Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 307–320

Organizational Ethics in Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis

  • Jamal A. Al-Khatib
  • Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas
  • Scott J. Vitell

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-004-1525-6

Cite this article as:
Al-Khatib, J.A., Rawwas, M.Y.A. & Vitell, S.J. J Bus Ethics (2004) 55: 307. doi:10.1007/s10551-004-1525-6


Relationships with one’s employees, co-workers, or superiors create ethical dilemmas. Employees’ judgments and ethical perceptions have been extensively studied in Western cultures, but not in developing countries. The purpose of this investigation is to examine employees’ self-reported work-related ethics and compare them to their perceptions of co-workers’ and top managements’ along various morally challenging situations in three developing countries’ organizations. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Oman, known as the Gulf countries, were selected as the research setting – and provided the sampling frame – for this study. The results suggest that respondents perceived all ethically challenging situations as unethical and had significant differences among themselves regarding the ethical perceptions of self, as compared to perceptions of peers’, and top managements’. Discussion of the results and implications are provided.


business ethics Arab employees Saudi Arabia Kuwait Oman 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jamal A. Al-Khatib
    • 1
  • Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas
    • 2
  • Scott J. Vitell
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Marketing, College of BusinessUniversity of St. ThomasSt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.Department of MarketingUniversity of Northern IowaCedar FallsU.S.A
  3. 3.Department of Marketing, College of BusinessUniversity of MississippiU.S.A

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