Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp 257–273 | Cite as

Investigating the Impact of Firm Size on Small Business Social Responsibility: A Critical Review

Article

Abstract

The impact of smaller firm size on corporate social responsibility (CSR) is ambiguous. Some contend that small businesses are socially responsible by nature, while others argue that a smaller firm size imposes barriers on small firms that constrain their ability to take responsible action. This paper critically analyses recent theoretical and empirical contributions on the size–social responsibility relationship among small businesses. More specifically, it reviews the impact of firm size on four antecedents of business behaviour: issue characteristics, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics and context characteristics. It concludes that the small business context does impose barriers on social responsibility taking, but that the impact of the smaller firm size on social responsibility should be nuanced depending on a number of conditions. From a critical analysis of these conditions, opportunities for small businesses and their constituents to overcome the constraining barriers are suggested.

Keywords

small business social responsibility CSR SMEs small business entrepreneurship shared responsibility 

Abbreviations

SMEs

small and medium-sized enterprises

CSR

Corporate Social Responsibility

SBSR

small business social responsibility

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams M., Hardwick P. (1998). An Analysis of Corporate Donations: United Kingdom Evidence. Journal of Management Studies 35(5):641–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldrich H., Auster E. (1986). Even Dwarfs Started Small: Liabilities of Age and Size and Their Strategic Implications. Research in Organizational Behavior 8(2):165–198Google Scholar
  3. Arbuthnot J. J. (1997). Identifying Ethical Problems Confronting Small Retail Buyers During the Merchandise Buying Process”, Journal of Business Ethics 16(7):745–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Argyris C., Schön D. A. (1978). Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MAGoogle Scholar
  5. Atherton A. (2003). The Uncertainty of Knowing: An Analysis of the Nature of Knowledge in a Small Business Context. Human Relations 56(11):1379–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Audretch D. B. (2002). Entrepreneurship: A survey of the Literature. Institute for Development Strategies Indiana, University & Centre for Economic Policy, London.Google Scholar
  7. Barney J. B. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management 17(1):99–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baron R. A. (1998). Cognitive Mechanisms in Entrepreneurship: Why and When Entrepreneurs Think Differently Than Other People. Journal of Business Venturing 13(4): 275–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baumol W. J. (1990). Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive and Destructive. Journal of Political Economy 98(5):893–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Besser T. L. (1999). Community Involvement and the Perception of Success Among Small Business Operators in Small Towns. Journal of Small Business Management 37(4):16–29Google Scholar
  11. Bhide A., Stevenson H. H. (1990). Why Be Honest If Honesty Doesnt Pay. Harvard Business Review 68(5):121–129Google Scholar
  12. BITC (2002). Engaging SMEs in Community and Social Issues. Business in the Community, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Bourgeois L. J. (1981). On the Measurement of Organizational Slack. Academy of Management Review 6(1):29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowen F. E. (2000) Environmental Visibility: A Trigger of Green Organizational Response?. Business Strategy and the Environment 9(2):92–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bowen F. E. (2002) Organizational Slack and Corporate Greening: Broadening the Debate. British Journal of Management 13(4): 305–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brammer S., Millington A. (2006). Firm Size, Organizational Visibility and Corporate Philanthropy: an Empirical Analysis. Business Ethics: A European Review 15(1): 6–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown D. J., King J. B. (1982). Small Business Ethics: Influences and Perceptions. Journal of Small Business Management 20(1):11–18Google Scholar
  18. Brown, J. S. and Duguid, P. (1991). ‘Organizational Learning and Communities-Of-Practice: Toward a Unified View of Working, Learning and Innovation’, Organization Science 2 (1 (Special Issue: Organizational Learning: Papers in Honor of (and by) James G. March)), 40–57.Google Scholar
  19. Bucar B., Glas M., Hisrich R. D. (2003). Ethics and Entrepreneurs: An International Comparative Study. Journal of Business Venturing 18(2):261–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carland J. W., Hoy F., Boulton W. R., Carland J. A. C. (1984). Differentiating Entrepreneurs From Small Business Owners: A Conceptualization. Academy of Management Review 9(2):354–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carson D., Cromie S., McGowan P., Hill J. (1995). Marketing and Entrepreneurship in SMEs: An Innovative Approach. Prentice Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Castka P., Balzarova M. A., Bamber C. J., and Sharp J. M. (2004). How Can SMEs Effectively Implement the CSR Agenda? A U.K. Case Study Perspective. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 11(3):140–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chau L. L., Siu W. (2000). Ethical Decision-Making in Corporate Entrepreneurial Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 23(4):365–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen M.-J., Hambrick D. C. (1995). Speed, Stealth, and Selective Attack: How Small Firms Differ From Large Firms in Competitive Behaviour. Academy of Management Journal 38(2):453–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Christmann P. (2000). Effects of “Best Practices” of Environmental Management on Cost Advantage: The Role of Complementary Assets. Academy of Management Journal 43(4):663–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clemens B. (2006). Economic Incentives and Small Firms: Does It Pay to Be Green?. Journal of Business Research 59(4):492–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen W. M., Levinthal D. A. (1990). Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly 35(1):128–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Curran J., Blackburn R. A. (2001). Researching the Small Enterprise. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. d’Amboise G., Muldowney M. (1988). Management Theory for Small Business – Attempts and Requirements. Academy of Management Review 13(2):226–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dandridge T. C. (1979). Children Are Not “Little Grown-Ups”: Small Business Needs Its Own Organizational Theory. Journal of Small Business Management 17(2):53–57Google Scholar
  31. Dawson S., Breen J., Satyen L. (2002). The Ethical Outlook of Micro Business Operators. Journal of Small Business Management 40(4):302–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. de Bakker F. G. A., Groenewegen P., den Hond F. (2005). A Bibliometric Analysis of 30 Years of Research and Theory on Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Social Performance. Business & Society 44(3):283–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. de Bruijn T., Lulofs K. (2000). Driving Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Towards Environmental Management: Policy Implementation in Networks. In: Hillary R. (ed), Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Environment. Greenleaf, Sheffield, U.K., pp. 263–274Google Scholar
  34. Dean T. J., Brown R. L., Bamford C. E. (1998). Differences in Large and Small Firm Responses to Environmental Context: Strategic Implications From a Comparative Analysis of Business Formations. Strategic Management Journal 19(8): 709–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deeks J. (1973). The Small Firm – Asset or Liability. Journal of Management Studies 10(1):25–47Google Scholar
  36. del Brío J. A., Junquera B. (2003). A Review of the Literature on Environmental Innovation Management in SMEs: Implications for Public Policies. Technovation 23(12):939–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Doh J. P., Guay T. R. (2006). Corporate Social Responsibility, Public Policy, and NGO Activism in Europe and the United States: An Institutional-Stakeholder Perspective. Journal of Management Studies 43(1):47–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ebben J. J., Johnson A. C. (2005). Efficiency, Flexibility, or Both? Evidence Linking Strategy to Performance in Small Firms. Strategic Management Journal 26(13): 1249–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. EMSF: 2004, Report of the Round Table on ‘Fostering CSR among SMEs’Google Scholar
  40. European Commission (2001). Promoting a European framework for corporate social responsibility: Green paper. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  41. European Commission (2003a). Green Paper Entrepreneurship in Europe. Brussels, European CommissionGoogle Scholar
  42. European Commission (2003b). Responsible Entrepreneurship. A Collection of Good Practice Cases Among Small and Medium-sized Enterprises across Europe. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  43. Fassin Y. (2005). The Reasons Behind Non-Ethical Behaviour in Business and Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics 60(3):265–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fombrun C., Shanley M. (1990). What’s In a Name? Reputation Building and Corporate Strategy. Academy of Management Journal 33(2):233–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fountain, J. E.: 1999, ‘Social Capital: A Key Enabler of Innovation’, in L. M. Branscomb and J. H. Keller (eds.), Investing in Innovation. Creating a Research and Innovation Policy That Works, First MIT Press paperback edition (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA), pp. 85–111Google Scholar
  46. Gerrans P., Hutchinson B. (2000). Sustainable Development and Small to Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Long Way to Go. In: Hillary R. (eds), Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Environment. Greenleaf, Sheffield, U.K., pp. 75–81Google Scholar
  47. Gerstenfeld A., Roberts H. (2000). Size Matters: Barriers and Prospects for Environmental Management in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. In: Hillary R. (ed.), Small and Medium-Sized Enterprses and the Environment. Greenleaf, Sheffield, U.K., pp. 106–118Google Scholar
  48. Grayson D. (2003). Inspiration – Successfully Engaging Europe’s Smaller Businesses in Environmental and Social Issues. The Copenhagen Centre, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  49. Greening D. W., Gray B. (1994). Testing A Model of Organizational Response to Social and Political Issues. Academy of Management Journal 37(3):467–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hannafey F. T. (2003). Entrepreneurship and Ethics: A Literature Review. Journal of Business Ethics 46(2):99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hegarty W. H., Sims H. P. (1978). Some Determinants of Unethical Decision Behavior – Experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology 63(4):451–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Henriques I., Sadorsky P. (1996). The Determinants of an Environmentally Responsive Firm: An Empirical Approach. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 30(3):381–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hillary R. (2000a). Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Environment. Greenleaf, Sheffield, U.K.Google Scholar
  54. Hillary R. (2000b). The Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, ISO 14001 and the Smaller Firm. In: Hillary R., (ed.), Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Environment. Greenleaf, Sheffield, U.K., pp. 128–147Google Scholar
  55. Hillman A., Hitt M. A. (1999). Corporate Political Strategy Formulation: A Model of Approach, Participation, and Strategy Decisions. Academy of Management Review 24(4):825–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hillman A., Keim G. D. (1995). International Variation in the Business–Government Interface: Institutional and Organizational Considerations. Academy of Management Review 20(1):193–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hitchens D., Thankappan S., Trainor M., Clausen J., De Marchi B. (2005). Environmental Performance, Competitiveness and Management of Small Businesses in Europe. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie 96(5):541–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hoang H., Antoncic B. (2003). Network-Based Research in Entrepreneurship. A Critical Review. Journal of Business Venturing 18(2):165–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Holland L., Gibbon J. (1997). SMEs in the Metal Manufacturing, Construction and Contracting Service Sectors: Environmental Awareness and Actions. Eco-Management and Auditing 4(1):7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hornsby J. S., Kuratko D. F., Naffzigger D. W., La Follette W. R., Hodgetts R. M. (1994). The Ethical Perceptions of Small Business Owners: A Factor Analytic Study. Journal of Small Business Management 32(4):9–17Google Scholar
  61. Humphreys N., Robin D. P., Reidenbach R. E., Moak D. L. (1993). The Ethical Decision Making Process of Small Business Owner/Managers and Their Customers. Journal of Small Business Management 31(3):9–23Google Scholar
  62. Hunt J. (2000). Environment, Information and Networks: How Does Information Reach Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. In: Hillary R. (ed.), Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Environment. Greenleaf, Sheffield, U.K., pp. 194–202Google Scholar
  63. Hunt S. D., Wood V. R., Chonko L. B. (1989). Corporate Ethical Values and Organizational Commitment in Marketing. Journal of Marketing 53(3):79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Inkpen A., Tsang E. W. K. (2005). Social Capital, Networks and Knowledge Transfer. Academy of Management Review 30(1):146–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jones T. M. (1991) Ethical Decision Making By Individuals in Organizations: An Issue-Contingent Model. Academy of Management Review 16(2):366–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kohlberg L. (1969). Stage and Sequence: The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization. In: Goslin D. A. (ed), Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, pp. 347–380Google Scholar
  67. Lahdesmaki, M.: 2005, ‘When Ethics Matters-Interpreting the Ethical Discourse of Small Nature-Based Entrepreneurs’, Journal of Business Ethics 61(1), 55–68Google Scholar
  68. Longenecker J. G., Moore C. W., Petty J. W., Palich L. E., McKinney J. A. (2006). Ethical Attitudes in Small Businesses and Large Corporations: Theory and Empirical Findings From a Tracking Study Spanning Three Decades. Journal of Small Business Management 44(2):167–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Longenecker J. G., McKinney J. A., Moore C. W. (1989). Ethics in Small Business. Journal of Small Business Management 27(1):27–31Google Scholar
  70. Ludevid Anglada M. (2000). Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ Perceptions of the Environment: A Study from Spain. In: Hillary R. (eds), Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Environment. Greenleaf Publishing, Sheffield, U.K., pp. 61–74Google Scholar
  71. McClelland D. C. (1961). The Achieving Society. Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  72. McCuddy M. K., Peery B. L. (1996). Selected Individual Differences and Collegians’ Ethical Beliefs. Journal of Business Ethics 15(3):261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McMahon J. M., Harvey R. J. (2006). An Analysis of the Factor Structure of Jones’ Moral Intensity Construct. Journal of Business Ethics 64(4):381–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Meredith S. (2000). Environmental Innovation and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. In: Hillary R. (ed.), Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Environment. Greenleaf, Sheffield, U.K., pp. 171–182Google Scholar
  75. Merritt J. Q. (1998) EM into SME Won’t Go? Attitudes, Awareness and Practices in the London Borough of Croydon. Business Strategy and the Environment 7(2):90–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Meznar M. B., Nigh D. (1995). Buffer Or Bridge – Environmental and Organizational Determinants of Public Affairs Activities in American Firms. Academy of Management Journal 38(4):975–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Morris M. H., Schindehutte M., Walton J., Allen J. (2002). The Ethical Context of Entrepreneurship: Proposing and Testing a Developmental Framework. Journal of Business Ethics 40(4):331–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Murphy P. R., Smith J. A., Daley J. M. (1992). Executive Attitudes, Organizational Size and Ethical Issues: Perspectives on a Service Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 11(1):11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nicholson N. (1998). Personality and Entrepreneurial Leadership: A Study of the Heads of the U.K.’s Most Successful Independent Companies. European Management Journal 16(5):529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Noci G., Verganti R. (1999). Managing ‘Green’ Product Innovation in Small Firms. R&D Management 29(1):3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nohria N., Gulati R. (1996). Is Slack Good or Bad for Innovation? Academy of Management Journal 39(5):1245–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nonaka I. (1994). A Dynamic Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation. Organizational Science 5(1):14–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nooteboom B. (1994). Innovation and Diffusion in Small Firms: Theory and Evidence. Small Business Economics 6(5):327–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nooteboom B. (2004). Inter-Firm Collaboration, Learning & Networks. Routledge, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  85. Observatory of European SMEs (2002). European SMEs and Social and Environmental Responsibility. Office for Offical Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  86. Observatory of European SMEs (2003). SMEs in Europe 2003. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  87. Oliver C. (1991). Strategic Responses to Institutional Processes. Academy of Management Review 16(1):145–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Palmer J. (2000). Helping Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Improve Environmental Management: Lessons from Proactive Small and Micro Firms. In: Hillary R. (ed.), Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Environment. Greenleaf, Sheffield, U.K., pp. 325–342Google Scholar
  89. Petts J., Herd A., Gerrard S., Horne C. (1999). The Climate and Culture of Environmental Compliance Within SMEs. Business Strategy and the Environment 8(1):14–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Porter M. E. (1980). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. Free Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  91. Quinn J. J. (1997). Personal Ethics and Business Ethics: The Ethical Attitudes of Owner/Managers of Small Business. Journal of Business Ethics 16(2):119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rowley T. J. (1997). Moving Beyond Dyadic Ties: A Network Theory of Stakeholder Influences. Academy of Management Review 22(4):887–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schaltegger S., Synnestvedt T. (2002). The Link Between ‘Green’ and Economic Success: Environmental Management As the Crucial Trigger Between Environmental and Economic Performance. Journal of Environmental Management 65(4):339–346Google Scholar
  94. Schaper M. (2002). Small Firms and Environmental Management: Predictors of Green Purchasing in Western Australian Pharmacies. International Small Business Journal 20(3):235–251Google Scholar
  95. Schwepker C. H. (2001). Ethical Climate’s Relationship to Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention in the Salesforce. Journal of Business Research 54(1):39–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Serwinek P. J. (1992). Demographic and Related Differences in Ethical Views Among Small Businesses. Journal of Business Ethics 11(1):555–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sharfman M. P., Wolf G., Chase R. B., Tansik D. A. (1988). Antecedents of Organizational Slack, Academy of Management Review 13(4):601–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sharma S. (2000). Managerial Interpretations and Organizational Context As Predictors of Corporate Choice of Environmental Strategy. Academy of Management Journal 43(4):681–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shaver K. G., Scott L. R. (1991). Person, Process, Choice: The Psychology of New Venture Creation. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice 16(2):23–45Google Scholar
  100. Shrader C. B., Mulford C. L., Blackburn V. L. (1989). Strategic and Operational Planning, Uncertainty, and Performance in Small Firms. Journal of Small Business Management 27(4):45–60Google Scholar
  101. Simon H. A. (1982). Models of Bounded Rationality: Behavioral Economics and Business Organizations. MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  102. Smeltzer L. R., Fann G. L., Nikolaisen V. N. (1988). Environmental Scanning Practices in Small Business. Journal of Small Business Management 26(3):55–62Google Scholar
  103. Smith N. R., Miner J. B. (1983). Type of Entrepreneur, Type of Firm, and Managerial Motivation – Implications for Organizational Life-Cycle Theory. Strategic Management Journal 4(4):325–340Google Scholar
  104. Smith P. L., Oakley E. F. I. (1994). A Study of the Ethical Values of Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Small Business Owners. Journal of Small Business Management 32(4):17–27Google Scholar
  105. Solymossy E., Masters J. K. (2002). Ethics Through an Entrepreneurial Lens: Theory and Observation. Journal of Business Ethics 38:227–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Spence L. J. (1999). Does Size Matter? The State of the Art in Small Business Ethics. Business Ethics: A European Review 8(3):163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Spence L. J., Jeurissen R., Rutherfoord R. (2000). Small Business and the Environment in the U.K. and the Netherlands: Towards Stakeholder Cooperation. Business Ethics Quarterly 10(4):945–965Google Scholar
  108. Spence L. J., Lozano J. F. (2000). Communicating About Ethics With Small Firms: Experiences From the U.K. and Spain. Journal of Business Ethics 27(1/2):43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Teal E. J., Carroll A. B. (1999). Moral Reasoning Skills: Are Entrepreneurs Different?. Journal of Business Ethics 19(3):229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Teoh H. Y., Foo S. L. (1997). Moderating Effects of Tolerance for Ambiguity and Risk-Taking Propensity on the Role Conflict-Perceived Performance Relationship: Evidence From Singaporean Entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing 12(1):67–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tilley F. (1999). The Gap Between The Environmental Attitudes and The Environmental Behaviour of Small Firms. Business Strategy and the Environment 8(4):238–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tilley F. (2000). Small Firm Environmental Ethics: How Deep Do They Go?. Business Ethics: A European Review 9(1):31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Trevino L. K., Youngblood S. A. (1990). Bad Apples in Bad Barrels – A Causal-Analysis of Ethical Decision-Making Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology 75(4): 378–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Turban D. B., Greening D. W. (1996). Corporate Social Performance and Organizational Attractiveness to Prospective Employees. Academy of Management Journal 40(3):658–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Valentine S., Greller M. M., Richtermeyer S. B. (2006). Employee Job Response As a Function of Ethical Context and Perceived Organization Support. Journal of Business Research 59(5):582–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Vandekerckhove W., Dentchev N. A. (2005). A Network Perspective on Stakeholder Management: Facilitating Entrepreneurs in the Discovery of Opportunities. Journal of Business Ethics 60(3):221–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Verhees F. J. H. M., Meulenberg M. T. G. (2004). Market Orientation, Innovativeness, Product Innovation, and Performance in Small Firms. Journal of Small Business Management 42(2):134–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Vitell S. J., Dickerson E. D., Festervand T. A. (2000). Ethical Problems, Conflicts and Beliefs of Small Business Professionals. Journal of Business Ethics 28(1):15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Vives A., Corral A., Isusi I. (2005). Responsablidad Social de la Empresa en las PyMEs de Latinoamérica. Interamerican Development Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  120. Vyakarnam S., Bailey A., Myers A., Burnett D. (1997). Towards an Understanding of Ethical Behaviour in Small Firms. Journal of Business Ethics 16(15):1625–1636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Welsh J. A., White J. F. (1981). A Small Business Is Not a Little Big Business. Harvard Business Review 59(4):18–32Google Scholar
  122. Wennekers S., Thurik R. (1999). Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth. Small Business Economics 13(1):27–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Werner A., Spence L. J. (2004). Literature Review: Social Capital and SMEs. In: Spence L. J., et al. (eds.), Responsibility and Social Capital: The World of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises. Palgrave MacMillan, New York, NY, pp. 7–24Google Scholar
  124. Yurtsever G. (2003). Measuring the Moral Entrepreneurial Personality. Social Behavior and Personality 31(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zahra S. A. (1989). Executive Values and the Ethics of Company Politics – Some Preliminary Findings. Journal of Business Ethics 8(1):15–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management and Entrepreneurshipm, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations