (eds) Handbook of Studies on Men & Masculinities. Sage, London, pp. 289–310Google Scholar
  50. Connell R. W.: 2005. Globalization, Imperialism, and Masculinities in: M. S. Kimmel, J. Hearn, R. W. Connell (eds) Handbook of Studies on Men & Masculinities. Sage, London, pp. 71–89Google Scholar
  51. Connell R. W., J. Hearn, M. S. Kimmel: 2005. Introduction in: M. S. Kimmel, J. Hearn, R. W. Connell (eds) Handbook of Studies on Men & Masculinities. Sage, London, pp. 1–12Google Scholar
  52. Coppock V., D. Haydon, I. Richter: 1995, The Illusions of ‹Post-Feminism’ – New Women, Old Myths Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  53. Crainer S.: 2003, The Ultimate Business Library – The Greatest Books that Made Management Capstone, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  54. de Beauvoir S.: 1949/1993, The Second Sex. Everyman’s Library, LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. Derry R.: 1997. Feminism: How Does It Play in the Corporate Theatre. in: A. L. Larson, R. E. Freeman (eds) Women’s Studies and Business Ethics – Toward a New Conversation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 11–29Google Scholar
  56. Derry, R.: 2002. ‹Feminist Theory and Business Ethics’, in: R. Frederick, E. (ed) A Companion to Business Ethics (Blackwell, Oxford), pp. 81–87Google Scholar
  57. Drucker P. F.: 1969, The Age of Discontinuity: Guidelines to Our Changing Society. Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  58. Economist, T. 2006. Survey: The Battle For Brainpower: 5 Oct 2006Google Scholar
  59. Edley N., M. Wetherell: 1999, Imagined Futures: Young Men’s Talk About Fatherhood and Domestic Life British Journal of Social Psychology 38, 181–194Google Scholar
  60. Ely R. J.: 1994, The Effects of Organizational Demographics and Social Identity on Relationships among Professional Women Administrative Science Quarterly 39(2), 203–238Google Scholar
  61. Fairclough N.: 1992, Discourse and Social Change. Polity, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  62. Fairclough N.: 1995, Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  63. Fairclough N.: 2005, Peripheral Vision: Discourse Analysis in Organization Studies: The Case for Critical Realism Organization Studies 26(6), 915–939Google Scholar
  64. Faludi S.: 1993, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against Women. Vintage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  65. Fausto-Sterling A.: 2000, Sexing The Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Ferguson K. E.: 1994, On Bringing More Theory, More Voices and More Politics to the Study of Organization Organization 1(1), 81–99Google Scholar
  67. Fondas N.: 1997, Feminization Unveiled: Management Qualities in Contemporary Writings Academy of Management Review 22(1), 257–282Google Scholar
  68. Fraser J., M. Gold: 2001, “Portfolio Workers”: Autonomy and Control amongst Freelance translators Work, Employment and Society 15(4), 679–697Google Scholar
  69. Gerhard B., M. Osterloh, R. Schmid: 1992. (Wie) Kommen Frauen in deutschsprachigen Personallehrbüchern vor? in: G. Krell (eds) Personalpolitik Aus Der Sicht Von Frauen – Frauen Aus Der Sicht Der Personalpolitik : Was Kann Die Personalforschung Von Der Frauenforschung Lernen?. Hampp, München, pp. 28–49Google Scholar
  70. Gherardi S.: 1995, Gender, Symbolism and Organizational Culture. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  71. Gherardi S., J. Marshall, A. J. Mills: 2003. Theorizing Gender and Organizing in: R. Westwood, S. Clegg (eds) Debating Organization – Point-Counterpoint in Organization Studies. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 325–338Google Scholar
  72. Giddens A.: 1991, Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Polity, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  73. Gill R.: 1993. Justifying Injustice: Broadcasters’ Accounts of Inequality in Radio in: E. Burman, I. Parker (eds) Discourse Analytic Research: Repertoires and Readings of Texts in Action. Routledge, London, pp. 75–93Google Scholar
  74. Gill R.: 2000. Discourse Analysis in: M. Bauer, G. Gaskell (eds) Qualitative Researching with Text, Image and Sound: A Practical Handbook for Social Research. Sage, London, pp. 172–190Google Scholar
  75. Gill, R.: 2002, Cool, Creative and Egalitarian? Exploring Gender in Project-Based New Media Work in Europe Information, Communication and Society 5(1), 70–89Google Scholar
  76. Gill R., D. Dodd. 2000. New Media – Working Practices in the Electronic Arts DGV of the European Commission and the London School of Economics, LondonGoogle Scholar
  77. Gill R., K. Henwood, C. McLean: 2000. The Tyranny of the ‹Six-Pack’? Understanding Men’s Responses to Representations of the Male Body in Popular Culture in: C. Squire (ed) Culture in Psychology. Routledge, London, pp. 100–117Google Scholar
  78. Gill R., K. Henwood, C. McLean: 2005, Body Projects and the Regulation of Normative Masculinity Body & Society 11(1), 37–62Google Scholar
  79. Gilligan C.: 1982, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Harvard University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  80. Glover S. H., M. A. Bumpus, G. F. Sharp, G. A. Munchus: 2002, Gender differences in Ethical Decision Making Women in Management Review 17(5), 217–227Google Scholar
  81. Green L., P. W. Parkin, J. Hearn: 2001. Power in: E. M. Wilson (ed) Organizational Behaviour and Gender. Sage, London, pp. 188–214Google Scholar
  82. Grosser K., J. Moon: 2005, Gender Mainstreaming and Corporate Social Responsibility: Reporting Workplace Issues Journal of Business Ethics 2005(62), 4, 327–340Google Scholar
  83. Hakim C.: 1996, Key Issues in Women’s Work – Female Heterogeneity and the Polarisation of Women’s Employment Athlone, LondonGoogle Scholar
  84. Handy C. B.: 1993, Understanding Organisations. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  85. Handy C. B.: 1994, The Empty Raincoat – Making Sense of the Future. Hutchinson/Arrow, LondonGoogle Scholar
  86. Handy C. B.: 2001, The Elephant and the Flea: Looking Backwards to the Future. Hutchinson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  87. Hardy C., I. Palmer, N. Phillips: 2000, Discourse as a Strategic Resource Human Relations 53(9), 1227–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Harlow E., J. Hearn: 1995, Cultural Constructions: Contrasting Theories of Organisational Culture and Gender Construction Gender, Work & Organization 2(4), 180–191Google Scholar
  89. Hearn J., P. W. Parkin: 1983, Gender and Organizations: A Selective Review and a Critique of a Neglected Area Organization Studies 4(3), 219–242Google Scholar
  90. Hearn J., P. W. Parkin: 1992. Gender and Organizations: A Selective Review of a Neglected Area in: A. J. Mills, P. Tancred (eds) Gendering Organizational Analysis. Sage, London, pp. 46–66Google Scholar
  91. Henninger A.: 2001, Gender-Probleme in der New Economy: Geschlechterverhältnisse in kleinen Software-Firmen Zeitschrift für Frauenforschung und Geschlechterstudien 2001(3), 88–108Google Scholar
  92. Hill D.: 1997, The future of men Phoenix, LondonGoogle Scholar
  93. Jamieson K. H.: 1995, Beyond the Double Bind: Women and Leadership. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  94. Jones T. M., F. H. Gautschi: 1988, Will the Ethics of Business Change? A Survey of Future Executives Journal of Business Ethics 7(4), 231–248Google Scholar
  95. Kanter R. M.: 1977, Men and Women of the Corporation. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  96. Kanter R. M.: 1989, When Giants Learn to Dance: Mastering the Challenges of Strategy, Management and Careers in the 1990s. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  97. Kanter R. M.: 2001, Evolve! Succeeding in the Digital Culture of Tomorrow. Harvard Business School Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  98. Kelan, E. K.: 2007, “‹That Could not Happen Today’– Making Sense of Gender Discrimination in the Knowledge Economy”, 5th Gender, Work and Organization Conference, Keele, UK, 27–29th June 2007Google Scholar
  99. Kerfoot D., D. Knights: 1993, Management, Masculinity and Manipulation: From Paternalism to Corporate Strategy in Financial Services in Britain Journal of Management Studies 30(4), 659–677Google Scholar
  100. Kerfoot D., D. Knights: 1996. The Best is Yet to Come?’: The Quest for Embodiment in Managerial Work in: D. L. Collinson, J. Hearn (eds) Men and Managers, Managers as Men – Critical Perspectives on Men, Masculinities and Management. Sage, London, pp. 78–98Google Scholar
  101. Lämsä A.-M., T. Sintonen: 2001, A Discursive Approach to Understanding Women Leaders in Working Life Journal of Business Ethics 34(3–4), 255–267Google Scholar
  102. Leonard P.: 2004, Westerns, Weddings and Web-Weavers: Reading Gender as Genre in Organizational Theory Gender, Work and Organization 11(1), 74–94Google Scholar
  103. MacInnes J.: 1998, The End of Masculinity. Open University Press, BuckinghamGoogle Scholar
  104. MacLellan C., J. Dobson: 1997, Women, Ethics, and MBAs Journal of Business Ethics 16(11), 1201–1209Google Scholar
  105. Manske A.: 2003. Arbeits– und Lebensarrangements in der Multimediabranche unter Vermarktlichungsdruck – Rationalisierungspotenzial für den Markterfolg in: E. Kuhlmann, S. Betzelt (eds) Geschlechterverhältnisse im Dienstleistungssektor – Dynamiken, Differenzierungen und neue Horizonte. Nomos, Baden-Baden, pp. 133–146Google Scholar
  106. Marshall H., M. Wetherell: 1989. Talking About Career and Gender Identities: A Discourse Analysis Perspective in: S. Skevington, D. Baker (eds) The Social Identity of Women. Sage, London, pp. 106–129Google Scholar
  107. Marshall J.: 2007, The Gendering of Leadership in Corporate Social Responsibility Journal of Organizational Change Management 20(2), 165–181Google Scholar
  108. Martin J., D. Collinson: 2003. Feminist Theory and Critical Theory: Unexplored Synergies. In: M. Alvesson, H. Willmott (eds) Studying Management Critically. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  109. Martin J., K. Knopoff: 1997. The Gendered Implications of Apparently Gender-Neutral Theory: Re-Reading Max Weber in: A. L. Larson, R. E. Freeman (eds) Women’s Studies and Business Ethics: Towards a New Conversation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 30–49Google Scholar
  110. McCabe A. C., R. Ingram, M. C. Dato-on: 2006, The Business of Ethics and Gender Journal of Business Ethics 64(2), 101–116Google Scholar
  111. McDowell L.: 2000, The Trouble With Men? Young People, Gender Transformations and the Crisis of Masculinity International Journal of Urban and Regional Planning 24(1), 201–209Google Scholar
  112. McDowell L.: 2001, Men, Management and Multiple Masculinities in Organisations Geoforum 32(2), 181–198Google Scholar
  113. McDowell L.: 2002, Transitions to Work: Masculine Identities, Youth Inequality, and Labour Market Change Gender, Place & Culture 9(1), 39–59Google Scholar
  114. McDowell L.: 2003, Redundant Masculinities? Employment change and white working class youth. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  115. Meyerson D., D. M. Kolb: 2000, Moving out of the ‹Armchair’: Developing a Framework to Bridge the Gap between Feminist Theory and Practice Organization 7(4), 553–571Google Scholar
  116. O’Leary J.: 1997, Developing a New Mindset: The ‹Career Ambitious’ Individual Women in Management Review 12(3), 91–99Google Scholar
  117. Oakley A.: 1972, Sex, Gender and Society. Gower, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  118. Oakley J. G.: 2000, Gender-Based Barriers to Senior Management Positions: Understanding the Scarcity of Female CEOs Journal of Business Ethics 27(4), 321–334Google Scholar
  119. Ogbor J. O.: 2000, Mythicizing and Reification in Entrepreneurial Discourse: Ideology-Critique of Entrepreneurial Studies Journal of Management Studies 37(5), 605–634Google Scholar
  120. Oriz D. R.: 1997. Phallocorporatism in: A. L. Larson, R. E. Freeman (eds) Women’s Studies and Business Ethics: Towards a New Conversation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 127–135Google Scholar
  121. Parker I.: 1990, Discourse: Definitions and Contradictions Philosophical Psychology 3(2), 189–204Google Scholar
  122. Perrons D.: 2003, The New Economy and the Work – Life Balance: Conceptual Explorations and a Case Study of New Media Gender, Work and Organization 10(1), 65–93Google Scholar
  123. Peters T.: 2001, The Brand You 50. Alfred A. Knopf, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  124. Peters T. R. H. Waterman: 1982, In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies. Harper and Row, LondonGoogle Scholar
  125. Peterson C. A., J. Philpot: 2007, Women’s Roles on U. S. Fortune 500 Boards: Director Expertise and Committee Memberships Journal of Business Ethics 72(2), 177Google Scholar
  126. Phillips A., B. Taylor: 1980, Sex and Skill: Towards a Feminist Economics Feminist Review 6, 79–88Google Scholar
  127. Phillips N., C. Hardy: 1997, Managing Multiple Identities: Discourse, Legitimacy and Resources in the UK Refugee System Organization 4(2), 159–185Google Scholar
  128. Pink D. H.: 2001, Free Agent Nation: How America’s New Independent Workers Are Transforming The Way We Live Warner Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  129. Pongratz H. J., G. G. Voß: 2003, From Employee to ‹Entreployee’: Towards A ‹Self-Entrepreneurial’ Work Force? Concepts and Transformation 8(3), 239–254Google Scholar
  130. Potter J.: 1997. Discourse Analysis as a Way of Analysing Naturally Occurring Talk in: D. Silverman (ed) Qualitative Research – Theory, Method and Practice. Sage, London, pp. 144–160Google Scholar
  131. Potter J., M. Wetherell: 1987, Discourse and Social Psychology: Beyond Attitudes and Behaviour Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  132. Potter J., M. Wetherell, R. Gill, D. Edwards: 1990, Discourse: Noun, Verb or Social Practice? Philosophical Psychology 3(2), 205–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Projansky S.: 2001, Watching Rape New York University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  134. Puwar N.: 2004, Space Invaders: Race, Gender and Bodies Out of Place Berg, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  135. Singh V., S. Kumra, S. Vinnicombe: 2002, Gender and Impression Management Strategies: Managing the Good Opinions Held by Others for Career Success Journal of Business Ethics 37(1), 77–89Google Scholar
  136. Singh, V. and S. Vinnicombe: 2006. The Female FTSE Report 2006 (http://www.som.cranfield.ac.uk/som/research/centres/cdwbl/downloads/FTSE2006full.pdf)Google Scholar
  137. Solomon R. C.: 1997. Competition, Care, and Compassion: Toward a Nonchauvinist View of the Corporation in: A. L. Larson, R. E. Freeman (eds) Women’s Studies and Business Ethics: Towards a New Conversation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 144–173Google Scholar
  138. Speer S. A., J. Potter: 2000, The Management of Heterosexist Talk: Conversational Resources and Prejudiced Claims Discourse & Society 11(4), 543–572Google Scholar
  139. Tannen D.: 1998, Talking From 9 to 5: Women and Men at Work, Language, Sex and Power Virago Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  140. Taylor S.: 2001. Locating and Conducting Discourse Analytic Research in: M. Wetherell, S. Taylor, S. Yates (eds) Discourse as Data: a Guide for Analysis. Sage, London, pp. 5–48Google Scholar
  141. Thomas D.: 1993, Not guilty – Men: The case for the Defence Weidenfeld & Nicolson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  142. Thomas R., A. Davies: 2005, What Have the Feminists Done for Us? Feminist Theory and Organizational Resistance Organization 12(5), 711–740Google Scholar
  143. Tierney M.: 1995. Negotiating a Software Career: Informal Work Practices and “The Lads” in a Software Installation in: K. Grint, R. Gill (eds) The Gender-Technology Relation: Contemporary Theory and Research. Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  144. Tonkiss F.: 1998. Analysing Discourse in: C. Seale (ed) Researching. Society and Culture Sage, London, pp. 245–260Google Scholar
  145. Treanor, J.: 2007. Women quit before hitting glass ceiling (http://business.guardian.co.uk/story/0,,2028833,00. html)Google Scholar
  146. Vinnicombe, S. and N. L. Colwill: 1995, The Essence of Women in Management (Prentice Hall, London)Google Scholar
  147. Wajcman J.: 1998, Managing Like a Man. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  148. Wetherell M., J. Potter: 1992, Mapping the Language of Racism: Discourse and the Legitimatisation of Exploitation. Harvester Wheatsheaf, LondonGoogle Scholar
  149. Wetherell M., H. Stiven, J. Potter: 1987, Unequal Egalitarianism: A Preliminary Study of Discourses Concerning Gender And Employment Opportunities British Journal of Social Psychology 26, 59–71Google Scholar
  150. Wetterer A.: 2003. Rhetorische Modernisierung: Das Verschwinden der Ungleichheit aus dem zeitgenössischen Differenzwissen in: G.-A. Knapp, A. Wetterer (eds) Achsen der Differenz - Gesellschaftstheorie und feministische Kritik 2. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster, pp. 286–319Google Scholar
  151. Wetterer A.: 2004. Widersprüche zwischen Diskurs und Praxis : Gegenstandsbezug und Erkenntnispotenziale einer sozialkonstruktivistischen Perspektive in: U. Helduser, D. Marx, T. Paulitz, K. Pühl (eds) under construction? Konstruktivistische Perspektiven in feministischer Theorie und Forschungspraxis. Campus, Frankfurt a.M., pp. 58–67Google Scholar
  152. Wharton A., S. Bird: 1996. Stand by Your Man – Homosociality, Work Groups, and Men’s Perceptions of Difference in: C. Cheng (ed) Masculinities in Organizations. Sage, London, pp. 97–114Google Scholar
  153. Wilson E. M.: 2001. Organizational Behaviour and Gender in: E. M. Wilson (ed) Organizational Behaviour Reassessed – The Impact of Gender. Sage, London, pp. 1–16Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LondonU.K.

Personalised recommendations