Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 170, Issue 2, pp 439–440 | Cite as

Breast screening and the parallel progression model of cancer

  • Philippe Autier
Letter to the Editor

To the Editor,

RE: Is invasion a necessary step for metastases in breast cancer? By SA Narod and V Sopik, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, published online on the 20th of January 2018.

S Narod and V Sopik have reviewed the data gathered over the last 50 years informing on the time and risk relationships between cancerous processes in the female breast, the metastases in lymph-nodes and distant organs, and breast cancer death [1]. The common assumption about these relationships is that every progression of a cancerous lesion in the breast (e.g. a local recurrence after surgical removal of an in situ tumour) would boost the dissemination and growth of metastases that will eventually kill the patient. This assumption is backed by the chronological multistep model of cancer growth which posits that as time passes, cancers increase in size and accumulate biological abnormalities that enhance the ability of cancer cells to spread and develop in distant organs [2].

If this interpretation...


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Strathclyde Institute of Global Public Health at iPRIInternational Prevention Research Institute (iPRI

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