Pre- and post-diagnostic intake of whole grain and dairy products and breast cancer prognosis: the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort
Fiber rich foods and dairy products have been suggested to be associated with breast cancer prognosis, though existing research is limited and either report on pre- or post-diagnostic dietary intake in relation to breast cancer prognosis. We investigated the associations between intake of whole grain (WG) and dairy products assessed both pre- and post-diagnostically in relation to breast cancer prognosis.
A total of 1965 women from the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort who were diagnosed with breast cancer between baseline (1993–1997) and December 2013 were included and followed for a median of 7 years after diagnosis. During follow-up, 309 women experienced breast cancer recurrence and 460 women died, of whom 301 died from breast cancer. Dietary assessment by food frequency questionnaires was obtained up to three times, pre- and post-diagnostic, over a period of 18 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios.
No associations were observed between pre- or post-diagnostic intake of total WG or total dairy products and breast cancer prognosis. A high pre-diagnostic intake of oatmeal/muesli was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59–0.99), whereas high post-diagnostic intake of rye bread was associated with higher breast cancer-specific mortality (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02–1.63). A generally high intake of cheese was associated with a higher recurrence rate.
Pre-diagnostic intake of oatmeal/muesli was associated with lower all-cause mortality, and post-diagnostic intake of rye bread was associated with higher breast cancer specific mortality.
KeywordsEpidemiology Whole grains Dairy products Cohort study Breast cancer prognosis
We thank Katja Boll and Nick Martinussen for data management and assistance and we thank Kirsten Frederiksen for statistical support.
This study was funded by the Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards by the regional ethical committees on human studies in Copenhagen and Aarhus (File (KF)11-037/01), by the Danish Data Protection Agency and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Research involving animal rights
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
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