Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 171, Issue 3, pp 693–699 | Cite as

Dosimetric study to assess the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons (ELIOT) as partial breast irradiation for patients with cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED)

  • Rosa Luraschi
  • Roberta Lazzari
  • Viviana Galimberti
  • Elena Rondi
  • Alessia Bazani
  • Giovanni Corso
  • Nicola Colombo
  • Rosalinda Ricotti
  • Cristiana Fodor
  • Mikolaj Winnicki
  • Maria Cristina Leonardi
  • Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa
  • Federica Cattani
Clinical trial



To report in-vivo dosimetry in the infraclavicular region, a potential site of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) and to evaluate the absorbed dose from intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons (ELIOT).


27 non-cardiopathic breast cancer (BC) patients without CIED received quadrantectomy and ELIOT as partial breast irradiation. Before delivering ELIOT, two catheters, each containing eight thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), were positioned in the infraclavicular region. TLDs internal catheter was located deep in the tumor bed while the external catheter was placed on patient’s skin.


Data were available for 24/27 patients. The absorbed doses were referred to the dose of 21 Gy. Values measured by the external catheter were low, although statistically significant higher doses were found close to the applicator (mean values 0.26–0.49 Gy). External TLD doses in proximity of the applicator were lower than those detected by their internal counterparts. Values measured by the internal catheter TLDs varied according to the distance from the applicator while no correlation with tumor site and beam energy was found. The distance from the applicator to deliver < 2 Gy to a CIED was 2 cm, while from 2.5 cm the dose measured in all the patients became negligible.


This dosimetric study provided data to support the clinical use of ELIOT in BC patients having CIEDs as long as the suggested minimum safe distance of 2.5 cm is taken from the RT field in case of ELIOT single dose of 21 Gy, in the energy range of 6–10 MeV.


Intraoperative radiotherapy Breast cancer Cardiac devices Thermoluminescent dosimeters In vivo dosimetry 



This work was partially supported by a research Grant from Accuray Inc. The sponsor did not play any role in the study design, collection, analysis and interpretation of data, nor in the writing of the manuscript, nor in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Author contributions

All authors and the institutional Ethical Committee gave their consent for publication. Study data are in a database managed by the physicists in the Radiotherapy Division. All authors have made substantial contributions to the manuscript. In particular: RL contributed to conception, data interpretation and article draft; RL contributed to conception and design; VG and GC recruited patients; ER and AB collected data; NC and MW revised the article for important intellectual content; RR analyzed data; CF managed data; MCL contributed to design and draft the article; BAJ-F and FC gave the final approval to the publication.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that there is no actual or potential conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The dosimetric study has been approved by the institutional Ethical Committee with the number IEO0090. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosa Luraschi
    • 1
  • Roberta Lazzari
    • 2
  • Viviana Galimberti
    • 3
  • Elena Rondi
    • 1
  • Alessia Bazani
    • 1
  • Giovanni Corso
    • 3
  • Nicola Colombo
    • 4
  • Rosalinda Ricotti
    • 2
  • Cristiana Fodor
    • 2
  • Mikolaj Winnicki
    • 5
  • Maria Cristina Leonardi
    • 2
  • Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa
    • 2
    • 6
  • Federica Cattani
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical Physics UnitEuropean Institute of OncologyMilanItaly
  2. 2.Radiation Oncology DivisionEuropean Institute of OncologyMilanItaly
  3. 3.Molecular Senology UnitEuropean Institute of OncologyMilanItaly
  4. 4.Cardiology DivisionEuropean Institute of OncologyMilanItaly
  5. 5.Cardiovascular DivisionMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  6. 6.Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation SciencesEuropean Institute of OncologyMilanItaly

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